Skip to main content

Full text of "Cleveland; the making of a city"

See other formats


Map Of 




^ 



emjuTK 

STATE OF OHIO 




STATE . 
PAVED ROk 
S ROADS 




;mmit iicountV i 



CLEVELAND 

The Making of a City 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/clevelandmakingoOOrose 





Moses Cleaveland and the Terminal Tower 

PERRY CRAGG, CLEVELAND NEWS 



CLEVELAND 

The Making 
of a City 



BY 

WILLIAM GANSON ROSE 




CLEVELAND AND NEW YORK 

THE WORLD PUBLISHING COMPANY 



Published by THE WORLD PUBLISHING COMPANY 
2231 WEST IIOTH STREET • CLEVELAND 2 • OHIO 



WP 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 

COPYRIGHT 1950 BY THE WORLD PUBLISHING COMPANY 

MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



TO 

THE YOUTH OF TODAY 

WHO WILL BUILD 

THE CITIES OF TOMORROW 

THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED 



/ lil^e to see a man proud of the place in 
which he lives; I li\e to see a man live in 
it so that his place u/ill be proud of him. 

Lincoln 



CLEVELAND 



Born o£ the pathfinder's daring, 

Godly and thrifty his clan, 
Deep through the wilderness faring, 

Blazing his way in the van; 
Forest and thicket surrounding. 

Here by the freshwater sea. 
Fortune smiled down on thy founding, 

Town of a million to be! 

Low on this rock of foundation 

Budded the flower of thy name; 
Now all the winds of creation 

Carry and scatter its fame. 
Toilers from distant lands drifting, 

Seeking the land of the free, 
Helped in thy mighty uplifting. 

Town of a million to be! 

Countless the wheels thou art turning. 

Moving the engines of trade. 
Countless the furnace fires burning, 

Countless the goods thou hast made. 
Progress, the soul of thy story. 

Guiding thy spirited way, 
Voices the hymn of thy glory. 

Town of a million today! 

W. R. Rose 



THE 

Western Reserve Historical Society 

IS GRATIFIED TO BE A SPONSOR 

OF THIS VOLUME 

DESIGNED TO FURTHER THE 

EDUCATIONAL AND HISTORICAL INTERESTS 

OF THE 



City of Cleveland 



AND THE 



Western Reserve 



INTRODUCTION 



SOME cities are born great, many achieve greatness, and possibly a 
few have greatness thrust upon them. Some cities have natural ad- 
vantages upon which they fail to capitalize; some have meager opportuni- 
ties, yet climb to glorious heights. 

What are the factors that contribute to the development of a great city, 
and what are the destructive forces that retard growth and progress? These 
and a thousand other questions can be answered by a study, not of the 
theory of city-building, but of the actual making of a city. 

The people of Cleveland, representing forty-eight nationalities, have de- 
veloped an unsurpassed teamwork as proved in civic and national cam- 
paigns. They enjoy higher education in six universities and colleges within 
the county limits; they root for their home teams in the mammoth Stadium; 
they set attendance records when Metroplitan Opera comes to town, and they 
fill magnificent Severance Hall when their Cleveland Orchestra plays. 

Cleveland's achievements are due, not to natural advantages alone, but 
to vision, resourcefulness, hard work, and civic spirit. Clevelanders believe 
that a city is not merely a place where people exist and houses are built, 
but that a city is a living, pulsing institution with heart and soul and 
character. 

What makes a city? Its people under leadership. Why do they volunteer 
time, effort, and money to the task? Pride in the home town — faith in the 
city's future — insurance that the next generation and the next may enjoy 
the dividends earned by their unselfish investments. 

The making of a city is one of the most fascinating stories of the ages. 
This volume deals with a cosmopolitan city of everyday people — a place 
blessed with advantages and at times fraught with reverses — a typical Amer- 
ican city, capitalizing upon opportunities, overcoming obstacles, never satis- 
fied, believing in quality rather than size, and in health as the first wealth. 
Cleveland is proud of its industrial and commercial standing; it finds grati- 
fication in attaining eminence in creativeness, culture, and co-operation. 

It is hoped that the story of Cleveland, its romance and its business, may 
suggest practical ideas for the upbuilding of other cities, for the making of 
better cities is the making of a greater America. 

This story is told by William Ganson Rose, who was born in Cleveland, 
and has always worked for its advancement. He believes that the admonition 
of the old Greek philosopher, "Know thyself," has another practical applica- 
tion — know thy city. His breadth of interests and his many associations 



4 INTRODUCTION 

make him the logical authority to trace the forward march of people and 
institutions in their making of a city — Cleveland. 

Within these covers, also, is the history of the Western Reserve, that great 
expanse of territory stretching over northern Ohio for 120 miles from Penn- 
sylvania's western boundary, with Cleveland as the major city. Noble vision 
and courageous effort are revealed on page after page as the story unfolds. 
Rich in heritage and productivity, the progress of the many thriving urban 
and rural communities in this great empire, is indeed enlightening and en- 
tertaining. 

The author's aim has been to show the steady development of ideas and 
institutions, and the many factors that have contributed to sound, substan- 
tial progress. This is not merely a chronological account of events. It is rather 
a story of many-sided community life, reveaUng the significance of trends 
and reforms, as influenced by national and local circumstances, natural re- 
sources, and opportunities. 



'I^mJ^^JJUJ:^^:^^ 




/ 



William G. Mather 
Charles A. Otis 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



CLEVELAND has been called "the city o£ co-operation," and the spirit 
of teamwork manifested by a legion of Clevelanders made this volume 
and its preparation a pleasant task. The history of the teamwork given by 
institutions and individuals would of itself make a book. Unfortunately, 
there is not space to call them by name and express thanks to them indi- 
vidually; but they can find gratification in the fact that they have helped 
to preserve permanently the story of the city they love. 

Certain institutions were called upon frequently, and their intelligent 
response smoothed the way through a maze of names, dates, events, statis- 
tics, and technical information, seemingly without end: the Cleveland Public 
Library, Municipal Reference Division of City Hall, Cleveland Chamber of 
Commerce, Western Reserve Historical Society, and Cleveland Board of 
Education. To the many able and patient members of the staffs in these 
outstanding organizations go sincere thanks. 

Acknowledgment is made to these capable historians: Colonel Charles 
Whittlesey, James H. Kennedy, Samuel P. Orth, Harriet Taylor Upton, 
Gertrude Van Rensselaer Wickham, Elroy McKendree Avery, William R. 
Coates, Wilfred Henry Alburn and Miriam Russell Alburn, Leo Weiden- 
thal, S. }. Kelly, Ella Grant Wilson, Archer H. Shaw, F. Leslie Speir, Elbert 
J. Benton, and Mary Scott Thayer. Their writings were of fundamental 
assistance in the preparation of this book. 

For the executive direction of the major part of the work and for in- 
valuable aid in organizing and editing the collected data, first thanks are due 
to Mrs. Lillian C. Brown. During the long period of developing the volume, 
she made a contribution of discriminating research and inspiring helpful- 
ness. Of the many tireless workers on the stafi, special assignments were 
faithfully handled by Jean Hudson, Frances B. Mehlek and Josephine S. 
Birt. 

For securing the financial assistance that made the publication possible, 
Charles A. Otis was responsible. He suggested the book as a memento of the 
Cleveland Sesquicentennial Celebration of 1946, and upon his invitation the 
following Clevelanders became underv/riters : 

Cleveland Foundation 

James A. Bohannon Ben F. Hopkins John Sherwin 

George Gund William G. Mather Mrs. Windsor T. White 

Leonard C. Hanna, Jr. William Ganson Rose B. D. Zevin 



6 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Contributors to special research were: 

The Cleveland Electric The M. A. Hanna Company 

Illuminating Company J. J. Mclntyre 

Diesel Engine Division The May Company 

General Motors Corporation The Sherwin-Williams Company 

Samuel H. Halle The Standard Oil Company of Ohio 

Mr. Otis was helpful in many ways from the inception of the history until 
it went to the printer. It was another evidence of "Mr. Cleveland's" interest 
in civic enterprise. 

A vast amount of research was required in assembling the material con- 
tained in this volume. Material was gleaned from a large number of histories, 
public records and documents, reports, tracts and annals, newspaper files, 
manuscripts, historical papers and journals, and authoritative sources of every 
conceivable kind. Painstaking original research was undertaken in the exam- 
ination of hundreds of individual histories of business and industrial com- 
panies, social and cultural institutions, schools, colleges and churches. Every 
eflfort was made to promote accuracy of statement, but it was found that in 
some instances even accepted authorities failed to agree upon certain facts. 
If mistakes crept into the pages, it should be remembered that "to err is 
human." 



Contents 



INTRODUCTION 3 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 5 

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK 1 8 

1. Cleveland— Born Great 19 

2. The Founding, 1796- 1799 26 

3. Stout-Hearted Men, 1800-1809 41 

4. Coming of Leaders, 1810-1819 61 

5. Beginning of Canal Commerce, 1820- 1829 88 

6. A Boom Town Becomes a City, 1830-1839 113 

7. Trade Trails Stretch Wide, 1840-1849 169 

8. Rails and Red Gold, 1 850-1 859 221 

9. Heartaches and Recovery, i860- 1869 296 

10. The Industrial Age, 1870-1879 361 

11. Wheels Turn Faster, 1880-1889 427 

12. The Great Nineties, 1890-1899 500 

13. New Century — New Advance, 1900- 1909 600 



CONTENTS 

14. War-Peace-Progress, 1910-1919 679 

15. Turbulent Twenties, 1920- 1929 779 

16. Reverses and Reserves, 1930- 1939 870 

17. Greatness Achieved, 1940- 965 

18. The Western Reserve 1062 
Appendices 

greater cleveland manufacturers 110 j 

key to annexations map ii i3 

index to early-day streets ii i4 

public officials, 1 949 ii16 

Index 1120 



Illustrations 



Map o£ Cuyahoga County in the 1940s front endpaper 

General Moses Cleaveland frontispiece 

Map of Earth Mounds by Colonel Charles Whittlesey 20 

Map of North American Colonies, 1755, by Lewis Evans 21 

Northwest Territory, 1787 22 

Map of the Western Reserve, 1798 opp. 24 

Portraits: James Kingsbury Leonard Case, Jr. opp. 25 

Dr. David Long Nathan Perry, Jr. 

Alfred Kelley Samuel Huntington 

Moses Cleaveland Levi Johnson 

Leonard Case, Sr. 

Seth Pease 27 

First map of Cleveland, 1796 28 

Second map of Cleveland, 1796 29 

Cleveland "under the Hill" 32 

Lorenzo Carter, first permanent settler 35 

First schoolhouse 79 

Walk-in-the-Water 84 

Cleveland Academy 97 

Second Cuyahoga County Court House 109 

Trinity Church in 1829 no 
Shandy Hall, Astor House, first Cuyahoga County Court 

House and Jail opp. 120 
Shakers: grist-mill, Curtis Cramer, Clymena Minor, Shaker 

home opp. 121 

First Presbyterian Church (Old Stone) 135 

Ahaz Merchant's map of Cleveland, 1835 142 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Early-day Cleveland from Brooklyn Hill, from Bank and 

St. Clair streets, from the Court House opp. 152 

Mormons: the Temple, Joseph Smith, bank note of Kirt- 

land Safety Society Bank opp. 153 

Ohio Canal advertisement 153 

American House 158 

Northwest section of Public Square, 1839 167 

Advertisements of primitive manufacturers 170 

Prospect Street School, 1840 177 

St. Mary's on the Flats 179 

Portraits: Peter M. Weddell Sherlock J. Andrew^s opp. 184 

Samuel E. Williamson 

Truman P. Handy 

John W. Willey 

Dr. Jared P. Kirdand 
Portraits: William Bingham Daniel P. Rhodes opp. 185 

J. W. Gray Dr. John S. Newberry 

William J. Gordon Hiram V. Willson 

WilHam A. Otis John W. Allen 

James A. Garfield 



Sherlock J. Andrews 
Henry B. Payne 
Harvey Rice 
George Worthington 



tmpire, passenger side wheeler 






195 


Cleveland Medical College 






198 


Lower Superior Street, 1846 






199 


Weddell House 






208 


Portraits : Solon L. Severance 


Linda T. Guilford 


opp. 


216 


WilHam B. Castle 


Charles A. Otis, Sr. 






John H. McBride 


Charles Whittlesey 






Amasa Stone 


William Case 






Andrew Freese 






Academy of Music, Clara Morris, 


Joseph S. Haworth, Effie 






Ellsler, John A. Ellsler 




opp. 


217 


Herald Building, 1851 






231 


Forest City House 






248 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Western Reserve Historical Society Library, "A Meeting 

at the Ark" by Gollman opp. 248 

Styles in the Nineteenth Century opp. 249 

First high-school building 253 

Cleveland in 1853 257 

Angier House 266 

First Central High School 276 

Kentucky Street Reservoir 278 

Fountain in Public Square, 1856 279 

Omnibus ticket 280 
Ontario Street in 1862, balloon ascension, south side of 

Public Square opp. 280 

Portraits: Dan P. Eells John Hay opp. 2S1 
Edwin Cowles General John H. Devereux 
Rufus P. Ranney Jeptha H. Wade I 
Bishop Richard Gilmour Thomas H. White 
Henry Chisholm 

Third Cuyahoga County Court House 284 

Going to a fire 288 

Atwater Building 290 

Cleveland Institute 293 

Oil refineries, 1866 301 

Oliver Hazard Perry Monument 309 
City Hall in i860. City Hall in 1916, Council Chamber of 

City Hall opp. 

Lincoln catafalque, Lincoln portrait, locomotive Nashville opp. 31 

Superior Avenue in 1865 327 

Second Union Depot 338 

Lake View Park 341 

First Society for Savings Building 342 
Mounted police of the 1940s, policemen of 1866, Police 

Department Headquarters opp. 344 
Forest City Baseball Club, 1869; World Series Champions 

of 1920 opp. 345 






ILLUSTRATIONS 

Home of Colonel Charles Whittlesey 

Case Hall, 1867 

"Palace Coach" on "Bee Line" railroad 

Euclid Avenue in the 1870s 

Fair grounds, Northern Ohio Fair Association 

Erie Street Cemetery entrance, 1870 

Dr. Jared P. Kirtland's home, Public Square in 1873 

"The Spirit of '76," Archibald M. Willard 

Lighthouse, 1872 

First Union Club building 

Brooks School 

Euclid Avenue Opera House, 1875 

"Dummy Line Railroad" in 1880, Ohio Canal 

Cutters racing in the 1880s, Four-in-Hand Club 

Central High School, 1878 

Superior Avenue Viaduct 

Sylvester T. Everett home and hostess balcony, Samuel 
Andrews home 

Society for Savings Building, 1890; The Cleveland Chamber 
of Commerce Building, 1899 

Alexander Winton, Walter C. Baker, and Windsor T. 
White and their early automobiles 

Lennox Building, Union Trust Building 

National Bank Building 

Case Block 

Central Armory and Grays Armory, 1893 

Public Square at the turn of the century 

Streetcars in the 1890s 

Banking room of the Union Bank of Commerce, Repub- 
lican banquet in the Arcade 

Cleveland Golf Club, Cleveland Yacht Club 

Homes of John D. Rockefeller, Henry B, Payne, Nathan 
Perry, Jr., and William G. Mather 



345 
346 
349 
364 
372 

373 
opp. 376 

opp- 377 
384 

387 
398 
405 
opp. 408 
opp. 409 
425 
426 

opp. 440 

opp. 441 

opp. 472 

opp. 473 

498 

499 
opp. 504 

opp. 505 

510 

opp. 536 
opp' 537 

opp. 568 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

American Press Humorists, John D. Rockefeller, Charles 

Francis Brush and group of scientists opp. 569 

Portraits: Captain Alva Bradley William Edwards opp. 600 

General James Barnett Worcester R. Warner 

Liberty E. Holden John Huntington 

William Grey Rose Stevenson Burke 

Ambrose Swasey 
Horse races opp. 601 

Cleveland passing Cincinnati (cartoon) 608 

Hanna, McKinley, and Theodore Roosevelt (cartoon) 615 

Portraits: Marcus A. Hanna John N. Stockwell opp. 632 

Tom L. Johnson Rabbi Moses J. Gries 

Dr. Hiram C. Haydn Alexander E. Brown 

Edward W. Morley John P. Green 

Samuel T. Wellman 
Clevelanders in the entertainment world opp. 633 

Cassie L. Chadwick trial (Donahey sketches) 648 

Three-cent fare (cartoon) 656 

Cuyahoga County Court House, 1912 opp. 664 

Fire-fighting in the 1900s, George A. Wallace opp. 665 

Tribute to Mark Twain (cartoon) 691 

Cleveland Clinic and founders, Lakeside Unit opp. 6(^6 

Ontario Street and the Public Square opp. 6<^'j 

Portraits : Caesar A. Grasselli Myron T. Herrick opp. 728 

Charles F. Thwing Elbert H. Baker 

Charles W. Chesnutt Theodore E. Burton 

Frederick H. Goff Newton D. Baker 

John H. Clarke 
Main Pubhc Library, William Howard Brett, Linda A. 

Eastman, Eastman Park opp. 729 

Metropolitan Parks opp. 760 

Cleveland Museum of Art and art treasures after 760 

Telephone Company Building, Standard Building, Brother- 
hood of Locomotive Engineers Building opp. 761 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Seeandbee, sidewheel steamer 778 
Board of Education Building, Lincoln statue, Miles Standish 

Elementary School opp. 792 
South side of Terminal Group and downtown Cleveland, 

central district from air at East 14th Street after 792 

Industrial Operations after 792 

Scenes in Cleveland Parks opp. 793 

Public Auditorium, Severance Hall opp. 824 

Events in the mammoth Public Auditorium opp. 825 

Portraits: John Sherwin, Sr. Samuel Mather opp. 856 
Francis F. Prentiss James H. Rogers 
O. P. Van Sweringen M. J. Van Sweringen 
Archbishop Joseph Schrembs 
Mrs. Francis F. Prentiss 
Dayton C. Miller 
Navigating the crooked Cuyahoga River, unloading the 

Harry Coulby opp. 857 

In the Cultural Gardens opp. 888 
Post Office, sculpture on Federal Building and Federal 

Reserve Bank Building opp. 889 

Great Lakes Exposition opp. 896 

The Mall in the 1940s opp. 897 

Arena, home of entertainment opp. 912 

Upper Downtown, Playhouse Square opp. 913 

Carver Park and Outhwaite Homes housing projects 919 

World port, Coast Guard Station opp. 920 

Main Avenue Bridge and Lake view Terrace opp. 921 

Public Square, in shadow of Terminal Tower opp. 952 

Wade Park cultural center opp. 953 

Map of Cleveland Metropolitan Park and Boulevard System 960-961 
St. John's Cathedral and Cathedral Square, Old Stone 

Church opp. 960 

Trinity Cathedral, The Temple opp. 961 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Municipal Airport, scene at National Air Races, view of 

Aviation Laboratory opp. 976 

Shaker Square opp. 977 

Bob Feller (cartoon) 982 
Western Reserve Historical Society Museum, interior scenes opp. 984 

Festival of Freedom and football game in the Stadium opp. 985 

Map of Cleveland Park System 985 

Mayor Harold H. Burton (cartoon) 990 

Battle of production (cartoon) 1000 

Scenes at schools and colleges opp. 1016-1017 

Express Highway Map 1019 

Cleveland's Sesquicentennial Celebration opp. 1048 
Thousands greet General Eisenhower; crowd at a Cleveland 

Regatta opp. 1049 

One World Day, Sesquicentennial Celebration opp. 1080 

Nationality features of the Sesquicentennial opp. 1081 

World Champions of 1948 opp. 1112 

Territorial annexations map opp. 11 13 

Map of the Western Reserve in the 1940s bac\ endpaper 



CLEVELAND 

The Making of a City 



HOW TO USE THIS BOOK 



Cleveland: The Making of a City is designed to trace the growth and de- 
velopment of the district, decade by decade, from pioneer days. Beginning 
with Chapter 2, an editorial account gives a general picture of conditions, 
locally and nationally, followed by ten years of chronology. This treatment, 
it is believed, will give the reader a new appreciation of Cleveland's steady 
advance from settlement to city, and from city to metropolitan district. 

An early-day system of identifying streets continued in effect until 1906, 
when the change was made from names to numbers. Old-time names are 
used consistently until the change, and a list of early streets with their 
present-day equivalents is given in the Appendix. 

To facilitate an understanding of certain historical items in terms of 
present-day institutions or locations, appropriate data appears within paren- 
theses. 

Pioneering companies and those that have made large contributions to 
industrial progress, are presented in story form. Other companies, fifty or 
more years old, appear at the approximate time of their founding. In the 
Appendix is a list of manufacturers, according to size, compiled by the 
Cleveland Chamber of Commerce. 

Stories of companies, schools, churches, and other institutions have often 
been written into several decades to show significant progress or to stress 
an important influence in establishing a trend or era. Reference to the Index 
will give a continuous account. 

The comprehensive index was planned as a ready-reference key to the 
factual history and prepared by Mrs. Lillian C. Brown. 



18 



CHAPTER 1 

Cleveland— Born Great 



UNDER a sheet o£ ice a mile thick lay the site of the City of Cleveland 
more than 20,000 years ago. Vast glaciers covered much of North 
America, including two-thirds of what became the State of Ohio. Even- 
tually the ice field melted away, leaving hills and valleys, rivers and small 
lakes, and a clear evidence of natural advantages that played an important 
part in the march of civilization. 

The glaciers helped to shape the Great Lakes, a mighty influence upon 
Cleveland's growth and progress. They were responsible for the natural 
setting of the Erie Canal through the Mohawk Valley, and for the Portage 
Lakes that largely determined the location of the Ohio Canal. Another 
heritage was fertile soil that made Ohio surpassingly rich in agricultural 
products. 

The district owes much to its geologic past. No wonder Dr. J. Paul 
Goode, eminent student of natural resources, said, "Cleveland was born 
great." Later he predicted that some day Cleveland, Chicago, and Mil- 
waukee, because of their locations on the Great Lakes, would be numbered 
among the foremost of the world's business centers. 

Who were the first inhabitants of this area? Discoveries have indicated 
that men lived here during the glacial period, evidence having been found 
in the form of stone implements and other relics left in terraces formed by 
the glaciers. Some authorities believe these people later became the Eskimos 
of the polar regions. 

The advent of the Mound Builders, a later race, is variously placed between 
six and twelve centuries ago. Their mysterious entrance into history and 
their veiled exit from human records are matters that research has been 
unable to explain. Ohio has many evidences of their early civilization in the 
form of earthen mounds built for various purposes — village sites, fortifica- 
tions, and burial grounds; also relics, consisting of tools, utensils, and fabrics. 
In Cleveland, the two best-known mounds were discovered at what became 
the southeast corner of Euclid and East 9th Street and at East 53rd Street 
near Woodland, while others were found in Newburgh and in the Cuyahoga 
River valley to the south. Some students believe that the Mound Builders 
were the ancestors of historic Indian tribes. 

With the coming of the red men, the wilderness that became Ohio was 
a hunting ground of migrating, warfaring tribes. In the north, the most 
prominent were the Wyandots, Hurons, Ottawas, Neutral Nation, Andastes, 
Iroquois, and Eries, for whom Lake Erie was named. The Eries developed 

19 



20 



CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 



great power and gained control o£ the southern shore of the lake from 
Sandusky Bay to the site of BufFalo. Their kin, the Iroquois, however, be- 
came their bitter enemies, and organized smaller tribes into the mighty Five 
Nations to oppose them. 

In the middle of the Seventeenth Century came a merciless war; and the 
Iroquois, with their allies, superior in numbers, practically exterminated the 




Map by Colonel Charles Whittlesey shoimng location of earth 
mounds left by the Mound Builders in the northern section of the 
Cuyahoga Valley. The results of Colonel Whittlesey's interesting 
surveys are preserved in the Western Reserve Historical Society. 

Eries to become masters of northeastern Ohio. Early in the Eighteenth 
Century, the Five Nations became the Six Nations when the Tuscarora 
came north. The Cuyahoga River was the boundary line between the 
Iroquois and the Hurons. The Indians engaged in fur trading along the 
southern shores of Lake Erie, finding customers among venturesome French 
and English traders. 
In 1772, David Zeisberger and John Heckewelder, Moravian missionaries. 



CLEVELAND — BORN GREAT 



21 



built Gnadenhutten and Schoenbrunn villages for friendly Christian Indians 
on the Tuscarawas River, The ninety inhabitants were brutally massacred 
in 1782 by irresponsible whites, and acts of revenge by furious Indians of 
several tribes followed. 

Hoping to establish a new colony, and believing that the bitter con- 
flicts were over, Zeisberger and Heckewelder founded a settlement called 
Pilgerruh, meaning Pilgrim's Rest, in May, 1786, near the junction of the 
Cuyahoga River and Tinker's Creek. A chapel and log cabins were built, 
and the few residents engaged in agriculture. Indians and hostile whites 
interfered, and the new project was given up. The Moravians left a map and 
a description of the area which are preserved by the Western Reserve His- 
torical Society. 




This map, made by Lewis Evans, one of the first American geogra- 
phers to study the Great Lakes, was published in 1755 in Philadelphia 
and was printed by Benjamin Franklin and D. Hall. 



Scattered whites are said to have lived in isolated clearings west of the 
Cuyahoga, but they did not establish a settlement. Tradition states that in 
1786, agents of the Northwestern Fur Company, identified with the Astor 
family, built a trading post of hewn timbers on the west side of the river 
near the mouth. The Astor House was Cleveland's most famous relic, lead- 
ing a migratory existence until it was razed in the 1920s. 

The Indians were not the sole claimants to northeastern Ohio. The Cabots, 
who stumbled against Newfoundland's bleak shore, led England to claim 
North America. The French, because of their explorations and discoveries, 
considered themselves the rightful owners. Connecticut, Massachusetts, New 
York, and Virginia had vague claims under early charters granted by 
English kings. These monarchs, through geographical ignorance or political 
expediency, made their gifts with little consideration for boundary lines, 
and often one king gave what his predecessor had already given. 

In 1662, the State of Connecticut persuaded Charles II of England, whose 



22 



CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 



knowledge of liqueur was said to have been greater than his under- 
standing of geography, to grant her a vast territory of western land for her 
questionable title deed. It lay between the parallels which bounded the 
State, and extended "from sea to sea." Ownership was a confused issue to be 
settled only after the Thirteen States had agreed to relinquish disputed lands 
to the Federal Government so that they might be admitted to the Con- 
federation as new states. Connecticut, which waived part of her claim on 
September 14, 1786, reserved a tract in what became northeastern Ohio as 
compensation for her comparatively small size. This area, known as the 
Western Reserve, extended southward from the lake to the forty-first parallel 
of north latitude, and continued westward 120 miles from the Pennsylvania 
line. It was frequently called New Connecticut. 





^ N. W. TERRITORY 

I 1787 

\ TdMTies OF. 1783 & I79S 




1/ f) 7^ 




1 ^^wW 


^^m 


^^r 


'^^^^ 


'z^^^^M/^^^ 




^w 



The Ordinance of 
1787 establishing the 
Northwest Territory 
was the first funda- 
mental act passed by 
an American Con- 
gress for the govern- 
ing of a territory. 



The Ordinance of 1787, passed on July 13 by the Congress of Confedera- 
tion, provided machinery for government in the Northwest Territory. This 
vast area, appended to the Thirteen States, was originally bounded by the 
Ohio River on the south, the Mississippi on the west, the Great Lakes on 
the north and Pennsylvania and Virginia on the east. The Ordinance of 
1787 was a significant achievement, setting the form by which subsequent 
western territories were created and later admitted into the Union, marking 
the beginnings of western expansion and increasing the powers of the 
Federal Government. Arthur St. Clair, scholarly soldier, was chosen gover- 
nor, and the seat of government was established at Marietta, Ohio, on July 
15, 1788. Slavery was prohibited within the Territory. 

In May, 1792, Connecticut set apart 500,000 acres of the western end of the 
Reserve for the benefit of citizens who had suffered losses by fire or other- 
wise during the Revolution, and the area was commonly known as the 
"Fire Lands" (Erie and Huron counties). The remaining tract of about 
3,000,000 acres was offered for sale by the General Assembly in May, 1795, 
and the proceeds provided Connecticut with a permanent school fund. 



CLEVELAND — BORN GREAT 23 

Citizens of the State, organized as the Connecticut Land Company, pur- 
chased the unsurveyed Western Reserve lands, sight unseen, for $1,200,000, 
or 40 cents an acre, the individual members receiving quitclaim deeds. There 
v^^ere forty-nine original shareholders, v^^ho gave mortgages for their interests, 
payment to become due in five years: 

Joseph Rowland and Daniel L. Coit $ 30,461 

Elias Morgan 5I5402 

Caleb Atwater 22,846 

Daniel Holbrook 8,750 

Joseph Williams i5>23i 

William Love 10,500 

William Judd 16,256 

Elisha Hyde and Uriah Tracey 575400 

James Johnston 30,000 

Samuel Mather, Jr 18,461 

Ephraim Kirby, Elijah Boardman and Uriel Holmes, Jr 60,000 

Samuel Griswold 10,000 

Oliver Phelps and Gideon Granger, Jr 80,000 

William Hart 30,462 

Henry Champion II 85,675 

Asher Miller 34j000 

Robert C. Johnson 60,000 

Ephraim Root 42,000 

Nehemiah Hubbard, Jr i9>039 

Solomon Cow^les 10,000 

Oliver Phelps 168,185 

Asahel Hathaway 12,000 

John Caldwell and Peleg Sanford 15,000 

Timothy Burr 155231 

Luther Loomis and Ebenezer King, Jr 445318 

William Lyman, John Stoddard and David King 24,730 

Moses Cleaveland 32,600 

Samuel P. Lord 14,092 

Roger Newberry, Enoch Perkins and Jonathan Brace 38,000 

Ephraim Starr ^7A'^5 

Sylvanus Griswold 15683 

Joseb Stocking and Joshua Stow 1I5423 

Titus Street 22,846 

James Bull, Aaron Olmstead and John Wyles 30,000 

Pierpoint Edwards 60,000 

For convenience in business transactions, the interests of the land com- 
pany v^ere placed in the hands of three trustees — John Caldwell, John 
Morgan, and Jonathan Brace. Management rested with a board of directors, 
with an office in Hartford. On the board were Oliver Phelps, Henry 
Champion II, Moses Cleaveland, Samuel W. Johnson, Ephraim Kirby, 



24 



CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 



Samuel Mather, Jr., and Roger Newberry, all men of prominence in their 
home state. Ephraim Root became secretary. It was decided by the investors 
that the Indian claims should be "extinguished," and that i6,ooo-acre town- 
ships should be speedily laid out and surveyed in lots suitable for sale and 
settlement. A sawmill and grist-mill were to be erected in each township 
at company expense to attract settlers. 

General Moses Cleaveland, a shareholder and a man of courage and wide 
experience, was selected as superintendent of the Western Reserve surveying 
party. His commission, issued on May 12, 1796, read in part as follows: 

We the Board of Directors of said Connecticut Land Company, having 
appointed you to go on to said land as superintendant over the Agents and 
Men sent on to survey & make Locations on said Land to make and enter ■ 
into friendly negotiations with the Natives who are on said Land or con- 
tiguous thereto and may have any pretended claim to the same and secure 
such friendly intercourse amongst them as will establish peace, quiet & 
Safety to the survey & settlement of said Lands , . . not ceded by the natives 
under the authority of the United States . . . 

Vested in the General were broad powers to act and transact business, to 
make contracts, and to draw on the company treasury as necessity required. 
Moses Cleaveland was a man of action, and early in June his officers and 
men had been organized for the expedition at Schenectady. The surveying 
party included: 

General Moses Cleaveland, superintendent 

Augustus Porter, principal surveyor and deputy superintendent 

Seth Pease, astronomer and surveyor 

Amos Spafford, John Milton HoUey, Richard M. Stoddard and Moses 

Warren, surveyors 
Joshua Stow, commissary 
Theodore Shepard, physician 



Joseph Tinker, boatman 
George Proudfoot 
Samuel Forbes 
Stephen Benton 
Samuel Hungerford 
Samuel Davenport 
Amzi Atwater 
Elisha Ayres 
Norman Wilcox 
George Gooding 
Samuel Agnew 
David Beard 



Employees of the Company 

Titus V. Munson 
Charles Parker 
Nathaniel Doan 
James Halket 
Olney F. Rice 
Samuel Barnes 
Daniel Shulay 
Joseph M'Intyre 
Francis Gray 
Amos Sawtel 
Amos Barber 
William B. Hall 
Asa Mason 



Michael Coffin 
Thomas Harris 
Timothy Dunham 
Shadrach Benham 
Wareham Shepard 
John Briant 
Joseph Landon 
Ezekiel Morly 
Luke Hanchet 
James Hamilton 
John Lock 
Stephen Burbank 




pc; 



t^ 



ew 



« 



^ 




James Kingsbury 



Dr. David Long 



Moses Cleaveland Samuel Huntington 




Leonard Case, Jr. 



Levi Johnson 




Alfred Kelley 



Nathan Perry, Jr. 



Leonard Case, Sr. 



CLEVELAND — BORN GREAT 25 

Accompanying the party were Elijah Gun and his wife, Anna, who were 
to have charge of company stores at Conneaut; Job Phelps Stiles and 
his wife, Tabitha Cumi; Nathan Chapman and Nathan Perry, who provided 
the surveyors with fresh meat and traded with the Indians. Thirteen horses 
and some cattle were transported with the expedition. Employees were 
enlisted in company service "as in the army, for two years, providing it took 
so long." 

After a hazardous journey down swift streams and through uncharted 
wilderness, the surveyors reached Buffalo Creek on June 22. Here General 
Cleaveland held diplomatic meetings with the Mohawk and Seneca repre- 
sentatives of the mighty Six Nations. After shrewd persuasion, the Indians re- 
linquished their claim to the lands east of the Cuyahoga River in exchange for 
500 pounds New York currency, two beef cattle, and 100 gallons of whisky. 

Proceeding westward on June 27, the expedition reached Conneaut Creek 
on the evening of July 4. Raising the new flag of the new nation, the place 
was christened Port Independence with gunfire salute. Thus Independence 
Day was celebrated for the first time on the Reserve. At a feast of pork and 
beans, six spirited toasts were drunk, the first three being proposed to the 
President of the United States, the State of New Connecticut, and the Con- 
necticut Land Company. 

The erection of a cabin headquarters, called "Stow's Castle" in honor of 
the commissary manager, was begun the next day. It was a nondescript 
structure of "uncouth appearance such as to provoke the laughter of the 
builders and the ridicule of the Indians." 

General Cleaveland's preparations for permanent settlement stirred the 
Massasagoes, an Indian tribe in the vicinity, and they summoned him for an 
explanation. After considerable discussion, an understanding was reached, 
with the assurance that they should not be disturbed in their possessions. 
The pipe of friendship and peace was presented to Cleaveland by Chief 
Paqua in exchange for wampum, trinkets, and whisky valued at a total of 
about $25 to seal the agreement. This friendly meeting forestalled future 
requests for charity and gratuities, especially for "fire water." 

The land-company employees having been separated into groups to ex- 
pedite the surveying of the Western Reserve, Moses Cleaveland and his party 
journeyed westward on the lake in an open bateau. With him were Com- 
missary Stow, probably the Stileses, and hardy men numbering a boatload. 
One historian claims that the explorers started up the Chagrin River by 
mistake, believing it to be the Cuyahoga; and upon discovering their error, 
their leader named the river Chagrin. This story, however, is discredited by 
maps made before the Revolution, on which the name Chagrin appears. 
There is also a disputed report that early French traders named the stream 
Chagrin after having suffered a misfortune near its mouth. The probable 
source of the name is Shagrin or Shaguin, Indian names meaning "clear 
water." 

The final stage of the historic journey to the mouth of the Cuyahoga 
River was uneventful; and General Moses Cleaveland little dreamed that 
he was nearing the site of a city that was destined to achieve greatness. 



CHAPTER 2 

The Founding 

1796-1799 



WHILE I was in New Connecticut I laid out. a town on the bank 
of Lake Erie, which was called by my name, and I believe the 
child is now born that may live to see that place as large as Old Windham." 

With these words. General Moses Cleaveland reported in part to the 
directors of the Connecticut Land Company upon the success of his expedi- 
tion to the Western Reserve. It has been observed that the founder was a 
man of vision, for Cleveland passed Windham, Connecticut — a town of 2,700 
persons in 1790 — well within the predicted time. 

From the start, Cleveland was a commercial proposition. The land com- 
pany had real estate to sell, and the promoters were anxious to realize a 
return on their investment as speedily as possible. Moses Cleaveland, share- 
holder, who was commissioned to survey the Western Reserve lands, was 
also directed to establish a "capital" city. Why did he choose the Cuyahoga 
River site as the location for the principal city of the Western Reserve .f" 

Robert Shackleton, at one time a Clevelander, said in his Boo\ of Phil- 
adelphia (Wm. Penn Publishing Corp.) : "Before ever a single cabin was 
erected where the great city of Cleveland now stands, when there was no 
road but an Indian trail and while the mouth of the Cuyahoga was but a 
sandbar, Benjamin Franklin, from his study of conditions, pointed out the 
site of the future Cleveland as the place at which an important city was to 
arise." It is possible that the Connecticut pathfinder and surveyor had heard 
of Franklin's remarkable prophecy. 

Cleaveland's men were capable engineers and practical planners, endowed 
with courage and endurance. The survey of 1796 was made under the 
direction of Augustus Porter, superintendent, who had the technical assist- 
ance of Amos Spafford and Seth Pease, makers of the first two maps of 
Cleveland. These maps, similar in most respects, initiated a city plan with 
right-angle streets of noble width, and that inestimable blessing, the Public 
Square. 

In the fall, the surveyors departed. The founder had done his work wisely 
and well; but when he returned to Connecticut, he resumed his law practice, 
never again to visit the settlement on the lake. When he died ten years 
later, the little colony bearing his name was slowly taking substantial form. 

Early in 1797, a second expedition was organized, with the Rev. Seth 
Hart, head of the party, and Seth Pease, chief surveyor. By fall, the explora- 
tion of the Reserve was concluded, Cleveland street lines were determined 

26 



[1796] THE FOUNDING 27 

and lots were laid out. The surveyors left a rich heritage in the form of a 
goodly waterfront, forests of sturdy timber, a curving stream, and wide 
stretches of level land backed by a gentle ridge. 

The year 1797 witnessed the arrival of the first settlers — EHjah Gun, 
Lorenzo Carter, Ezekiel Hawley, and James Kingsbury with their families. 
Despite privations, disease, and danger, the pioneers sought opportunity at 
the frontier, ax in one hand, rifle in the other, Bible and spelling book in 
the saddle bags. They came prepared for a bitter struggle to provide food, 
clothing, and shelter with the crude implements at hand. Hardships tried 
the toughest New England souls, but with, patient hands the seed was 
planted that would flower into the future city. 



Seth Tease, maker of the 
second map of Cleveland. 




Cleveland's industry began with a blacksmith shop, a sawmill, and a grist- 
mill. At the grist-mill there was a market for grain grown on the primitive 
farms, easing the local food problem. 

The political boundaries of Jefferson County were created, and Cleveland 
was located within its limits. Steubenville was the county seat, but there 
was an absence of civil and military government for several years. 

The years from the founding through 1799 tested the courage and con- 
fidence of the sturdy little band of pioneers, and proved their loyalty to the 
new "capital" of the Western Reserve in which they had built their cabin 
homes. Growth and progress were dreams the early settlers determined to 
achieve, and they were building better than they knew. 



1796 

General Moses Cleaveland, representing the Connecticut Land Company, 
proceeded westward from Conneaut on the lake with a small company, in- 
cluding Joshua Stow, commissary chief, and young Job Phelps Stiles and 



w 



5- -i 






;« 






■"5!" 
-^-- 



i'*i 



51 



^ 



__?'. 

, 5;J VO 

^ 

3-J 





•ffreet 
















en 


§ «--._ 






























3; 


? 






s f 






0\ 


r ~ 






s 


§ 


I 












?i 


a 


■o 


^ 


ss 1 


a 


f 


u 


s 


§ 







^"■" • — — •- 




; 




<:« 




a; 




^ la> 












XA rfT— - 










«> 





P ^ ei i 1 Mictm 



i5[ Ml N 




FIRST MAP OF CLEVELAND 

On the original, preserved by the Western Reserve Historical Society, Amos 
Spafford wrote "Original Plan of the Town and Village of Cleveland, Ohio, 
October 1, 1796." 

A marks lower landing on tJie river; B, upper landing; C, Public Square; 
D, mouth of river; E, Lake Erie. 




Second map of Cleveland. Made by Seth Pease in 1796. 



30 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1796] 

his wife, Tabitha Cumi Stiles, seventeen. In an open boat they followed the 
densely forested shore line until they reached the Cuyahoga — "crooked 
water," which they entered on July 22. The mouth of the river was in the 
form of a delta (about a half mile west of the present harbor entrance). 
There were several outlets, and the General probably worked his way into 
the river through one of these narrow passages to an Indian trail that 
ascended the hill (near the foot of St. Clair) past a spring on the east 
bank. 

No formal ceremony took place as Cleaveland mounted the bluff to scan 
the surroundings — the wooded hills, the blue waters of the lake, and the 
swamps along the river. This site that became the "capital" town of the 
Western Reserve, located strategically for communication by land or water, 
was envisioned by George Washington's map studies of the Northwest 
some years before. 

Returning to Port Independence — Conneaut Creek — on August 5, General 
Cleaveland made his first report to the home company. He was tired and 
quite undecided as to whether or not he had reached his goal, yet there 
was much to be said in favor of the site. The land offered excellent prospects, 
he wrote, being level on top and covered with chestnut, oak, walnut, ash, 
and some sugar-maple trees, but few hemlocks. The water was clear, the 
clay banks high, and west of the Cuyahoga was a steep bank ten miles 
long. Then Cleaveland unburdened himself fearlessly: "Those who are 
meanly envying the compensation and sitting at their ease and see their 
prosperity increasing at the loss of health, ease, and comfort of others, I 
wish might experience the hardships for one month; if not then satisfied 
their grumbling would give me no pain ... It is impossible to determine 
upon a place for the capital." He asked for more time to explore, reported 
his men in good health and spirits, although without "sauce or vegetables," 
and closed his statement. Rejoining his men on the Cuyahoga, he made up 
his mind that there could be no better "capital" site, and soon plans for the 
survey were under way for what was to become the city on the lake. 

The Connecticut Land Company, on August 26, ordered a chain-and- 
compass traverse of the entire northern area, to establish the amount of 
acreage in the Reserve, regardless of the agreement with the Indians at 
Buffalo that there was to be no survey west of the Cuyahoga. 

A survey of the site of town No. 7 in range 12 — seven townships north 
of the forty-first parallel and twelve townships west of the Pennsylvania 
line — was commenced by Seth Pease and Amos Spafford under the direction 
of Augustus Porter, September 16. Two maps of Cleveland resulted, one 
by each of the surveyors, known as Spafford's map and Pease's map. 

Surveyors Holley — Hawley or Holly, Shepard, and Spafford commenced 
to run their lines in the township around Cleveland on September 22. 
Cleveland Township was one of six designated to be sold and not divided 
among the company's stockholders, as was the case in many Reserve towns. 
The plan, at first, was to sell only a quarter of each township, and, ac- 
cordingly, on September 28, Porter, chief surveyor, proposed a method of 



[1796] THE FOUNDING 31 

achievement, which was later confirmed, and is described in Crisfield John- 
son's History of Cuyahoga County: 

City lots Number 58 to 63 inclusive, and 81 to 87 inclusive, comprising 
all the lots bordering on the Public Square, and one more, were to be 
reserved for public purposes, as were also 'the point of land west of the 
town' (which we take to be the low peninsula southwest of the viaduct), 
and some other portions of the flats if thought advisable. Then Mr. Porter 
proposed to begin with lot number one, and offer for sale every fourth 
number in succession throughout the towns, on these terms. Each person 
who would engage to become an actual settler in 1797 might purchase one 
town lot, one ten or twenty-acre lot, and one hundred-acre lot, or as much 
less as he might choose; settlement, however, to be imperative in every 
case. The price of town lots was to be fifty dollars; that of ten-acre lots 
three dollars per acre; that of twenty-acre lots two dollars per acre; and 
that of hundred-acre lots a dollar and a half per acre. The town lots were 
to be paid for in ready cash; for the larger tracts twenty per cent was to be 
paid down, and the rest in three annual installments with annual interest. 

The land east of the river (later a portion of Cuyahoga County) was 
claimed by Washington County of the Northwest Territory. A civil town- 
ship had not yet been organized, for the question as to whether legal 
jurisdiction was held by the territory or the land company had not been 
settled. The area west of the river belonged to Wayne County, of which 
Detroit was the seat; and although the company had purchased the pre- 
emption rights, the Indians' claims had not been satisfied, and the red men 
remained in possession. 

In late summer, General Cleaveland's surveyors, chain bearers, and tech- 
nicians threatened to quit unless more profitable arrangements were made. 
They had found their work tedious, the swamps dangerous, and the food 
scarce. On September 30, forty-one of them settled for equal shares in 
township No. 8 in the nth range, each man pledging faithful service to the 
company to the end of the year, and subscribing to a colonization agreement. 
The township was called Euclid, honoring the great mathematician, patron 
saint of the surveyor's art, upon the suggestion of Moses Warren. The 
next year, David Dille, first settler in the township, built his cabin. In 1836, 
he erected the historic Dille home, that after a century still stood sturdy 
and proud. 

Spalford endorsed his first field map, "Original Plan of the Town and 
Village of Cleveland, Ohio, October i, 1796" (map preserved by the Western 
Reserve Historical Society). Pease, who compiled the official report of the 
survey, attached to it a map endorsed, "A Plan of the City of Cleaveland." 
Both maps reserved space for the Public Square, described 220 two-acre lots 
with numbers, and determined the street plan. Spafford's map, drawn on 
foolscap sheets pasted together, showed changes in certain street names and 
gave the names of a few lot owners. Lots other than those reserved for 



32 



CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 



>796] 



public use were priced at $50 each, subject to immediate settlement. Begin- 
ning at the lake, the boundary line ran southward (East 14th) to a section 
of lots south of Ohio Street (Central Avenue), thence along the river to 
Vineyard Lane and the junction of Superior and Water streets, and west- 
ward to the river, which it followed to the lake. Streets were 99 feet wide, 
with the exception of Superior Street, which was 132 feet in width. This 
was practical planning of the city's center that was to remain basically the 
same down through the years. 

The first Cleveland plan was designed to facilitate sales and distribution 
of real estate, following a mechanical pattern of uniformly shaped lots facing 




Cleveland under the Hill — 1797. Left to right, on the east hank of the 
Cuyahoga River, surveyors' cabin, or "Pease's Hotel"; surveyors' log store- 
house; Lorenzo Carter's first cabin. 



the streets in a similar fashion. Envisioning future expansion. General Cleave- 
land made plans to plot the immediate outlying land in lo-acre lots, and the 
rest of the township in lOO-acre lots, instead of larger tracts. 

Although the founder intended to give the settlement the name of the 
river, his associates successfully urged him to bestow upon it his own name. 
It is interesting to note that Spafford spelled Cleveland without the "a" in 
the first syllable when identifying his map. 

There was nothing novel about the plan of the Public Square, the center 
of the "capital" of the Reserve, as Surveyor Pease laid it out. Crossroads 
and adjoining "commons" were typical New England planning; and 
although many American communities began with open centers, few were 
able to retain them. 

The Public Square contained 4.4 acres of land — 38 by 40 rods, with 2 
rods greater north and south than east and west. Surrounding streets and 
sidewalks made up the plot, variously defined as 9^ and 10 acres. Cost of the 



[1796] THE FOUNDING 33 

area to the land company was $1.76; in 1946 it was valued at $4,320,000, 
and was definitely not for sale. 

During the summer, the surveyors had built a cabin, labeled "Pease's 
Hotel," and a storehouse for supplies near the river. They also erected a cabin 
for the Stiles family on lot 53 (West 6th near Superior). In about mid- 
October, winter threatened, urging plans for departure. By the eighteenth, 
the surveying party had gone, and General Cleaveland never again visited 
the town that bore his name. Six of his employees had faith in the settle- 
ment's future, and arranged for the purchase of lots. 

Seed wheat, brought from a settlement on the Genesee River in New York 
State, was sowed in the fall on a 6-acre clearing at Conneaut, east of the 
creek, by land-company employees. It produced the first crop of grain grown 
by civilized men on the Western Reserve. 

Only a footpath led down to the mouth of the Cuyahoga where the 
surveyors' cabins had been empty for a month. Three people remained in 
the settlement in a lonely cabin built by the surveyors (1410 West nth 
Street), the first family dwelling in Cleveland — the Stileses, and Joseph 
Landon, who soon moved on. A new boarder, Edward Paine, traded with 
the Ottawa, Delaware, and Chippewa Indians west of the river, and he later 
founded Painesville. A small camp of friendly Senecas lived "under the 
hill" (Erie Depot site). This was Cleveland on that first Thanksgiving, as 
the pioneer population of three persons prepared to face the first winter in 
the wilderness. 

The first adventurer to seek a new home for his family in the Reserve 
of his own volition was James Kingsbury, aged twenty-nine. He had come 
to Conneaut from Alsted, New Hampshire, with his wife, Eunice Waldo 
Kingsbury, and three small children, arriving soon after the surveyors. The 
story of their first six months in Conneaut is typical of pioneer courage 
and fortitude. 

Dwindling supplies and an absence of game presaged starvation for the 
family. In November, Kingsbury set out for New Hampshire to secure 
provisions, expecting to be gone a month or so. There he was stricken with 
fever. Anxiety for his family urged him to start home sooner than advisable; 
and when he reached Buffalo on December 3, he was almost exhausted. 
Pushing forward the next day with his Indian guide into the wilds, he was 
overtaken with snow that fell for three weeks without intermission, until, 
in places, it was up to his chin. His horse died on the way, but determina- 
tion spurred him on, and it was Christmas Eve when he reached his cabin. 

Meantime, friendly Indians had brought Mrs. Kingsbury meat until they 
could no longer brave the winter storms. Her husband's- thirteen-year-old 
nephew cared for the oxen and a cow, and tried to comfort the pioneer 
mother in her loneliness and despair when she gave birth to the first white 
child born on the Reserve before the father returned. Soon fever attacked 
his wife, their food was almost gone, and James Kingsbury, forgetful of 
his own weakness, set out with a hand-sled for Erie, where he obtained a 
bushel of wheat, which when cracked and boiled stayed starvation. Upon 
the death of the cow from the effects of eating the browse of oak trees, the 



34 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [^797] 

baby's chance for life decreased daily, and the child died in January. The 
family endured near-starvation, and for two weeks Mrs. Kingsbury was 
scarcely conscious. Late in February or early in March the bitter winter 
relaxed, and Kingsbury was able to bring down a solitary pigeon with a 
well-aimed shot. The nourishing broth kindled a spark that started the long 
climb to health in the frail, tired body of his wife. 



1797 

The first white child born in Cleveland was Charles Phelps Stiles, son of 
Job Phelps and Tabitha Cumi Stiles. The date was January 23. 

At a meeting of the Connecticut Land Company held in January, a com- 
mittee was appointed on behalf of the stockholders to investigate the "very 
great expense of the company during the first year, the causes which have 
prevented the completion of the surveys; and why the surveyors and agents 
have not made their reports." The expedition had cost about $14,000. Direc- 
tors and trustees were required to urge the Legislature to create a county 
comprising all of the Western Reserve. An assessment of $5 per share was 
ordered on the 400 shares of company stock, Daniel Holbrook, Moses War- 
ren, Jr., Seth Pease, and Amos Spafford constituting a committee of partition. 
A committee was also appointed to inquire into the conduct of the directors 
of the company; a decision reached in February exonerated the management. 

Making his report to the directors at Hartford, Connecticut, on January 
28, Augustus Porter stated that the Western Reserve contained 3,450,753 
acres, exclusive of the islands in Lake Erie, and including Sandusky Bay. 
Deducting 500,000 acres for the "Fire Lands," the company had about 
50,000 acres less than supposedly purchased. His report was questioned, but 
upon examination no error could be found. Naturally, the thrifty New 
Englanders were indignant upon learning that they had really paid 40 cents 
an acre for a vast tract that never existed. 

A second expedition to the Western Reserve was authorized under the 
superintendence of an Episcopalian clergyman, the Rev. Seth Hart. Whether 
the appointment was offered to General Moses Cleaveland is not known; 
but if it was, he declined. Cleaveland, a lawyer and a man of important 
responsibilities in Connecticut, remained a member of the company's board 
of directors until his death in 1806. 

Seth Pease, chief surveyor, set out for Schenectady on April 3 to organize 
the new party. Running short of funds, he was assisted financially by 
Thomas Mather of Albany, New York, whose credit enabled him to pur- 
chase supplies. Two months were required to round up men, boats, and 
equipment, and on May 26 the surveying party reached Conneaut. 

Familiar names of members of the first expedition are noticed in the roll 
of seventy-one employees under Hart and Pease — Richard M, Stoddard, 
Moses Warren, Amzi Atwater, Joseph Landon, Amos Spafford, Warham 
Shepard — or Wareham Shepard, Theodore Shepard — or Shepherd, Na- 



[1797] THE FOUNDING 35 

thaniel Doan, Ezekiel Morley — or Morly, Joseph Tinker, David Beard, and 
Charles Parker. At Conneaut they found the James Kingsburys in "a low 
state of health," and they learned that the Elijah Gun — or Gunn — family 
had moved on "to Cuyahoga," the second family to make Cleveland its home. 
Lorenzo Carter, thirty, and his brother-in-law, Ezekiel Hawley — Holley 
or Holly, arrived in May from Vermont with their families. Carter erected 
a pretentious log cabin with a garret on the east bank of the river (foot of 
St. Clair) on a tract near the surveyors' hut. Travelers were welcomed "to a 
meal, a bed, and a drink of good New England rum. Carter was a man of 
action and energy. He soon built a boat, launched a ferry at the foot of 
Superior Street, and laid in a stock of goods for trade with the Indians. 
Carter, a Baptist, was Cleveland's first permanent settler. 



Lorenzo Carter, first permanent 
settler and most versatile Cleve- 
lander of the early days. 




The first boat of the second surveying expedition landed at the storehouse 
on the Cuyahoga on the afternoon of June i. As the other boats came in, 
they brought news of tragedy, the drowning of David Eldridge, one of the 
party, as he attempted to ford the Grand River on horseback on June 3. 
Rev. Hart conducted the first religious service in Cleveland the next day 
at the burial in the first cemetery on the east side of Ontario (north of 
Prospect). The plot was surrounded by briars and bushes. Virgin forests 
crowded in, and a little to the south on Ontario was a large mound, said to 
be the work of the Mound Builders. 

Headquarters were set up, company stores were examined, and land was 
cleared for a vegetable garden that was enclosed with the first fence built 
in Cleveland. Early in June the expedition was organized into groups that 
would continue exploring and surveying the Western Reserve. Full and 
interesting field books and memoranda of Pease and his men show the 
progress of the work, as described by Elbert Jay Benton in his Cultural 
Story of an American City — Cleveland'. 



36 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [l797] 

The eyes of the explorers were especially open for good waterpower for 
flour mills and saw mills. The Salt Springs on the Mahoning were tested 
and described. A burning spring of natural gas aroused no more than a 
passing curiosity. Considerable more work was done in the survey of 
Cleveland, marking out the street lines and laying out the ten acre and 
hundred acre lots around the projected town. The ten acre lots were 
located east of the town lots, extending from those which faced Erie on 
• Ninth Street to 55th Street. Beyond these lay the one hundred-acre lots. 
Three radiating roads were platted through the ten acre lots. For many 
years these were on paper only. North Highway led north-eastward 
parallel to the Lake, to become St. Clair Avenue later. Center Highway 
was marked out eastward, and within a few years cleared as the road to the 
township of Euclid . . . the road to Euclid should in time be known as 
Euclid Avenue. A third, South Highway, was platted in 1797 southeast 
from the junction of Ontario and Huron, a road to Kinsman, Ohio — and 
with equal logic called Kinsman Road, to be changed later to Woodland. 
The radiating roads would cut the ten-acre lots into varying sizes, increas- 
ing in acres as the distance from the square increased and as the value 
decreased. In eflect the plan equalized the value of the lots and simplified 
the problem of the company's agents in selling them. 

James Kingsbury and his family accompanied the surveyors when they 
moved from Conneaut to Cleveland. They lived for a time in a deserted log 
trading cabin west of the river (near Main and Center streets) — reputedly 
the Astor House — until a new cabin was built (Federal Building site). 

Oilman — or Gillman — Bryant, with his father, David Bryant, reached 
Cleveland in June, and gave a pen picture of the Indians. Encamped on the 
west side of the river were from sixty to eighty families, and Bryant was 
invited to partake of a feast, with boiled dog as the principal course. He 
reported that the red men were pious in their way, and frequently offered 
sacrifices and prayers to Manitou, asking for a good crop of corn and other 
blessings. In the spring they packed their skins, sugar, bear oil, honey, and 
jerked venison, and paddled their canoes back into the woods. The Bryants 
quarried grindstones from the Vermilion ledges for shipment to the east by 
boat. 

The first wedding was performed in Carter's cabin on July 4. Chloe 
Inches, Mrs. Carter's household helper, became the bride of WilHam 
Clement, who pursued her from Ontario. Rev. Hart officiated. The bride 
and groom left the settlement on their honeymoon and never returned. 
This seems to be the last record of the good reverend's clerical ministrations. 

Edward Paine opened the first dry-goods store. His stock of bright-colored 
calicoes and trinkets brought a traffic line of curious but friendly Indians. 
Pierre Meloche — or Maloch, a Frenchman, came to Cleveland during the 
year and remained until about 1808. 

Their work finished, the surveyors departed in October, and the land was 
ready to be divided among the stockholders. Townships had been platted, 
five miles square. As shown on Surveyor Pease's map, Cleveland Township 



[1798] THE FOUNDING 37 

appeared as a large, irregular tract of 25,242 acres, located in range 12, tiers 
7 and 8 (parts of East Cleveland, Cleveland and Newburgh townships) . 

To the early trail-blazers who kept history-making diaries and notes 
with painstaking care, some of them mere boys in their teens, Cleveland is 
greatly indebted. Enduring months of merciless weather, the rigors of the 
wilderness, privations of food and comfort, and malarial afflictions that 
cost the lives of several men, the Western Reserve was established, and soon 
adventuresome families would settle its fertile acres. 

On December 11, the Kingsbury s moved again, this time to a higher, 
healthier location away from the swamps — the ridge southeast of Cleveland 
(Woodhill Road) on the line from what became Doan's Corners (East 105th 
Street). This was the beginning of Newburgh — or Newburg — settlement. 
The move to the suburbs had begun. 

Jefferson County was created out of Washington County, the new district 
including the Western Reserve that lay east of the Cuyahoga and the old 
portage path, an Indian trail that led to the Tuscarawas River. Steubenville 
became the county seat. 

Colonization was taking hold on the Mahoning at Youngstown, Canfield, 
and Poland, and in other parts of the Reserve. Alexander Harper purchased 
16,000 acres, a township, and the settlement became Harpersfield. Likewise, 
isolated areas were being opened up by brave frontiersmen. 



1798 

The new survey of the Reserve having been completed, the land was 
divided among the stockholders of the Connecticut Land Company in 
January. Recognizing the pioneering spirit of the first settlers, the proprietors 
gave them land in compensation: To Tabitha Cumi Stiles, wife of the first 
settler, one city lot, a lo-acre lot, and a lOo-acre lot; to Anna Gun, wife of 
Elijah Gun, a lOo-acre lot; to the Kingsburys, a lOO-acre lot and an addi- 
tional 100 acres, honoring them as parents of the first white child born on 
the Western Reserve; to Nathaniel Doan, one city lot on which he was to 
reside as blacksmith. To those who would build grist-mills to provide flour 
for the settlers, bounties were offered. 

Narrow paths, marked by blazed trees, and a few old Indian trails con- 
stituted the highways. One led from Buffalo to Detroit along the lake, and 
another from the Ohio River, via the portage, to the mouth of the Cuyahoga, 
where the Indians had a ferry. Traders traveled between the French and 
English trading posts, and from their pack-horse stores the pioneers obtained 
goods and provisions. Families seeking new frontiers needed all the courage, 
self-reliance, and resourcefulness they could muster as they journeyed for 
months in heavy, springless wagons, behind plodding horses or oxen, along 
hazardous trails and across swollen streams, with danger lurking on every 
hand. 

The land-company's committee, appointed to "enquire into the expediency 



38 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1798] 

of laying and cutting out roads on the Reserve," recommended on January 
30 that a road be opened from the Pennsylvania line to Cleveland. Work 
began within a i&w months on the first recorded highway in the Western 
Reserve — the "Old Girdled Road." It passed through Conneaut, Sheffield, 
Plymouth, Austinburg, Harpersfield, Trumbull in Ashtabula County, thence 
to Thompson in Geauga County, and through Leroy and Concord in Lake 
County westward to Cleveland (Euclid Avenue). Its course was marked 
and its name was derived from encircling cuts or girdles through tree bark. 

Nathaniel Doan — or Doane, surveyor, opened Cleveland's first industrial 
plant, his blacksmith shop on the south side of Superior Street near Bank, 
on a lot granted to him by the land company. It was apparent that the 
company considered the services of a doctor, a lawyer, and a preacher dis- 
pensable; but a blacksmith they must have. Doan kept the company's 
pack-horses shod, and he also fashioned tools. 

During the late summer and fall, almost every person in the colony was 
attacked by fever and ague. There was no physician, and an infusion of 
barks was the only medicine. The families of Kingsbury and Gun, who 
fared better than the rest, gave untiring attention to the afflicted, supplying 
food and necessities. 

To escape the pestilence. Stiles moved his family out on the ridge near 
the Kingsbury home, and Elijah Gun followed. The Stiles, however, re- 
mained only a few years, then returned to the East. Cleveland's population 
was certainly on the down-grade. Joseph Landon and Stephen Gilbert, sur- 
veyors, returned, cleared ground, and sowed wheat. A cornfield of several 
acres had been planted by Lorenzo Carter on Water Street. The unhealthful 
"Flats" were soon abandoned to commerce and industry, and the upper 
lands were converted into farms. 

Samuel Mather, Jr., a member of the board of directors of the land com- 
pany, traveled on horseback to New Connecticut, visited Cleveland, and 
stopped at Carter's cabin. Upon his return to the East, he increased his 
property investments as evidence of his faith in the new territory. He was 
to be "the only stockholder whose family would be directly and in a large 
way identified with the history of Cleveland." 

Samuel Dodge, twenty-one, settled in Cleveland after his long journey 
from New Hampshire. He was the first carpenter. Nathan Chapman, who 
had supplied meat to the first surveying expedition, returned to make the 
settlement his home. 

Rodolphus — or Rudolphus — Edwards, a new arrival in the autumn, settled 
with his family on a 300-acre tract on Butternut Ridge (Woodland Hills, 
on Steinway Avenue west of Woodhill Road). Here he built a cabin east 
of the "fever and ague line." 

The claim is made that David Abbott built the first grist-mill on the 
Reserve in the fall (Willoughby). A mill at the forks of Indian Run, between 
Youngstown and Canfield, is also said to have been operating within the year. 

Turhand Kirtland, agent for the land company, was sent to Cleveland to 
investigate the lagging sale of land tracts. Although prices were reduced, 
it was difficult to interest buyers. Competition had arisen from rival com- 



[1799] THE FOUNDING 39 

panics, especially in central New York and southern Ohio, where markets 
and trade routes were available, land titles were clear, and government had 
been established. The sale of large holdings was being pushed by owners 
— state, federal, and private — and many new proprietors, unable to pay, 
barely escaped debtor's prison. The company's list of shareholders changed 
frequently. Shares were passed on to members of families and to others to 
ease the financial burden, and a complete list cannot be determined. 



1799 

Out on the Euclid Road, Nathaniel Doan bought land for a home at $1 per 
acre, and in January he built a cabin tavern (northwest corner of Euclid 
and East 107th, continuously serving hotel purposes, Fenway Hall site). He 
added a store, and served as justice of the peace, postmaster, and clergyman. 
The community needed saleratus, so Doan built a plant and started pro- 
duction. A blacksmith shop completed his group plan of buildings. Farms 
were prospering, and the new road from Doan's Corners to Newburgh was 
a popular thoroughfare. Doan died in his tavern in 1815. 

Warm weather came with February, and "pinks and other flowers 
bloomed." In the spring, William Wheeler Williams — also known as 
Wheeler W. Williams and William W. Williams — and Major Ezra Wyatt 
erected a combined sawmill and grist-mill, the first in the neighborhood and 
probably the third in the Western Reserve, on the Mill Creek falls (Broad- 
way near Warner Road), Williams had received as a bounty a loo-acre lot, 
the iron for the grist-mill, and $150 in money. Wyatt was the actual builder, 
and Williams was the owner and miller. Two great mill stones were labori- 
ously cut and shaped for them by David and Oilman Bryant, and it is said 
that they ground 20 bushels of wheat a day. Cleveland's manufacturing 
greatness had germinated. Now the laborious "stump mortar" method of 
milling grain into coarse meal could be forgotten in the "luxury of bolted 
flour" made from home-grown wheat. 

David Hudson, owner of a portion of the township that bore his name, 
and several companions, of Goshen, Connecticut, founded a settlement early 
in June that they called Hudson, honoring the pioneer. After surveying the 
land, building temporary log houses, and cutting roads, Hudson, two men, 
and his son departed for the East. New recruits joined Hudson and his 
family when they started back to the Reserve, arriving in May, 1800. Among 
them was Heman Oviatt, brother of Benjamin Oviatt, one of the original 
"proprietors" of the township, who opened a trading post. A log schoolhouse 
was built, with Oeorge Pease as the first teacher. A frame house erected by 
Hudson in 1806 was the first frame dwelling in what later became Summit 
County, The ancestral home was well preserved a century later in the quaint 
residential community that had cherished its traditions as a "bit of New 
England-in-the-west," unspoiled by industry. Hudson was incorporated as 
a village in 1837, 



40 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [l799] 

Ebenezer Sheldon and his family selected a site southeast of Cleveland 
in June for their wilderness home. When Major Amos SpafFord stopped at 
the Sheldon home the next year, they discussed the future of the area, and 
Sheldon proposed that this new settlement be called Aurora in honor of 
Spafford's daughter. The Taylor family were early settlers. 

New arrivals in Cleveland this year were Richard H. Blinn — or Blin — 
and a Mr. Gallup. The Hawleys had sought refuge out on the ridge with 
the other pioneers, and until April, 1800, the Carters were the only white 
family in Cleveland. There were now ten families in Newburgh, a hamlet 
that was given its start by ravenous Cleveland mosquitoes. The heights 
extended to Doan's Corners and the Buffalo Road. Soon a main highway 
and coach road opened to Pittsburgh (Broadway), and Newburgh looked 
forward to pre-eminent prosperity. From Mill Creek and the 40-foot "Cata- 
ract" falls could be developed the greatest water power in the frontier area. 
Curiously, citizens never decided conclusively upon the spelling of the 
village name, and for a century and a half Newburgh appeared with or 
without the "h." Likewise, Pittsburgh toyed with the "h" until the eighties, 
when it was adopted. The community had taken the population lead away 
from Cleveland, which was soon called "a small village six miles from 
Newburgh." 

Prosperous James Kingsbury hauled timbers for the first frame house in 
Newburgh to Williams' sawmill during the winter. A spring freshet, how- 
ever, carried away the dam, and the mill was shut down for a time. Deter- 
mined to finish his house, Kingsbury erected his own mill on Kingsbury's 
Run and completed the job. 

Three of the Kingsbury children and two of the Hawleys' became lost 
on their way from the Stiles home on Christmas Day. Lorenzo Carter, while 
on his way home from hunting, found them in a dark hollow. 



CHAPTER 3 



Stout-Hearted Men 
1800-1809 



CLEVELAND turned the century corner with little prospect of turn- 
ing another, her population having moved to Newburgh's healthier 
heights or back to the East. Only seven courageous souls were left in the 
trading-post settlement. 

The history of a city is the story of its people. Cleveland's early years 
were shaped by courageous men, the best that New England had to offer. 
The ability to swing an ax, outwit the cunning Indian, bring down game 
with a trusty rifle, and maintain equilibrium in spite of potent raw whisky, 
proved the mettle of the frontiersman. From the trees of the forest he built 
his cabin home, fashioned its furnishings and utensils, and secured his fuel. 
Having laboriously cleared a parcel of land and planted it with seeds from 
the homeland, a meager crop of essential foods and grains would result if 
the weather was favorable. Nothing was wasted; of necessity pioneer re- 
sourcefulness put everything to use. There was work for every member of 
the family. Clothing was the product of the spinning wheel or was made 
of the hide of an animal. Grain was pounded into meal before the advent 
of the grist-mill. Tallow candles and whale-oil lamps furnished illumination. 
Salt was a luxury that came from Onondaga or from Pittsburgh, and sold 
for $20 a barrel; but it could be secured at the "Salt Springs," nine miles 
west of Youngstown, by boiling down the saline waters. Wild honey and 
maple sugar were a great blessing to the homemaker. 

At the opening of the decade, the Western Reserve became established 
legally, and shortly afterward the State of Ohio was created. Indian tribes 
reluctantly gave up their claims to Ohio lands, and new proprietors assumed 
responsibility for their real-estate purchases in the Reserve. 

Trailways were widened to accommodate clumsy wagons making their 
way to the frontier, and new roads were planned. Mail service was inaugu- 
rated, bringing the outside world a little closer to Cleveland. The port on 
the Cuyahoga was officially opened when Lorenzo Carter built the first 
schooner for lake trading, launching Cleveland's shipbuilding industry. 

An iron furnace was established near Youngstown, and the roots of in- 
dustry found fertile soil in the territory that was to become a great industrial 
empire. 

Suveyor Spafford refined his earlier map of Cleveland as the foundation 
for future real-estate development. Although the land west of the Cuyahoga 

41 



42 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 

River had not been opened for setdement, a few adventuresome families 
moved into the wilderness, one of them Negro. 

During this period, the first schoolhouse opened on the Reserve, and 
private classes were organized in Newburgh and in Carter's cabin in 
Cleveland. 

While it is generally understood that the pioneers were endowed with 
courage, hospitality, and frontier chivalry, the law was needed in Cleveland, 
as elsewhere. In New England, the church and state were closely connected; 
political and religious castes dominated society. The first emigrants were 
mostly men desiring to escape from the old conservatism; and fired by a 
wave of land speculation that was sweeping the East, a relaxing of moral 
influences no doubt resulted. At any rate, missionary observations declared 
emphatically that "some were much inclined to infidelity," "were careless 
about religious aflfairs" and "appear very stupid." Living on a high, moral 
plane, the spiritual ambassador's judgment meant that "all that which was 
not directly religious needed his condemnation." He did not seem to take 
into account the fact that the pioneers "came here to improve their fortunes 
and not to spread the gospel." 

Early-day families cherished a home library that consisted of the Bible, 
an almanac, and perhaps Pilgrim's Progress; but they were careful to put 
aside their reading when an Indian carne to visit. The tribesmen believed 
that books inspired the white men to claim their lands; and the report that 
a settler had been seen with a volume had been known to create an up- 
rising. 

In order to carry the gospel to Congregationalists and Presbyterians who 
were building hewn-log outposts in the Western Reserve, the Connecticut 
Missionary Society raised money and secured missionaries, and the New 
York Presbytery provided the administration by which churches were estab- 
lished. The Rev. Joseph Badger, Congregational minister and Revolutionary 
War veteran, was the first missionary on the Reserve and the first to repre- 
sent this famous Plan of Union. 

Leaving the refinements of comfortable home life in the East, frontier 
women were called upon to endure not only a primitive domestic life in 
crude cabin homes, but they endured the stern pioneer fathers as well. 
Economic problems were narrowed to a lonely struggle against Nature for 
existence; and devoting themselves wholeheartedly to the care of their large 
families, they went bravely on. Meals were prepared from coarse foods, and 
venison and game were roasted on a spit before the open fire. Clothes were 
made from animal hides or homespun, produced patiently at the spinning 
wheel. Neighbors were few and far between, and there was a longing for 
the community life that had been enjoyed back home. Friendly Indians, 
however, often invited themselves in to enjoy the fireside, and perhaps to 
catch a nap, with quiet indifference to household affairs. Somehow there 
was time to pass along to the children fragmentary and elementary bits of 
learning from memory or from a few well-thumbed books. At dusk, the 
tired pioneer mother put her little brood to sleep in homemade beds o£ 



[l8oo] STOUT-HEARTED MEN 43 

round spruce poles bound with elm bark. Tomorrow would be just an- 
other day. 

As the decade closed, there were unmistakable signs that Cleveland was 
assuming the stature of a village as a handful of stout-hearted men molded 
its destiny upon a foundation of New England character and culture. 



1800 

Sarah Doan, daughter of Nathaniel Doan, was the teacher of the first 
school in Newburgh (9213 Miles Avenue). Books were scarce. Letters of 
the alphabet were pasted on one side of a wooden paddle, the multiplication 
table on the other, and it was passed from hand to hand for study. Pay of 
$10 a month in produce was considered excellent. 

On April 28, President John Adams signed the bill by which New Con- 
necticut — the Western Reserve — came under jurisdiction of the United States, 
at the same time establishing the validity of Connecticut land title. 

By Act of Congress, the Northwest Territory was divided on May 7 by 
a line running due north from the Kentucky River mouth. The eastern 
division retained the name of the Northwest Territory, with Chillicothe as 
the capital, and the western division became the Territory of Indiana. 

Trumbull County was created on July 10 and named for Jonathan Trum- 
bull, the governor of Connecticut. It included the Western Reserve, the 
"Fire Lands" and Sandusky islands, and Warren was chosen as the county 
seat. A larger population and the preponderance of Federalists there, it is 
said, dictated the selection, inciting the bitterness of Cleveland and Youngs- 
town at having been rejected. The few settlers, however, had little time for 
the weighty matters of government. They were far too busy building cabins 
and clearing lands for farms. 

At the first Court of Quarter Sessions of Trumbull County, held between 
Ephraim Quinby's corn cribs in Warren, August 25, James Kingsbury of 
Cleveland was appointed judge by General St. Clair, governor of the 
territory. The court, said to be the first formal governmental agency to be 
established in the Western Reserve, was attended by five justices of the 
quorum, namely, John Young, Turhand Kirtland, Camden Cleaveland — a 
brother of Moses Cleaveland, James Kingsbury, Eliphalet Austin, and their 
associates, justices of the peace. In their hands rested the entire civil juris- 
diction of the county. 

At the five-day court session, Amos Spaflford, David Hudson, Simon 
Perkins, John Minor, Aaron Wheeler, Edward Paine, and Benjamin David- 
son were appointed to divide Trumbull County into townships, establishing 
Hmits and boundaries. Accordingly, eight townships were created: Warren, 
Youngstown, Hudson, Vernon, Richfield, Middlefield, Painesville, and 
Cleveland, the latter embracing the area east of the Cuyahoga River (later 
Cuyahoga County), all of the Indian country from the river to the west line 



44 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1800] 

of the Reserve, and Chester, Russell, and Bainbridge (in Geauga County), 

A committee of the court chose a room in Quinby's log house as tem- 
porary jail quarters for the county, and made him the jailer. During the 
earlier years there had been no form of local government, either civil or 
military. In Cleveland, Lorenzo Carter was the "law" to Indians and whites 
aUke. He and Stephen Gilbert were appointed the first constables for Cleve- 
land Township. 

The first resident physician on the Reserve was Dr. Moses Thompson, 
twenty-four, who settled at Hudson in the summer. He had studied under 
the best doctors in Connecticut. His practice extended over the wide area 
from Lake Erie to Coshocton, and he traveled on horseback. For his liveli- 
hood, however, he turned to his farm and his dairy. Here the vast cheese- 
making industry in Summit, Trumbull, Geauga, and Ashtabula counties 
had its beginning. 

Amos Spafford and David Clark, surveyors, who had brought their fam- 
ilies from Vermont, were joined by Lorenzo Carter in protest to Judge 
Turhand Kirtland against the high price of Cleveland lots. All things con- 
sidered, the judge recommended a reduction, which before long was set at 
$25 per lot with time to pay. Clark built on the west side of Water Street, 
and later opened a store. Samuel Jones and Alexander Campbell, who erected 
a crude trading post and did business with the Indians, were also new- 
comers this year. 

Pioneers found a ready market for superfluous grain. Fermentation prod- 
ucts and liquor were produced in the first distillery, a second-hand plant 
brought from Virginia in the fall by David and Gilman Bryant. They 
operated their "still" along the edge of the Cuyahoga at the foot of Superior 
Street. The capacity was two quarts of raw spirits a day. This potent product 
served as an essential commodity in the household for medicinal purposes, 
as coin in commerce and trade, and as a pacifying influence over uneasy 
Indians. 

Riding into the colony from Charlton (Willoughby) on October 7, Samuel 
Huntington, thirty-four, nephew of Samuel Huntington, signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, found three families in Cleveland. After a 
short expedition by boat along the lake, he departed for Marietta, where 
meetings were held with Governor Arthur St. Clair and authorities of the 
Northwest Territory. Returning to Connecticut, he made plans to bring 
his family to Cleveland. 

A settlement consisted of isolated farms, and strong township govern- 
ment was not possible for some time. The sheriff and local officials, appointed 
by the governor, conducted the business of the county. By Governor St. 
Clair's order, the first election was held in the Reserve at Warren on October 
14, under the territorial system, to determine a representative from Trum- 
bull County to the Territorial Legislature. The sheriff of the county, assem- 
bling the electors by proclamation, presided, and counted forty-two votes of 
the electors. Of these, Edward Paine received thirty-eight and was declared 
elected. 



[l8oi] STOUT-HEARTED MEN 45 

180I 

The first schoolhouse in the Western Reserve was built at Warren, a small, 
single-story, log structure, with one door and five greased-paper windows. A 
fireplace provided too much heat for some pupils and too little for others. 
Students sat on benches facing the wall, and a shelf ran around the room 
on which they propped their few books. When called upon to recite, the 
scholar whirled about and responded, reversing the process when finished. 
William H. McGufley applied for a teaching position in this school when 
he had completed college, but was rejected when he failed to pass the exam- 
ination. His chagrin, he said later, was an incentive to further study that 
led to his success as a great educator. 

Timothy Doan, brother of Nathaniel Doan, brought his family from 
Herkimer County, New York, to Euclid in the spring. He purchased 320 
acres of land for a little more than $1 an acre. The Doans' new log house was 
ready in November. For several years the children's only playmates were 
Indians camped nearby. 

In the early summer, Samuel Huntington's party traveled by oxcart from 
Connecticut to Cleveland. Amos Spafford built for Huntington a pretentious 
blockhouse on the bluff, south of Superior (overlooking Erie Depot) . While 
he was a lawyer, the profession in these early days could not be lucrative, 
with county court at a distance and few litigants. Soon after Huntington's 
arrival. Governor St. Clair appointed him lieutenant colonel of the Trum- 
bull County Militia, in command of the Reserve's territorial troops. 

A mail route was established in the Western Reserve, extending from 
Pittsburgh to Warren, via Youngstown. Fortnightly deliveries were made on 
foot through the dense forests. 

Elisha Norton opened a store in Carter's cabin, where Indian squaws 
traded for gaudy yard-goods and trinkets, while the warriors narrowed their 
wants to whisky. 

The Rev. William Wick, thirty-three-year-old Presbyterian missionary, 
began his ministry to a newly organized congregation at Youngstown, Ohio, 
on July I. This was the beginning of the First Presbyterian Church, the 
first church body on the Western Reserve; and in 1946, it continued to serve 
under its original name. A "preacher of considerable force, somewhat more 
polished than most of his brethren," Rev. Wick rose to positions of leader- 
ship in the denomination. He was "the first permanent laborer" on the 
Reserve, dividing his time with the Hopewell church until his death at the 
age of forty-seven. 

The Fourth of July was celebrated with the first "grand ball," held in 
Carter's cabin "under the hill." The ehte of the community were there: 
twelve women and twenty men, dancing to the rhythm of Samuel Jones' 
squeaky fiddle, the first violin brought to Cleveland, A beverage of maple 
sugar, hot water, and whisky refreshed the merry-makers and limbered the 



46 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1801] 

fiddler's elbow. Powder horns, rifles, and shotguns adorned the ballroom. In 
a letter written by Gilman Bryant, dated in 1857, he gives an entertaining 
account of that memorable evening: 

I waited on Miss Doan, who had just arrived at the Corners, four miles east 
of town. I was then about seventeen years of age, and Miss Doan about four- 
teen. I was dressed in the then style — a gingham suit — my hair queued with 
one and a half yards of black ribbon, about as long and as thick as a corn- 
cob, with a little tuft at the lower end; and for the want of pomatum, I had 
a piece of candle rubbed on my hair, and then as much flour sprinkled on, 
as could stay without falling off. I had a good wool hat, and a pair of 
brogans that would help to play "Fisher's Hornpipe," or "Hie, Bettie 
Martin," when I danced. When I went for Miss Doan I took an old horse; 
when she was ready I rode up to a stump near the cabin, she mounted the 
stump and spread her under petticoat on "old Tib" behind me, secured 
her calico dress to keep it clean, and then mounted on behind me. I had a 
fine time! 

The Rev. Joseph Badger, a Congregationalist minister, had come to the 
Western Reserve as the first missionary late in 1800. He traveled on horse- 
back, preaching and praying with families and such groups as would assem- 
ble to hear him, bringing the gospel to Cleveland on August i8, when he 
lodged with Lorenzo Carter. After a time he moved on. During the year, 
he presented a petition to the "General Assembly of the Territory of the 
United States Northwest of the River Ohio" asking that a charter be granted 
for a college to be located in the Reserve; but there was not enough enthu- 
siasm to plant a new Yale in New Connecticut, and the petition was denied. 

Samuel Dodge built the first frame barn in Cleveland, 30 by 40 feet, for 
Samuel Huntington, in back of the lawyer's house on Superior near Bank 
Street. Huntington could not pay for it at the time, and he deeded to Dodge 
a 20-acre strip of land bordering on the Buffalo Road (Euclid on both sides 
of East 17th). 

The first Congregational church on the Reserve was organized by the 
Rev. Joseph Badger at Austinburg, Ohio, on October 24. In the following 
February, he and his family set out from New England by wagon, com- 
pleting the journey to their new home in sixty days. Eliphalet Austin, village 
founder, and Badger's devoted wife, Sibyl, were of tremendous help to the 
clergyman in estaWishing his missionary headquarters. On a salary of seven 
dollars a week paid by eastern sponsors, and later reduced to six dollars. 
Badger rode his circuit, organizing churches and schools and ministering 
to the pioneers. After a time, his work was directed to the Indians along the 
Maumee River, with no provision for a missionary to take his place in the 
Reserve. Taking the task upon herself, Mrs. Austin courageously headed 
eastward on horseback, pushing alone for four weeks through the forests. 
In time, she returned with the Rev. Giles H. Cowles and his family, and a 
notable pastorate of twenty-one years began that was the foundation of the 



[l802] STOUT-HEARTED MEN 47 

deeply rooted First Congregational Church, which grew up with the 
Reserve. 

Cleveland's streets and lanes were re-surveyed by Amos Spafford in No- 
vember, and the principal corners were marked with oak posts. His new 
map became the official early-Cleveland authority for fixing the lot and street 
lines and determining land titles. 

In a letter to Moses Cleaveland dated November 15, Samuel Huntington 
wrote o£ his migration to Cleveland from Connecticut: "I have moved my 
Patriarchal Caravan through the wilderness to this Canaan. I was nine days 
on the Journey, with two Waggons, ten oxen, three horses, seven Cows and 
eighteen persons in my Retinue. We slept seven nights in the open air (after 
leaving the settlements in New York State)." A significant statement ap- 
pears later: "We have now here about 200 Indians going up the Cuyahoga 
, . . They have a jealousy of my coming here, owing to a story that has been 
propagated amongst them, that I am raising Soldiers to drive them out of 
the country. I have had a great number of Workmen here who they think 
are Soldiers in Disguise." 



1802 



Aside from financial interests in their Western Reserve holdings, the new 
proprietors exerted practically no direct influence over the region except to 
give their names to townships and towns. Elbert Jay Benton in the Cultural 
Story of an American City — Cleveland observes: 

They undoubtedly represented the wealth and culture of Connecticut . . . 
Sixty -five of the proprietors of 1802, 33 percent, were alumni of Yale Col- 
lege, not to forget two graduates of Harvard College and one from the Col- 
lege of New Jersey. But it was culture transmitted indirectly, through mem- 
bers of their families, and over a long time. The company missed every 
opportunity to stamp on the record any direct cultural influence. In South- 
ern Ohio the Ohio Company at Marietta and the Symmes interests on the 
Miami had made the promotion of religion and education and free labor a 
part of the company's objectives. The Connecticut Company assumed that 
these matters would be taken care of by the settlers. 

The Ohio Compact of 1802, however, encouraged settlement, and gave 
to the Western Reserve pioneers educational assistance comparable with 
that given earlier to settlements in the southern part of the State. From the 
sale of public lands, 5 per cent of the receipts were to be spent by the Fed- 
eral Government on road-building; and in each township a section of land 
was to be set aside for school purposes. In return, purchasers of public lands 
were to be exempt from taxation for five years. 

The first election in Cleveland Township, ordered by the Trumbull 



48 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1802] 

County Court of Quarter Sessions, was held at James Kingsbury's home on 
April 5. Officers chosen were Rodolphus Edwards, chairman; Nathaniel 
Doan, town clerk; Amos SpafTord, Timothy Doan, and William W. Wil- 
liams, trustees; Samuel Hamilton and EUjah Gun, appraisers of houses; 
Ebenezer Ayrs, lister; Samuel Huntington, Nathaniel Doan, and Samuel 
Hamilton, supervisors of highways; William W. Williams and Samuel 
Huntington, overseers of the poor; Lorenzo Carter and Nathan Chapman, 
fence viewers; Ezekiel Hawley and Richard Craw, constables. 

On April 30, Congress authorized a convention to form a state constitu- 
tion for Ohio, if it were the will of the people to seek admission to the 
Union. Samuel Huntington of Cleveland and David Abbott of Charlton 
(Willoughby) represented Trumbull County at Chillicothe, where the con- 
vention opened on November i. On the 29th, Ohio's constitution was 
adopted, with power vested in the people. Some historians declare that Ohio 
became part of the Union on this latter date. Voters were required to pay 
road tax, which could be paid by work. 

Arthur St. Clair, governor of the Northwest Territory, had lost much of 
his popularity by maintaining staunch opposition to statehood. He con- 
tended that the pioneers were neither capable nor worthy of self-government, 
and at the same time he realized that such achievement meant the end of 
his position as territorial head. His pro-state adversaries had sought his 
removal from office for some time; but although President Jefferson recog- 
nized the potential strength of the proposed state, if admitted under the 
Republican banner, he refused to unseat the governor. It was to be expected, 
therefore, that when St. Clair rode into Chillicothe astride a good horse and 
dressed in regimental finery, he would receive only brief courtesy. With 
Jefferson's sanction, the governor addressed the convention, uttering remarks 
that ultimately forced the chief executive to dismiss him. Once a dashing 
British officer, St. Clair was now a broken, impoverished old man. He re- 
tired to Pennsylvania, where he died in 1818. 

Ezekiel Hawley, constable, reported the first census of Cleveland Town- 
ship on June 3: seventy-six free male inhabitants of twenty-one or over. 
Apparently women and children were considered unimportant in the count. 
Travel on the Buffalo — or Euclid — Road (Euclid Avenue) was hazardous. 
Ruts and stumps obstructed the oxcart trail that led to Buffalo, and wild 
animals roamed its borders. A swamp covered a large area (Euclid to Scovill 
and East 40th to East 55th). It is said that Samuel Huntington was making 
his way through the swampy forest one night on horseback, when a wolf 
pack attacked him. Beating frantically with his umbrella and urging his 
horse to top speed, he was able to outdistance the ravenous beasts and reach 
the village in safety. 

In a report to the Connecticut Land Company, Samuel Huntington stated 
that the Williams grist-mill, in operation for about three years, was not 
serving the community properly. It is interesting to note that he purchased 
the land on which the dam and mill were located, and probably the mill, 
also, and from that time the Newburgh establishment became an important 
factor in pioneer living. 



[l802] STOUT-HEARTED MEN ^ 

A medicine man, variously called Menompsy, Nobsy, Menobsy or Men- 
opsy, of the Chippewa or Ottawa tribe, was stabbed to death in 1802 or 1803 
by Big Son, a Seneca, to avenge the death of his squaw who failed to recover 
despite the "healer's" ministrations. "Fire water" is said to have figured 
prominently in the first murder in the village, and Cleveland came close to 
real trouble with the Indians. The opposing tribesmen demanded that Big 
Son be surrendered to them, and only Lorenzo Carter's negotiations, forti- 
fied with whisky and eloquence, restored peace. 

Cleveland's first school was held in Carter's "front room." Here Anna 
Spafford instructed the youngsters of the settlement in the simplest forms of 
book knowledge. 

Upon payment of four dollars, Lorenzo Carter and Amos Spafford were 
each licensed by the court at Warren in August to keep a tavern. In Septem- 
ber, Carter purchased 23^ acres of land — 12 acres fronting on St. Clair 
(east of West 9th), and an irregular parcel on Superior Street, Union Lane, 
and the river. Here he built the first frame house in Cleveland on the hill 
west of Water Street and north of Superior Lane. When it was almost 
finished, fire destroyed it, and on the site Carter erected a blockhouse the 
same year. This was the famous Carter Tavern. A spacious living room, 
kitchen, and two bedrooms constituted the first floor, with a large chimney 
in the center. Several rooms and an attic were upstairs. With lumber from 
Detroit, a local carpenter built furniture for the first hotel in Cleveland. 

Returning from his missionary journey to Detroit in the fall of 1801, the 
Rev. Joseph Badger had stopped at Hudson, Ohio, "where he found material 
from which to organize a church." In September, 1802, he organized the 
First Congregational Church with a charter membership of thirteen, headed 
by David Hudson. It was the second Congregational church on the Western 
Reserve. 

Expansion to the east is reflected in the disposition of a 1,200-acre virgin- 
forest tract (centering at about the southwest corner of Euclid and East 71st) 
purchased this year by a syndicate for $13,333. Four years later, 105 acres 
were sold for $330; and in 1818, 72 acres brought $114. Forty-one acres were 
sold in 1832 for $431. At a foreclosure sale in 1850, Thomas Bolton purchased 
145 acres for $11,675, and this land became the Bolton estate. About 9 acres 
(corner of Euclid and East 71st) changed hands in 1917 for over $350,000. 

In order that all the Western Reserve property should be in private hands, 
a draft was made of the six reserved townships on December 28. Ninety-six 
parcels constituted all these lands east of the Cuyahoga, except a few city 
lots in Cleveland. The original owners of Cleveland lots by draft, or first 
purchase, included Samuel Huntington, Caleb Atwater, Lorenzo Carter, 
Ephraim Root, Elijah Boardman and others, Ezekiel Hawley, David Clark, 
Joseph Howland, Charles Dutton, James Kingsbury, Samuel W. Phelps, 
Joseph Perkins and others, Austin & Huntington, Wyles and others, Judson 
Canfield and others, Samuel P. Lord, Jr., William Shaw, Samuel Parkman, 
John Bolls and others, Asher Miller, Ephraim Stow and others, Martin 
Sheldon and others, Amos Spaflord, Oliver Phelps, and Richard W. Hart 
and others. 



50 Cleveland: the making of a city [1803] 



1803 

On February 19, Congress declared that the eastern portion of the North- 
west Territory, south of Lake Erie, had become Ohio, the seventeenth state 
of the Union, by virtue of its adoption of a constitution. This broke up the 
Territory. The first General Assembly met on March i, and Edward Tiffin 
of ChilHcothe became governor. Samuel Huntington of Cleveland, senator 
from Trumbull County and first president of the Ohio Legislature, took his 
seat as one of the first judges of the Supreme Court. At the same time, he 
was supervisor of highways. 

James Kingsbury's home was chosen as election headquarters for a town- 
ship meeting in the spring. The results were Amos Spaflord, chairman; 
Nathaniel Doan, town clerk; Amos SpafFord, James Kingsbury, and Tim- 
othy Doan, trustees; James Kingsbury and James Hamilton, overseers of the 
poor; Rodolphus Edwards, Ezekiel Hawley, and Amos Spaflord, fence 
viewers; Elijah Gun and Samuel Huntington, appraisers of houses; James 
Kingsbury, lister; William Elivin, James Kingsbury, and Timothy Doan, 
supervisors of highways, and Rodolphus Edwards, constable. Twenty-one 
votes were cast in Cleveland's first election after Ohio became a state. 

The electors met again in June at Kingsbury's residence and chose Amos 
Spafford and Timothy Doan as the first justices of the peace. 

The Pittsburgh- Warren mail route was extended to Cleveland, via Austin- 
burg and Painesville, returning via Hudson and Tappanville (Ravenna). 
Bold carriers, such as Joseph Burke and his two sons, traveled the 150-mile 
route in ten days to two weeks, bringing news from New York. These post- 
men braved Indian trails, dense forests, and swollen streams on foot. 

John Walworth, prominent farmer in Painesville Township, was one of 
the founders of the first Masonic lodge in northern Ohio, organized at 
Warren. 

Meeting again at Kingsbury's home on October 11, the township voters 
elected Benjamin Tappan, senator, and David Abbott and Ephraim Quinby, 
representatives in the General Assembly. 

The Legislature granted to the Erie Literary Society a charter for an acad- 
emy at Burton for the "education of pious, indigent young men for the 
ministry" in the Presbyterian and Congregational churches. Sponsors and 
trustees lived in all parts of the Western Reserve, including John Walworth 
from Painesville Township and the Rev. Joseph Badger, who had failed 
to secure a charter in 1801. The Seminary of Learning was launched in 1805 
in its building on the square in Burton. It was ahead of its time, however, 
and support was inadequate. Fire destroyed the building in 1810; and al- 
though it was rebuilt ten years later, the project was not considered successful 
and was abandoned in a few years. 

Newcomers to Euclid Township were John Shaw, Thomas Mcllrath, John 
Ruple, Garrett Thorp, and William Coleman. The next year Shaw brought 



[1804] STOUT-HEARTED MEN 5] 

his bride, Sarah Mcllrath Shaw, to hve on the tract that he had purchased 
(north of EucHd and east of Shaw Avenues, East Cleveland). While John 
Shaw farmed for a living, he was a firm believer in education, and taught 
school part of the time. His wife's consuming passion was the church; and 
having inherited considerable money, she gave to charity with a sympathetic 
understanding. 

In the wilderness east of Cleveland (northwest corner of Euclid and Su- 
perior), Alexander Mcllrath established a tavern and a general store. His 
brother, Abner, enlarged it in the thirties, and it became the social center 
of the community, pioneers coming from miles around to take part in coon 
hunts and "pigeon shoots." Early Clevelanders recall that a bear was kept 
chained to a tree outside the hostelry. The Mcllrath Tavern was torn down 
in i8qo. 



1804 

Not long before, Missionary Thomas Robbins had denounced the people 
of Cleveland as "rather loose in principles and conduct." Religious convic- 
tion had taken root, however, as evidenced by a pledge of the people of five 
townships : 

We do by these presents bind ourselves, our heirs, executors, and administra- 
tors firmly, to pay the sums annexed to each of our names, without fraud 
or delay, for the term of three years, to the Rev. Giles Cowles, the pay to 
be made in wheat, rye, corn, oats, potatoes, mess-pork, whisky, etc., the 
produce of farms, as shall be needed by the said Mr. Cowles and family, to- 
gether with chopping, logging, fencing, etc. We agree, likewise, should any 
contribute anything within said term of three years toward the support of 
the said Mr. Cowles, it shall be deducted according to the sum annexed to 
each man's name. We likewise agree that the preaching in each town shall 
be in proportion to what each town subscribes for said preaching. 

Cash was scarce, but these earnest folk had assured the minister to their 
spiritual needs that "thou shalt not want." 

A "town tax" of $10 was ordered at the April town meeting. 

Early in the year. Captain Elijah Wads worth of Canfield was appointed 
in charge of the fourth division of the Ohio Militia, constituting northeast- 
ern Ohio. On May 7, Cleveland's first military company, officially the second 
brigade of the fourth division, was organized. Lorenzo Carter was elected 
captain; Nathaniel Doan, lieutenant; and Samuel Jones, ensign. The little 
village felt safer from the threat of British invasion and Indian attack, as 
the little company marched to the spirited rhythm of fife and drum, relics 
of Revolutionary days. In August, Carter became a major. 

Oliver Culver, surveyor, arrived in Cleveland with a boatload of salt^ dry 



52 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [ 1^05 J 

goods, liquors, tobacco, and merchandise with which he opened a store. 
Transportation from Black Rock (near BufFalo), where he embarked, was 
three dollars per barrel. In a short time he left the settlement. 



1805 

Historic Indian trails joined east of Cleveland and were still in use (Euclid 
and East 107th, where a large boulder marking the junction was dedicated 
on the lawn of the Western Reserve Historical Society's former building, 
November 10, 1938). The Lake Shore Trail (following Euclid Avenue) 
crossed the Mahoning Trail, which led from the lakeshore inland (to Niles, 
Ohio). 

Free trade with Canada no longer existed, when the collection district of 
Erie was established. John Walworth of Painesville Township was appointed 
collector of the port at the mouth of the Cuyahoga. Two landings were pro- 
vided for transportation by water, which was carried on in open boats, 
sturdy, well-built bateaux that bravely weathered the fiercest gale. At the 
foot of Vineyard Lane was the "upper landing" for up-river business. Lake 
trade used the "lower landing," where Mandrake and Union lanes came to 
the river (St. Clair Avenue). 

Missionary labors of the Shakers, "the United Society of Believers in 
Christ's Second Appearing," began in Ohio in Warren County, The mem- 
bers were known for their religious zeal, evidenced in their occupational life, 
along with strong co-operative methods of a communal character. They 
were spiritualists, who believed in the equality of the sexes and forbade mar- 
riage. Strong passions, deep convictions, and rigid beliefs characterized these 
simple folk, who at times showed marked indifference to laws not of their 
making. They were called Shakers or Jerkers, for in their religious frenzy 
they jerked their bodies violently in strange ecstasy. Severely plain dress was 
prescribed, and for the most part the Shakers were farmers, cabinet-makers, 
and weavers. Unfortunate children were gathered in and reared as Shakers. 

Elisha Norton became Cleveland's first postmaster on April i, upon com- 
mission of Gideon Granger, seventh United States Postmaster General. 
Granger was interested in lands west of the Cuyahoga River, and when 
visiting Cleveland this year, he prophesied that "within fifty years an ex- 
tensive city will occupy these grounds and vessels will sail directly from this 
point into the Atlantic Ocean." This was one of the earliest predictions 
looking toward the Great Lakes-to-the-sea movement. 

Indians regarded a total eclipse of the sun on June 16 as an expression of 
the Great Spirit's displeasure that they were about to relinquish their lands 
to the white men. 

David Abbott built the Cuyahoga Packet on the Chagrin River (Wil- 
loughby), a 20-ton schooner that sailed the lake until it was captured by the 
British. 

Samuel Huntington, a man of influence, moved from his aristocratic log 



[l8o6] STOUT-HEARTED MEN 53 

house and took up residence at the Newburgh mill. The ever-present threat 
of malaria from the swampy Cleveland lowlands may have prompted the 
change. He moved to Painesville Township shortly afterward. 

Indian tribes west of the Cuyahoga were summoned to Fort Industry on 
the Maumee River (Toledo) to attend a council of several days. Colonel 
Charles Jewet, commissioner of the United States, General Henry Champion 
of the Connecticut Land Company, and I. Mills of the Fire Lands Company 
conducted the council. On July 4, the Indians signed away title to lands in 
northwestern Ohio, whereby they were to receive from the government an 
annual payment of $13,760 forever. Money to close the transaction was 
brought from Pittsburgh through Warren and Cleveland by Lyman Potter, 
Josiah W. Brown, John Lane, James Staunton, Major Lorenzo Carter, and 
Jonathan Church. A barrel of whisky was opened to celebrate the signing of 
the treaty. It is said that the Indians parted with their lands reluctantly, and 
many of them wept. 

At about this time, Charles Miles, Sr., arrived in Newburgh from Hudson, 
where he had purchased a large tract. There were six sons, the "Miles 
brothers." Samuel and Theodore operated a general store at Superior and 
Seneca streets, the latter being a prominent citizen in Newburgh Township 
for many years. The second son, Erastus, married Laura, daughter of Lo- 
renzo Carter, and they lived at Carter's Tavern in Cleveland until the pio- 
neer's death in 1814. 

With lumber sawed in his mill, James Kingsbury began building a 
frame house in Newburgh. Chimney bricks were made on his land. In the 
large room upstairs, dances were held, and the Cleveland Masonic lodge 
met here, Kingsbury being a devoted member. The new apple orchard com- 
menced to bear the next year. 

On December 31, the State Legislature created Geauga County from a 
part of Trumbull County, including lands which later became Cuyahoga 
County. A Court of Common Pleas and a Board of County Commissioners 
were established. 



1806 

John Walworth became postmaster of Cleveland on January i. Postal 
receipts during the first quarter of the year amounted to $2.83. The first 
Post Office was located in the upper part of a frame building on the north 
side of Superior Street near Water Street. In April, the Walworth family 
moved to Cleveland from Painesville Township. Judge Samuel Hunting- 
ton had become interested in Walworth's holdings of a vast tract on the 
Grand River. A trade was arranged in 1807 whereby the judge exchanged 
his 300 acres between Huron and Erie streets and the river, where he had a 
farm, for the Grand River property. During this year. President Jefferson 
appointed Walworth inspector of revenue for the port of Cuyahoga, and 
Governor Tiffin made him associate judge of the Court of Common Pleas 



54 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1806] 

for a seven-year term "if he shall so long behave well." Walworth's small 
frame office on Superior Street (parking lot west of Hotel Cleveland) thus 
housed the city, county, and federal authority in Cleveland, and later the 
only attorney and physician occupied space there. His name is perpetuated 
in Cleveland streets and in Walworth Run, where he had a farm. 

In a spring storm, a jailing vessel foundered off shore (Lakewood), and 
the only survivor was Ben, a fugitive slave. Major Carter, who did not be- 
lieve in slavery, nursed him back to health, but could not legally resist the 
Negro's two owners who eventually arrived from Pittsburgh to take him 
back. The three started out on horseback, and in the hills (Independence) 
two woodsmen, said to be Carter's men, halted them, and ordered Ben to 
dismount and go his way. After seeking refuge in the forest for a time, the 
Negro escaped safely to Canada. This might be termed Cleveland's first 
social case record. 

A bounty of $400 was paid to James and Daniel Heaton for the erection 
of the first iron furnace in the Reserve, on the Mahoning River, a short dis- 
tance northwest of Youngstown on the site of Niles, where bog iron ore 
was available. The ability of pioneers to purchase stoves, large kettles and 
cast articles for home use from local factories stimulated settlement of the 
area. 

Samuel Cozad, Jr., came to Cleveland with his family and built their 
cabin on land extending east from Doan's Corners (Adelbert College site to 
Lake View Cemetery). His sons acquired property on the north side of 
Euclid (including Wade Park). Samuel III built his home on a loo-acre 
tract (beginning at Euclid and East 107th). As a young man, Cozad's son, 
Newell Samuel, determined that some day a portion of the beautiful wood- 
land should be preserved in its natural state as a park. For years he labored 
diligently, until financial reverses overcame him; yet he lived to see Jeptha 
H. Wade make Wade Park a reality. 

The Connecticut Land Company employed Abraham Tappan — or Tap- 
pen — and others to survey the land west of the river, as well as that lying 
beyond (Elyria and Lorain and slightly westward). 

Aside from that gleaned from the family's few treasured volumes, such 
elementary education as could be had by the young was provided in a hand- 
ful of private schools of the kind launched this year in October by ambitious 
Asael Adams, twenty, of Canterbury, Connecticut. In a log house near the 
foot of Superior Street he commenced to fulfill his contract, whereby he 
was to earn ten dollars a month, "to be paid in money or wheat at the mar- 
ket price, whenever such time may be that the school doth end," provided 
the citizens supplied benches and sufficient fire-wood for comfort. He 
further agreed "to keep six hours in each day, and to keep good order." 
Samuel Huntington, James Kingsbury, W. W. Williams, George Kilbourne, 
Susannah Hammil, Elijah Gun, and David Kellogg were among his patrons. 

A continuous shifting of the earth's upper strata, and the encroachment 
of the lake upon the shore in the vicinity of Cleveland is illustrated by an 
event recorded by Colonel Charles Whittlesey in the Early History of Cleve- 
land, published in 1867: 



[l8o6] STOUT-HEARTED MEN 55 

In 1806 or 1807, Amos Spafford sent his hired man, with a yoke of oxen to 
plow a patch of ground on the margin of the lake, which must have been 
not far from the Marine Hospital (then at the foot of E. 12th). At noon, 
the man chained his team to a tree, fed them, and went home to dinner. 
Returning in the afternoon, his oxen were no where to be seen. Proceeding 
to the edge of the bank, the man discovered them still attached to the tree, 
quietly chewing their cuds, but the ground on which they stood had sank 
between twenty and thirty feet, carrying with it some of the new furrows, 
the trees and the oxen. Thus a belt of land about twelve and one half rods 
in width — nearly 200 feet — was lost, along the entire front of the city. 

Whittlesey, a geologist, estimated that at this rate the lake would have under- 
mined the Public Square in about five hundred years. 

As early as 1796, Nathan Perry, Sr., had come to Ohio and purchased 
1,000 acres of land at 50 cents an acre (in Lake County). He now bought 
two parcels in Cleveland (five acres bounded by Superior, St. Clair, West 
6th, and West 9th; and a larger tract later known as the Horace Perry farm 
at Broadway and East 22nd). Other holdings were acquired along the Black 
River (Lorain). Perry became one of the first county judges in Cleveland. 
He died in 1813. 

Moses Cleaveland, trail-blazer to the Western Reserve and founder of the 
city that bore his name, died on November 16 and was buried in Canterbury, 
Windham County, Connecticut, his birthplace. The second son of Aaron 
and Thankful Paine Cleaveland, he was born on January 29, 1754. Accord- 
ing to Harvey Rice, the name Cleaveland — or Cleveland — appears to be "of 
Saxon origin and was given to a distinguished family in Yorkshire, England, 
prior to the Norman conquest. The family occupied a large landed estate 
which was peculiarly marked by open fissures in its rocky soil, styled 'clefts' 
or 'cleves' by the Saxons and by reason of the peculiarity of the estate its 
occupants were called 'Clefflands,' which name was accepted by the family." 
It is said that Samuel Cleaveland of Leicestershire, England, had a son, 
Moses, who migrated to America in 1635 and became the ancestor of the 
Cleavelands and Clevelands of New England origin. For several years he 
lived in Boston. Some of his descendants moved to Canterbury, Connecticut, 
where Aaron, son of Joseph Cleaveland, was born in 1727. Aaron and Thank- 
ful Paine married in 1748; and, being "persons of refinement," they sent 
their son, Moses, to Yale, where he was graduated in 1777- Then he studied 
law and began practicing in his home town. He became captain of a com- 
pany of sappers and miners in government service in 1779; but after several 
years, he returned to law. Cleaveland served several years in the Connecticut 
Legislature and was a prominent Mason. He married Esther Champion, "a 
young lady of rare accomplishments," in 1794, and they had two sons and 
two daughters. Two years later, he was commissioned as brigadier general 
of the Connecticut Militia, and was selected by the Connecticut Land Com- 
pany to head the exploration to the Western Reserve, where he had invested 
in lands to the extent of $32,600. According to an early historian, the founder 
of the City of Cleveland "wore such a sedate look that strangers often took 



56 Cleveland: the making of a city [1807] 

him for a clergyman. He had a somewhat swarthy complexion, which in- 
duced the Indians to believe him akin to their own race . . . He was of 
medium height, erect, thick-set, and portly, and was of muscular limbs and 
his step was of a military air." Having selected the site for the "capital" of 
the Western Reserve in the fall of 1796, he returned to Canterbury and the 
legal profession. 



1807 

The last division of the Western Reserve lands was made on January 5, 
the drawing taking place at Hartford, Connecticut. The area extending 
along the west border of the Cuyahoga to the lake was drawn by Samuel P. 
Lord and others. A survey was commenced soon afterward, and the lots 
were offered for sale. Lord's son, Richard, and his son-in-law, Josiah Barber, 
undertook to develop the property. 

The Legislature created Portage, Ashtabula, and Cuyahoga counties on 
February 10, the last named to "embrace so much of the county of Geauga 
as lay west of the ninth range of townships." 

The first white settlers are said to have moved into the lands west of the 
Cuyahoga River (Lakewood) this year. John Haberton chose a high Rocky 
River bank for his home, and William McConkey settled in the lowland. 

Enterprising citizens devised an ingenious scheme by which the Ohio 
Legislature authorized "The Cuyahoga and Muskingum Navigation Lot- 
tery" for "improving the navigation between Lake Erie and the river Ohio 
through the Cuyahoga and Muskingum." Although lotteries were publicly 
approved and much the fashion, an elaborate ticket sale staged in the East 
failed to produce enough subscribers who would gamble five dollars for the 
good of improved transportation. After numerous postponements the money 
was refunded. Influential men were identified with the management — Sam- 
uel Huntington, Amos SpaiTord, John Walworth, Lorenzo Carter, James 
Kingsbury, Timothy Doan, and Turhand Kirtland. 

Through "union" effort, the Presbyterians and Congregationalists estab- 
lished churches and missions throughout the Western Reserve. On August 
27, five families organized the "Plan of Union" Church in Euclid (later 
First Presbyterian Church of East Cleveland). The Rev. William Wick, 
missionary, was in charge at the founding. Tradition states that the first 
service was held in Andrew Mcllrath's barn; another story says that charter 
members gathered in the home of Nathaniel Doan at Doan's Corners. The 
church came under the care of the Hartford Presbytery on March 15, 1810. 
When the new log house of worship was erected the same year on Nine 
Mile Creek, it was the first church building in the Cleveland vicinity and 
one of the earliest in the Reserve. Among those in the early congregation 
were the Doan, Cozad, Mcllrath, Shaw, Ruple, and Dille families. This 
pioneer endeavor is affectionately called "the Grandmother of us all," for in 



[l8o8] STOUT-HEARTED MEN 57 

it were the roots of spiritual power from which stemmed reHgious con- 
sciousness and growth. 

In the first service following the organization of the Plan of Union 
Church, the Rev. William Wick remarked solemnly that some had indulged 
in the "unscriptural, vain and vicious practice of dancing." When he called 
for public acknowledgment "of this sin," two men and two women stood. 
One young woman, Sarah Mcllrath Shaw, wife of John Shaw, admitted 
that she had danced at the ball given in Doan's Tavern months before, but 
she could see no sin in it. Her staunch refusal to repent led to ostracism 
from the church of which she was a charter member. She later expressed 
regret, the church record states, "and agreed that the committee might make 
such use of her acknowledgment as they should judge most fitting for the 
glory of God and the advantage of the church." 



1808 

Before the road-building era, much of the goods and merchandise was 
carried in canoes or sturdy boats. Cleveland's shipbuilding industry was 
inaugurated when the 30-ton Zephyr was built for lake trading by Lorenzo 
Carter. The first vessel launched at Cleveland had an ethereal name, despite 
its rude, flat-bottomed design. To proud citizens, who made a big occasion 
of the christening, it was the last word in sailing craft. Furs and Cleveland- 
made grindstones could now be traded in the East for much-needed salt, 
iron, leather, groceries, and dry goods. 

Philo Taylor and his family reached the mouth of Rocky River by boat 
in April, and settled on the land chosen for their new home (Clifton Park 
lagoon, Lakewood). Taylor had spent about a year clearing the forest 
when he learned that plans for a town site, to be known as Granger City, 
were under way and included his property. Despite his title claim by verbal 
agreement, he was forced to yield; and although he was compensated for 
his investment, he angrily cursed the mouth of the river and moved to 
Dover, where he established his home. The little Rocky River settlement's 
hopes of future greatness were blighted from the start, as Cleveland's lead 
outdistanced it. 

The Cleveland-to-Erie mail route was established this year. John Metcalf, 
the carrier, averaged about thirty miles a day on foot, bearing a satchel with 
from five to seven pounds of mail. 

One of the earliest newspapers in the State was the Ohio Patriot, that 
began publication in Lisbon, southwest of Youngstown. As Cleveland had 
no paper, legal advertisements of the settlement and of Cuyahoga County 
appeared in its columns. 

Young Nathan Perry, Jr., who had spent four years in the camp of Chief 
Red Jacket of the Senecas while his father acquired lands in the Reserve, 
came to Cleveland this year and built a store and dwelling on the northeast 



58 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1809] 

corner of Superior and Water streets. The store was considered an improve- 
ment over the early trading post that catered largely to Indians, and Perry 
thus claims the distinction as the first established merchant. A brick store 
and dwelling built some years later in the same location was a landmark 
for a long time. 

A tall, thin man, who wore bowed spectacles over a rather sharp nose, 
walked into Cleveland beside his wagon, in which rode his wife and five 
daughters. Abram — or Abraham — Hickox had journeyed from Waterbury, 
Connecticut, and he was to become Cleveland's famous blacksmith. Over 
the door of his shop (west of the Rockefeller Building) were the words, 
"Uncle Abram Works Here." As creator and mender, he was an essential 
citizen. He was a patriotic enthusiast, and on the Fourth of July he roused 
the populace at dawn with ringing blows from his anvil. Hickox was the 
village sexton, and for many years he supervised the burial of the dead. 

Samuel Huntington was elected governor of Ohio on December 12. At 
the end of the term he retired to his farm in Painesville Township. He was 
a founder of Fairport, laid out in 1812, and died in 1817 of injuries sus- 
tained while supervising repairs to the road from his estate (on Fairport 
Road) to the harbor. 

Peter Chardon Brooks, stockholder in the Connecticut Land Company, 
offered to the commissioners a tract of land as the county seat of Geauga 
County on condition that they give the settlement his middle name, Char- 
don. The offer was accepted this year. Norman Canfield erected the first 
building in the village, a three-room log tavern. Merrick Pease and his 
family came from Connecticut in 18 10; and two years later. General Edward 
Paine moved his family to Chardon and erected a large log house that 
served as the first court house. Samuel King, a Negro named Anthony 
Carter, and Aaron Canfield raised homes for their families in the wilder- 
ness within a few years. In the early 1820s or 1830s, Fowler's Mill began 
grinding meal and flour from grain grown in the countryside, as it was in 
1946. Located in the heart of the maple-sugar country, the Maple Festival 
was originated in 1926, when Chardon became the Maple Capital of Ohio. 



1809 

The list of shareholders of the Connecticut Land Company had expanded 
considerably, indicating increasing interest in the development of New 
Connecticut. As soon as possible, the company passed on to the proprietors 
the managerial responsibilities, and relinquished title and control entirely. 
Land allotments varied from a section to larger areas comprising several 
townships of approximately 16,000 acres each. Samuel Mather, Jr., and Wil- 
liam Hart jointly owned four townships, and Mather himself owned four 
more. The combined tracts amounted to 155,629 acres, and their investment 
was $53,629. Not many of the proprietors settled on the new lands, but rather 
sent agents or family members to do the pioneering. 



[1809] STOUT-HEARTED MEN 59 

A few proprietors, however, played a large part in the economic and 
cultural advance of the section of the Reserve in which they were interested: 
David Hudson in Hudson, Turhand Kirtland in Poland, Samuel Hunting- 
ton in Painesville, Eliphalet Austin in Austinburg, Simon Perkins in War- 
ren, and Solomon Griswold in Windsor. New communities were sometimes 
founded by members of a stockholder's family, as was Liberty in Trumbull 
County, settled in 1800 by Paine and Camden Cleaveland, brothers of the 
founder of Cleveland. Henry Newberry, son of General Roger Newberry, 
proprietor, joined William Wetmore and Joshua Stow, stockholders, in 
founding Cuyahoga Falls. The latter gave his name to the new settlement 
of Stow. John Stark Edwards, son of Pierpont — or Pierpoint — Edwards, 
assumed his father's interests at Warren, and became influential in the south- 
eastern Reserve. David Root, founder of Rootstown, was a brother of 
Ephraim Root. Elyria was founded by Heman Ely, son of Justin Ely, 
whose name was identified with that of the township. Henry H. Coit, son 
of Daniel L. Coit, settled on his father's holdings between Doan's Corners 
and Euclid. 

Opposite St. Clair Street on the west side of the Cuyahoga River, where 
the Indians had a ferry, a trail led across the marshes up to the hill past 
the old log trading cabin and the springs, to a clearing (crossing of West 
25th and Detroit). Here the red men practiced games, held pow-wows, and 
when "fire water" was on hand, had a lively time. The trail continued west- 
ward to Rocky River, Sandusky, and Detroit. 

A road from Cleveland to the mouth of the Huron River was made 
possible by appropriation of the Legislature, and Lorenzo Carter, Nathaniel 
Doan, and Ebenezer Murray of Mentor supervised the work. The highway 
followed the ridge along the lakeshore, and was later known as the Milan 
State Road and the Detroit Road. (Detroit Avenue was its beginning.) 

The first Negro settler chose the virgin land west of the river for his 
home. Early in the spring, George Peake — Peak, Peek, or Peeke, eighty- 
seven, and his family made their way westward to the mouth of a small 
stream (Rocky River, Lakewood), and following it about a mile southward, 
the pioneer and his two oldest sons, George, Jr., and Joseph, built a log 
house. They are credited with being the first to follow the new Cleveland- 
Huron Road. 

A mail route was opened between Cleveland and Detroit this year. About 
once every two weeks, a carrier made the journey on foot over the Indian 
trail along the lake to Sandusky, thence to the Maumee River basin and 
on to his destination. Speedier delivery on horseback came in 181 1. 

Allen Gaylord bought 50 acres in Newburgh (Woodland Hills Road 
near Miles Avenue), and on May 7 he married Philena, twenty-eight, daugh- 
ter of Elijah and Anna Gun. Captain Gaylord became a man of prominence 
in Cleveland and Newburgh. 

Two schooners of five or six tons were launched : the Sally by Joel Thorp — 
or Thorpe — and the Dove by Alex Simpson. The foundation of Cleveland's 
shipbuilding greatness was taking form. 

This year witnessed the departure of Seneca, good friend of the pioneers, 



60 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1809] 

and he never returned. Edward Paine leaves a record of the conduct and 
character of the red man who frequented the neighborhood and who was 
called Stigwanish by his tribesmen, which in English means Standing Stone. 
"In him there was the dignity of the Roman, the honesty of Aristides, and 
the benevolence of Penn," Paine affirmed. "He was never known to ask a 
donation, but would accept one as he ought, but not suffer it to rest here. 
An appropriate return was soon to be made. He was so much of a teetotaler 
as to abjure ardent spirits, since in a drunken spree, he had aimed a blow 
at his wife with a tomahawk, and split the head of his child which was on 
her back." 

With the arrival of Levi Johnson, twenty-four, from Herkimer County, 
New York, a career of outstanding usefulness as a builder began in Cleve- 
land. Near the Public Square Johnson built his cabin. A man of versatility 
in his trade, he accomplished all kinds of construction from public buildings 
to schooners and lighthouses. 

Stanley Griswold, who settled at Doan's Corners this year, had filled 
offices of public service elsewhere, and his experience qualified him to become 
clerk of Cleveland Township within a short time. When a vacancy occurred 
in the United States Senate, Governor Samuel Huntington appointed Gris- 
wold to fill the unexpired term, and he was soon on his way to Washington. 

Cleveland and Newburgh had been engaged in a dispute for the honor 
of being made the seat of Cuyahoga County. Newburgh, healthful and 
thriving, had increased her population and claimed superior advantages. 
Although a committee of the Legislature selected Cleveland this year for its 
position at the mouth of the Cuyahoga, the rival community bitterly con- 
tested the action for more than a decade. 

Amos Spafford was elected to the State Legislature from Geauga County. 
Upon his appointment as collector of the port for the district of Miami, he 
moved to Perrysburg the next year. 

The report from the port of Cuyahoga to the United States Treasury 
showed that the total value of goods, wares, and merchandise exported to 
Canada from April to October was $50. The growing business of commerce 
and the Post Office apparently influenced the erection of a new frame build- 
ing for the collector-postmaster's headquarters. 



CHAPTER 4 



Coming of Leaders 
1810-1819 



WITH a population o£ about fifty-seven courageous souls, Cleveland 
started a new decade with discouraging prospects for the future. 
Hardy pioneers had built their few primitive dwellings with crude hand- 
made tools, and through patient endeavor had been able to keep the settle- 
ment alive. There was no church, no schoolhouse, no meeting place. Illness 
was prevalent, due in part to the swamp lands, and there was no doctor to 
attend the sick. There were legal problems and no attorney to solve them. 

Then fortune smiled, and Dr. David Long, the first physician, and Alfred 
Kelley, the first lawyer, came with their talents to lend a hand. Samuel 
Williamson, business and professional leader, and Leonard Case, banker, 
brought specialized experience that was fundamental to the establishment 
of the colony on the lake. 

Although few in numbers, Cleveland's men of influence were awake to 
opportunities, urging practical new developments to meet growing needs. 
Natural resources were put to work, new enterprises were begun, and vision 
and initiative were reflected in ambitious efforts to expand commerce and 
industry. The sound advance of the early days, that quickened with the 
years, was due in large measure to their character, initiative, and confidence. 

A bank was incorporated and tanneries went into operation, but farming 
provided the livelihood for most of the settlers. Taverns and general stores 
sprang up as trade and traffic grew. Civil government was established and 
townships were organized. Church congregations began to assemble, and 
there was an awakening to the necessity for educational opportunities. A 
library association was formed. Having reached the stature of a village, Cleve- 
land received a charter of incorporation from the Ohio Legislature. Log 
cabins gave way to frame and brick construction, and the assessed value of the 
"capital" city of the Western Reserve was more than $20,000! 

The need for a newspaper was met by enthusiastic editors. Editor Logan 
of the Register, the Jeffersonian journal, and politically independent Howe 
of the Herald tried desperately to keep their readers informed with news 
gleaned from the columns of exchange papers. Sensational stories and heated 
political discussions were welcomed at the frontier, regardless of stale head- 
lines. Local news had no place in the papers at first, as it was generally 
broadcast thoroughly by the well-known grapevine in the small community. 
In the advertisements, however, can be traced the growth and development 
of the village, as well as the habits and customs of the people. 

61 



62 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 

Newburgh citizens pointed with pride to their progress and natural ad- 
vantages, fully expecting to maintain an increasing population lead over 
mosquito-infested Cleveland. Doan's Corners was flourishing on the road 
to Newburgh. Lands had been placed on the market west of the Cuyahoga 
River, and pioneers were pushing back the wilderness to make room for 
a cabin and a patch of a farm. Mail routes and trailways broadened their 
lines to keep pace with stimulated passenger and freight service into 
the district. The first steamboat on Lake Erie stopped at Cleveland on its 
maiden voyage late in the decade, and a stage line opened to Champion 
(Painesville) . 

The War of 1812 seriously disturbed the little community and resulted in 
economic depression; but courageous leadership guided the citizens through 
the troubled times, and essential industries and institutions gained a foothold. 

Cleveland followed the usual plan of city development — a little settlement, 
a hamlet, a village. Its people joined for protection, sympathy, betterment 
and gain. Came the road, the crude highway, the unpaved street. The trail 
deepened to a rut — a rut hollowed by the tumbrel of progress. Beside it men 
pitched their tents, raised humble dwellings, and rested from their wander- 
ings. Among the early evidences of progress is the street, the epitome of daily 
life; tragedy stalks through it, comedy minces by, love and life enter it, and 
death knocks at every door. 

The early Cleveland planners knew the importance of streets, and they 
laid them out with visions of homes and businesses that would eventually 
line them. They gave the name Euclid to one street that brought lasting fame 
to the community. 

The Public Square was a cow pasture studded with stumps and under- 
brush, but it had begun to attain importance as the center of the settlement. 
Footpaths crossed under the tall trees, disappearing in the adjacent forest. 
Small boys used it as a playground. Here horses were given their workouts, 
and wandering swine turned up the turf with their snouts. Civic pride lay 
dormant indeed. 

As the decade closed, daring New Englanders were on their way to the 
western frontier — not a land of milk and honey, but of hills and valleys 
clothed with sturdy timber; uplands bearing an abundance of nuts, berries, 
wild plums, crabapples, and mountain grapes, and marshes producing fox 
grapes. Sassafras, medicinal barks, and herbs were plentiful, and the sugar 
maples oozed their sweetness in early spring. The forests abounded in game, 
and the waters teemed with fish. Nature was a good provider. In this new 
world, the head of the family cleared ground for a cabin to shelter his loved 
ones, and built a lean-to for his oxen. A pitifully small collection of furniture, 
utensils and provisions, with perhaps a little money, were the extent of his 
earthly goods as he and his family began life anew in the Promised Land. 



[l8lo] COMING OF LEADERS 63 

181O 

Lands beyond the Cuyahoga were offered for sale, and Major Lorenzo 
Carter and his son, Alonzo, purchased a tract on the west side of the river 
near the mouth. Here the latter farmed, keeping the Red House Tavern 
and a small warehouse. Elijah Gun operated a ferry between this point 
and the foot of Superior Street on the east side. It was the only means of 
public transportation across the river. 

In the unbroken forest in township 7, range 11, Daniel Warren built a 
cabin for his wife and two small children in early January. Moses Warren, 
his father, followed with two sons, William and Moses, Jr., five years later, 
and Warrensville had its beginning. Township government was established 
in 1816. 

In February, Zanesville became the seat of government of Ohio. During 
the 1811-12 session of the Legislature, however, Columbus was selected as 
the permanent state capital. Suitable buildings were completed by 1816, 
and in the meantime the central government convened at Chillicothe. 

On May i, the judicial existence of Cuyahoga County began, when the 
Court of Common Pleas was organized and the first county officers were 
inaugurated: Benjamin Ruggles, presiding judge; Nathan Perry, Sr., Augus- 
tus Gilbert, and Timothy Doan, associate judges. Huron County was at- 
tached to Cuyahoga for administrative purposes. The officials were elected 
by the Legislature, and under the constitution, the court had common-law 
and chancery jurisdiction. While it was essential that the presiding judge 
should be "learned in the law," his associates were usually respected men of 
prominence in the community. 

The first session of the Court of Common Pleas was held on June 5 in 
the new store of Elias and Harvey Murray on the south side of Superior 
Street (adjoining Hotel Cleveland site). The first officers of Cuyahoga 
County were Peter Hitchcock of Geauga, prosecuting attorney, succeeded by 
Alfred Kelley in November; John Walworth, clerk and recorder; Smith S. 
Baldwin, sheriff; Jabez Wright and Nathaniel Doan, county commissioners; 
Asa Dille, treasurer, and Samuel S. Baldwin, surveyor. Typical of the early 
court cases were those of Daniel Miner, who conducted a ferry across Rocky 
River, fined twenty-five cents for selling a gill of whisky for six cents without 
a license; Thomas Mcllrath, prosecuted for trading a quart of whisky for 
three raccoon skins; and Erastus Miles, indicted for selling Hquor to the 
Indians. Law and order in Cleveland had been fully established. 

The Murray store deserves more than passing interest. For three years 
it housed county officials. During the War of 1812, it was converted into a 
hospital for wounded soldiers. Then, having been restored to its original 
purpose, it was soon recognized as "one of the local mercantile features," 
and served until it was razed in 1855. 

Joshua Stow, of the Moses Cleaveland party of 1796, and his nephew, 
Alfred Kelley, of Oneida County, New York, rode into town with Jared 



64 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1810J 

P. Kirtland in the summer. Kelley found quarters in Walworth's small 
frame office, his companions remaining only for a visit. Kirtland's father, 
Turhand Kirtland, was agent for the Connecticut Land Company at Poland 
in Trumbull County at this time, and Stow had large land tracts in the 
Reserve. On November 7, his twenty-first birthday, Kelley was admitted 
to the bar and hung out his shingle, the first practicing attorney in Cleve- 
land. Almost continuously from 1814 to 1822, he represented Cuyahoga 
County in the General Assembly. Daniel and Jemima Stow Kelley, his 
father and mother, and their sons, Datus, Irad, Joseph Reynolds, and 
Thomas, new settlers from Connecticut, joined him during the next several 
years. 

When Dr. David Long, twenty-three, the first resident physician, arrived 
in June from Hebron, New York, the nearest doctor was in Hudson. After 
having studied medicine with an uncle, a country doctor. Dr. Long had 
been enrolled for about four months in the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons in New York City during the winter before coming to Cleveland. 
He found office space with Alfred Kelley, and the two young men were 
destined to make great contributions to Cleveland. 

Lorenzo Carter erected the first log warehouse on Union Lane at about 
this time, and Murray & Bixby built the Ohio, a 60-ton vessel, which became 
part of Commodore Perry's fleet. 

Under the existing judicial system, the Supreme Court of Ohio held its 
annual sessions in the several counties. It first convened in Cuyahoga County 
in August this year. Producing their commissions, William W. Irwin and 
Ethan A. Brown organized the court and appointed John Walworth as clerk. 

Elias Cozad laid the cornerstone of his tannery at Doan's Corners, the 
first to be built in the district later known as Cleveland. Trappers brought 
him raw furs of wolves, foxes, bears, and squirrels, which, when tanned 
and dressed, provided leather for makers of boots and shoes in the com- 
munity. At about the year-end, Samuel and Matthew Williamson, newcom- 
ers from Pennsylvania, also built a tannery in Cleveland on lot No. 202 near 
a spring. Samuel brought his family with him, his oldest child, named 
Samuel, then being only two years old. Matthew was a bachelor brother. 
Samuel, the elder, became familiarly known as the "judge," having served 
as an associate judge of the Court of Common Pleas. The first Williamson 
home was located on Water Street near Superior Lane. 

According to Charles Whittlesey, historian, the population of Cleveland 
this year was fifty-seven. Although a "United States census," compiled more 
than a century later, placed the figure at 300, this probably included the 
village and its environs. The larger figure cannot be substantiated by re- 
search relating to the inhabitants within the confines of Cleveland. In 
Cuyahoga County there were 1,459 people, according to the census, the 
smallest county total in Ohio. 



[l8ll] COMING OF LEADERS 65 

181I 

A public well on Bank Street near Superior, eight feet across, with a wheel 
and two buckets, afforded the first water supply for fire-fighting. Every 
family had a well. However, when rain water failed for washing, Benhu 
Johnson hauled lake water with his horse and wagon, selling it at 25 cents 
a load of two barrels. Soap could be had at a shilling a gallon at Jabez 
Kelley's soap-and-candle factory, a log structure on Superior Street near 
the river. 

Only a few primitive houses fronted on Superior between the river and 
the Public Square, with an occasional temporary dwelling in the woods. 
The river outlet was sometimes completely barred with sand, so that men 
could walk across and scarcely wet their feet. The sand-bar continued to 
be a menace for more than a decade, when the citizens demanded practical 
harbor improvements. 

Ohio was divided into five medical districts by the Legislature, each dis- 
trict being entitled to three censors, who acted as examiners or licensers of 
applicants who desired to practice medicine. The next year, the state was 
re-divided into seven districts, with Cuyahoga County in the sixth. 

Dr. David Long married Juliana Walworth, daughter of John Walworth, 
in April, and they lived in the Huntington blockhouse, where a daughter, 
Mary Helen, was born. Later they moved into a new brick house facing 
Bank Street. There were neither roads nor bridges, and the good doctor 
traveled through the wilds, answering "hurry-up" calls from isolated cabins 
located as much as eight and ten miles apart. He was reputed to be the best 
physician and surgeon in the region. In the early 1830s, the Longs moved 
into a finer stone house on Superior Street (west of Hotel Cleveland site). 
Here the doctor expanded his income by operating a notions and dry-goods 
store. A characteristic advertisement offered 800 barrels of salt, 10 tons of 
plaster, and 50 buffalo robes for sale. 

Elijah Russell, eldest son of Jacob Russell of Connecticut, came to Ohio 
to inspect his father's holdings. In the spring he returned to the frontier 
with his brother, Ralph, and they cleared land (Warrensville area), planted 
corn, and built a log house; then they went back to Connecticut to assist 
in moving the family. Jacob Russell and the families of his brother, Elisha, 
and a brother-in-law, Hart Risley, made the journey in the autumn. Elijah 
Russell moved his family the following summer, arriving in Cleveland on 
August 31, 1813. 

A larger and more elaborate house was built by Levi Johnson for Rodol- 
phus Edwards (at Woodhill and Buckeye roads), of timbers and hand- 
sawed boards. It was the famous Buckeye Tavern, later the Pioneer, where 
Cleveland society revelled and danced. In 1883, the tavern was converted 
into a dwelling by Rodolphus Edwards, Jr., and it was a landmark for 
many years. 

Sixteen of the eighteen families in the village met in July to form the first 



(:^ CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [l^Il] 

library association, among those present being the households of Alfred 
Kelley, Lorenzo Carter, Nathan Perry, John Walworth, Dr. David Long, 
and Samuel Williamson, The initial fee was five dollars, and the annual 
membership fee, one dollar. Dr. Long was appointed librarian. Most popular 
books in the scanty prized collection were Don Quixote, Goldsmith's History 
of Greece, and Scott's Lay of the Last Minstrel. The library project was short- 
lived, failing to survive the coming war period. 

At an all-day meeting in Harvey Murray's new store, August 23, the 
Free Masons, the first fraternal order in Cleveland, organized with thirteen 
members. Dispensation having come from Lewis Cass, grand master of 
Ohio, Samuel Huntington, deputy grand master who had been grand 
master of the Grand Lodge of Ohio in 1809, installed the officers. Abraham 
Bishop was the first master. A man of some means, he had built the first 
sawmill in Euclid Township, was the township's first treasurer and the 
supervisor of highways. A charter in the name of Concord Lodge No. 15 
was granted on January 9, 1812. As the village grew, leading men in and 
around Cleveland became members, meeting in taverns, halls, public build- 
ings, and private homes. 

Charles Dutton sold to Turhand Kirtland two acres of land on the Public 
Square (Marshall Building site, northwest corner of Superior, and adjoin- 
ing sites) for $30. Kirtland evidently considered it a poor investment, and 
he resold the land to Jacob Coleman, Jr., in 1813 for $30. Coleman profited 
when he sold it to William Coleman in 1815 for $55, but the latter sold the 
corner — 28 feet on Superior and 66 feet on the Square — to Leonard Case, Sr., 
for $200. In 1908, W. G. Marshall leased the land (Marshall Building site) 
for ninety-nine years at $12,000 a year. 

Datus Kelley and his bride reached Cleveland in mid-October. They kept 
house for a short time in a new warehouse at the mouth of the river, then 
purchased a farm at $3.18 per acre (about a mile west of Rocky River on 
the lake). 

In a clearing east of Cleveland Village (East 55th Street), Nathan Chap- 
man built his shanty. His nearest neighbors were at the Public Square. 

A Canadian named Granger was one of the first to settle west of the 
river. He located on a high blufif (near Riverside Cemetery) that became 
known as "Granger's Hill," and here he lived until 1815, when he and his 
son, Samuel, moved on. 

Eight persons signed the charter of a Congregational church organization 
in Lee, Massachusetts-^Jedediah Crocker and wife; Lydia Hall, wife of 
Moses Hall; Kate Crosby, wife of Jedediah Crosby; Jonathan Smith and 
wife; and Abner Smith and wife. Journeying to Dover, Ohio, the new Re- 
serve settlement, during the year, they continued to worship as the Congre- 
gational Church of Dover, the first church of the denomination in Cuyahoga 
County. Congregational churches were organized in the Brecksville settle- 
ment in 1816, in Strongsville in 1817, and in Olmstead Township in 1835. 
The Htde log church at Dover, built in 1822, burned, and members met in 
the town house until it was replaced. A rift in the church family came in 
1840 over the slavery question, but the wound healed. The church increased 



[l8l2] COMING OF LEADERS GJ 

slowly in numbers, its roots reaching deep into family life for miles around. 
In 1946, located at 2519 Dover Center Road, it continued as a vital force in 
the community, then known as Westlake, under the leadership of the Rev. 
Harold W. Freer, called as pastor in 1945. 

Seth Paine, agent for Robert Breck, Massachusetts merchant, was the first 
settler on the proprietor's lands, covering about half of Brecksville Town- 
ship, organized in 1814. After him came Lemuel Bourne and his bride, and 
pioneering families, among them those of Wolcott, Bagley, Newell, Hoad- 
ley, Adams, Bradford, Waite, Johnston, Rice, Barnes, Wilcox, Hunt, Snow, 
and Oakes. Robert Breck never lived on his land; and after his death in 
1830, his sons, Theodore, John Adams, and Dr. Edward, claimed their in- 
heritance and settled in Brecksville. Here they lived for many years. The 
Village of Brecksville was not officially formed, however, until 1921. 

Although his stay was short, WilHam King was the first settler of Inde- 
pendence, described as township 6, range 12, in the original Western Reserve 
survey. Among early permanent settlers were the Comstock, Wood, Morton, 
and Johnson families. Records prior to 1834, including those of township 
organization, were destroyed, and origin of the township is unknown. In- 
corporation of Independence Village was not effected until 1914. 

George Peake purchased 103 acres of land in the area that became Rock- 
port (Lakewood-Rocky River) on December 31, and farmed and worked 
for the settlers that soon claimed the district. His invention of a hand-op- 
erated mill for grinding grain was hailed as a vast improvement over the 
mortar-and-pestle type. Peake was a highly respected citizen, and died at 
the age of 105. 



1812 

Religious power had begun to manifest itself on the Reserve, and about 
twenty church organizations had been formed in or near Hudson, Youngs- 
town, Austinburg, Warren, Poland, Canfield, Euclid, Burton, Tallmadge, 
Chardon, Aurora, North Springfield, Fredericksburg, Rootstown, Dover, and 
Mantua. By 1820, the number had grown to about sixty. Many of the settlers 
were discouraged and homesick, and welcomed the fellowship and co- 
operation of the little church circle. 

James Fish, first permanent white settler in the territory that became 
Brooklyn, moved his family into an eighteen-dollar log cabin in May, after 
having spent the winter in Newburgh. It is said that while clearing his 80- 
acre tract (on both sides of Denison Avenue), he encountered a section in- 
fested with rattlesnakes. After a narrow escape, he exclaimed, "What a smart 
idea it was in God Almighty to put bells on them things!" Moses and 
Ebenezer Fish, cousins, arrived shortly afterward. Fish Street honored the 
family name. 

The family burial lot on the Fish farm became the oldest public cemetery 
west of the Cuyahoga (part of Scranton Road Cemetery). James Fish deeded 



68 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1812] 

it to trustees of a school district and it fell into neglect. Owners of the lots, 
however, acting as the Brooklyn Cemetery Association and successors of 
the North Brooklyn Association, later assumed maintenance responsibility. 
On the Fish family monument appear the names of Elisha and Mary Will- 
cox, parents of the wife of James Fish, and the inscription states that the 
father died in 1788. This raises an interesting question without an answer 
— were the remains brought from New England? The grave of James Fish 
is said to lie under Scranton Road near the cemetery. 

Thomas D. Webb, twenty-eight, was editor of the first newspaper in the 
Western Reserve, with the pompous title. The Trump of Fa7ne. The first 
issue appeared on June 9 in Warren, which had been his home since 1807, 
when he arrived from Windham, Connecticut. The pioneer pubhcation con- 
sisted of four small pages printed from minute type. There was Httle contro- 
versial copy, no local news, and only scanty editorials. Eastern papers were 
combed for material; and although the columns were stale when they 
reached the subscriber, they were welcomed. Four years later, the editor was 
able to secure the letters "V" and "W," and the paper became known by the 
dignified title. Western Reserve Chronicle (later the Warren Trihmne 
Chronicle^ . 

Levi Johnson commenced the erection of Cuyahoga County's first Court 
House and Jail this year, on the northwest corner of the Public Square. A 
town pump and watering trough were popular meeting places here. Johnson 
was chosen as the first county coroner this year, and he was the first deputy 
sherifiF. 

On a gallows erected by Levi Johnson near the partially completed Court 
House, the Indian O'Mic— also called Poccon, John O'Mic, O'Mick, and 
Omic — was hanged on June 24 as penalty for his part in murdering two white 
trappers near Sandusky and stealing their furs. Because of his great courage 
and his influence with the Indians, Lorenzo Carter had custody of the pris- 
oner. Cleveland's entire population witnessed O'Mic's murder trial and 
execution, the first in Cuyahoga County. It was marked with a certain dra- 
matic quality, intended as an example of the speed and finality of the white- 
man's justice. 

Co-operative study among medical practitioners in Cleveland is said to have 
begun when Dr. Long invited Western Reserve physicians to observe the 
O'Mic execution. Many came, and that night, it is related, they opened the 
grave in a severe storm, removed the body and dissected it. Dr. Long retained 
the skeleton, and Cleveland physicians used it in teaching medical students. 

The untimely end of O'Mic held more than idle curiosity for some of the 
citizens at the Public Square that June day, as evidenced by the statement 
of Mrs. David Long, preserved in history: 

I knew John O'Mic and his father very well. John was not a bad Indian 
towards the whites. When we were children at Painesville, we used to play 
together on the banks of the Grand river, at my father's old residence, which 
we called Bloomingdale . . . O'Mic's father came to our house, on Water 
street, a short time before the execution. We were very much afraid of the 



[l8l2] COMING OF LEADERS 69 

Indians then. I was alone, and my babe was sleeping in the cradle. He took 
up a gun which was in the room, in order to show me how Semo killed 
himself, after he had been arrested. I thought he was going to kill me or 
my baby, in revenge for his son. I seized the child and ran up Water street 
towards Mr. Williamson's, screaming pretty hard, I suppose. O'Mic fol- 
lowed after me, trying to explain what he meant. Mr. Williamson caught 
the child, and we all went to Major Carter's house, which was on the corner 
of Superior street and Union lane. Major Carter had a short talk with O'Mic, 
who explained what he meant, and we all had a hearty laugh. O'Mic had 
lived near Painesville. I was in the crowd on the square when O'Mic was 
to be hung, and I suddenly thought, "Why should I wish to see my old 
play-fellow die?" I got out of the crowd as quickly as possible and went 
home. 

News of the outbreak of war with Great Britain on June i8 reached 
Cleveland by courier on June 28. As the settlement was near the western 
battle grounds, there was great fear of British and Indian attack. Women 
and children were hastily moved inland for security, leaving about thirty 
men on guard with flintlock guns. Mrs. George Wallace, Mrs. John Wal- 
worth, and Mrs. David Long, however, refused to leave their homes. When 
reminded that she could not fight, Mrs. Long replied that she "could nurse 
the sick or wounded — encourage and comfort those who could fight; at any 
rate she would not, by her example, encourage disgraceful flight." Farms 
and shops felt the manpower shortage as the war progressed, and most of 
the men were drafted into the Cleveland and Newburgh militias. An anti- 
war party in New England had followers in the village, but the pioneers 
were too close to danger to join in opposing the agitation. Near-panic re- 
sulted, after families had begun to return to their homes, when paroled 
soldiers wrapped in blankets were mistaken for Indians as they a-rived in 
Cleveland. 

A Negro who enlisted for war duty from Cleveland was William H. Jack- 
son, about fifteen years old. The exact date of his arrival in the settlement is 
not known, but it is believed that he and his mother were freed by their 
slave owner in Kings County, New York, May 6, 1B03. Jackson was buried 
in Woodland Cemetery at the age of eighty-two. 

Shipbuilding on the lakes received its first impetus from the War of 1812. 
While Commodore Perry's fleet was built largely in Erie, three of his ships 
were constructed on the Cuyahoga River (near Akron). William Coggswell, 
son of a veteran English ship owner, helped bring the ships down to Cleve- 
land, where they were equipped with sails. On the way, Coggswell brought 
a porcupine on board one of the schooners, and the sailors were so impressed 
with the courageous beast that the Portage became the Porcupine. This ship, 
with the Tigress and Trippe, sailed away to join Perry at Presque Isle (near 
Erie). By 1816, small shipyards were to be found in leading ports, and Ver- 
milion, Sandusky, and especially Huron became rivals of Cleveland in the 
boat-building industry. 

Reports of fertile land west of the river induced James Nicholson to trade 



70 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1813] 

160 acres in Conneaut for land on which he built his cabin (Waterbury and 
Detroit, Lakewood). Upon his return from the War of 1812, he purchased 
an additional 160-acre tract and built a larger cabin. A white colonial house 
erected in 1835 (13335 Detroit Avenue), was Lakewood's oldest residence in 
the 1940s. The names of Nicholson's grandsons, Lewis and Clarence, were 
given to Lewis Drive and Clarence Avenue; and Grace Avenue was named 
for their sister. Other families that helped to lay the foundations in the 
area were the Deans, the Turners, the Van Benscoters, the Nicholses, and the 
Kedneys. 

One of the oldest cemeteries in the Western Reserve is a plot overlooking 
the valley of Nine Mile Creek (adjoining First Presbyterian Church of East 
Cleveland). The first grave was made this year for Susannah Barr, wife of 
the pastor of the Plan of Union Church, the Rev. Thomas Barr. Here were 
buried John Shaw (for whom Shaw High School was named), Andrew Mc- 
Ilrath, and Enoc Murray, the first Mason to settle in the Western Reserve. 
Soldiers and stout-hearted men and women found a last resting place in this 
obscure corner. 

George Wallace opened a tavern on the south side of Superior Street, west 
of Seneca. Superior was the only street that had been cleared. Water Street 
was hardly more than a path. 

An i8-acre tract of land on the Buffalo Road (near East 14th) was pur- 
chased by Samuel Phelps of Painesville for $2 to pay delinquent taxes, "there 
being no other persons who would pay taxes for a less quantity than eighteen 
acres on said lots." 

Upon the death of his father, John Walworth, Ashbel W. Walworth be- 
came postmaster and collector of the port on October 25. He was the first 
letter carrier, delivering the mail — three or four letters — from his hat at 
his convenience. 



1813 

One of the earliest west-side settlers was Nathan Alger. The first grave 
in Alger Cemetery (16711 Lorain) was made for his remains on January 21 
of this year. On his tombstone is a neighborly inscription: 

My friends, I'm here, the first to come. 
And in this place, for you there's room. 

Captain Stanton Sholes, United States Army, reached Carter's Tavern on 
May 10 with his company to establish a military post to protect the village. 
He was a man of action, and soon the building of Fort Huntington, a stock- 
ade, was under way on the high lakefront ground near the foot of Seneca 
Street (Fort Huntington Park). A small army hospital was erected about 
June I to care for the sick and wounded, the first in Cleveland. Not "a nail, 
a screw, or iron latch or hinge" was about the 40 by 20-foot building. The 



[1813] COMING OF LEADERS 71 

floor was o£ chestnut bark, and two tiers of bunks were filled with clean 
straw. At the close of the war, the hospital was abandoned. Major Jessup 
was in command of the fort that was never put to attack and siege, but was 
used largely as a guardhouse for soldiers under arrest. Later several militia 
companies made it their headquarters. In July, General William Henry Har- 
rison, in command of the Northwestern Army, visited the fort with Colonel 
Samuel Huntington, army paymaster and former governor of Ohio, for 
whom the defense was named. Their coming attracted visitors from all parts 
of the Reserve. 

Cleveland's strategic location made it an important base for supplies and 
troop movement, so that there was constant fear of enemy invasion. On June 
19, the settlement was disturbed by the appearance of several British ships 
on the horizon, and a landing was considered probable. Household goods 
were hastily packed, ready for evacuation of women and children. The con- 
tents of Carter's warehouse were moved several miles up the river. Militias 
mobilized, and an old swivel, muzzle-loading cannon was dragged from the 
fort to the river mouth on its heavy wagon wheels. The ships approached to 
within a mile and a half of shore, then suddenly disappeared, as a violent 
rain storm broke upon them. 

Levi Johnson's men were working on the first Court House on the Public 
Square on September 10 when the report of cannon, signaling the Battle of 
Lake Erie, brought the population of Cleveland running to the high banks 
of the lake (foot of West 6th and West 9th). Johnson shouted, "Three cheers 
for Perry. If his fleet wins, the lake will be free from the British." The band 
of loyal Clevelanders joined him. For three long hours the battle continued. 
Then came a time when there was only the sound of the heavy cannon — 
the small reports had ceased. "Perry had the big guns," exclaimed Johnson. 
"The battle is won by Perry and the Americans!" Back to their homes went 
the little Cleveland company. News soon came of the historic Battle of Lake 
Erie fought seventy miles away at Put-in-Bay. Young Commodore Oliver 
Hazard Perry commanded the Americans from his famous flagship, the 
Lawrence, in this battle of the wooden ships, one of the bloodiest in history. 
The turning point in the second war with Great Britain had come with 
Perry's famous words, "We have met the enemy and they are ours!" The 
commodore sent his victory dispatch to General William Henry Harrison at 
Detroit by Rufus Wright, later a well-known Cleveland innkeeper, who made 
the perilous journey through wild country "filled with British hirelings and 
bloodthirsty Indians." After the battle, the commodore and General Harri- 
son were entertained in the home of their friend. Judge James Kingsbury 
in Newburgh, and the Masons of the community met them in special session. 
Several weeks before the famous battle, Perry had sought Kingsbury's coun- 
sel as to the strategy he should follow. The judge replied decisively, "Why, 
sir, I would fight!" A cannon captured from the British was mounted on 
the Public Square in 1872. 

Four days after the Battle of Lake Erie, the first printed account of Perry's 
victory ofif Put-in-Bay appeared in Warren's pioneer newspaper. The Trump 
of Fame. Perry's courier had left immediately for Washington with news 



72 Cleveland: the making of a city [1814] 

dispatches for the War Department, having been on the road three days 
when he reached Warren on horseback. Here he rested for the night; and 
from his eye-witness account, the enterprising editor gave to the world on 
September 14 the first major newspaper "scoop" on the Reserve. 

During this year or the next, Levi Johnson built the schooner Ladies' 
Master near his home in the woods (Euclid near East 4th). It was hauled 
to the river by ox teams rounded up from the neighborhood. Johnson and 
Tom Rummage commenced their lake careers by fitting out a little schooner, 
loading it with rations and running the British blockade to feed American 
troops near Detroit. Rummage died of cholera, leaving two seafaring sons, 
Solon and Harvey. Early in shipping history, Captain Harvey sailed a 
schooner loaded with black-walnut timber from Cleveland to Germany in 
a month's time — a fine record. An impressive Rummage home was built on 
Johnson's wooded boatyard site. 

Meetings of Cleveland Township officials had been held in private homes 
until the first Court House was completed this year in late summer. The 
first floor of the two-story, log building housed jail cells for delinquent 
debtors and provided a living room for the sheriff. The courtroom upstairs 
was also the scene of social gatherings and town meetings. Tallow dips 
provided the light, and a large, wood-burning stove the heat. The little 
red structure is variously reported to have cost $500 and $700 to build. It was 
torn down in 1830, when a new Court House replaced it. 



1814 

Culture, education, and entertainment centered largely in the home. 
Praiseworthy attempts to make possible the latter may be better understood 
by I. A. Morgan's account of a social event arranged by the Rev. Stephen 
Peet at the log house of Samuel Dille, "on the road from Newburgh to 
Cleveland." Here the populace assembled from miles around, and "witnessed 
the performance of the 'Conjurer' taken from the Columbian Orator; the 
'dissipated Oxford Student,' also taken from the same book; 'Brutus and 
Cassius,' taken from the American Preceptor', and several other pieces. The 
various parts were conceded by the critics there to have been performed in 
admirable style . . . After the performance, my father, mother, two sisters and 
myself returned home, a distance of a mile and a half on the family horse. 
Two adults and three plump children, six to twelve years of age, might now 
be considered a rather large load to carry, and five on a horse, as may be 
supposed, would now render a cavalcade somewhat uncouth in appearance 
on the streets of Cleveland." The clergyman also conducted a school in 
Newburgh. 

Lorenzo Carter, frontiersman, community leader, and tavernkeeper, the 
most versatile of the early settlers, died in his tavern in February, aged forty- 
seven, afflicted with a wasting disease. His grave is in the Erie Street 



[1814] COMING OF LEADERS 73 

Cemetery, and his wife, Rebecca, is buried beside him. The Carter Tavern 
was leased by Phineas Shepherd — Shephard or Shepard. 

Levi Johnson built the schooner Pilot. Twenty-eight yoke of oxen were 
required to drag the craft from the Johnson boatyard to the river. This 
year also saw the erection of the first brick building, a store on Superior 
Street, built by Irad Kelley and his brother, Joseph Reynolds Kelley. 

On his land extending from Water Street to the river, Alfred Kelley 
"began the construction of a stone house on the bluff overlooking Lake 
Erie" (near West Ninth and Lakeside) for his parents, according to the 
Kelley Family History. His mother died before it was finished. This was 
Cleveland's first stone house, and, for years, the finest in town. It was not 
as pretentious, however, as homes elsewhere in the Reserve, where greater 
New England wealth was to be found, and where commerce and industry 
had gained a foothold. 

In May, the Court of Common Pleas had been in existence for four years, 
during which time 109 civil suits were entered, most of them being petitions 
for the partition of lands. Only seven lawyers appear on the record in this 
period — Alfred Kelley, Thomas D. Webb, Robert B. Parkman, Samuel W. 
Phelps, Peter Hitchcock of Geauga, who preceded Kelley as prosecuting 
attorney, John S. Edwards, and D. Redick. During the war years, there 
was little activity in the courts. 

Ozias Brainard of Connecticut had been living with his family west of the 
river (Denison Avenue) for a year when a train of six wagons, drawn by ten 
horses and six oxen, arrived. From Connecticut had come four more 
Brainards with their families — Asa, Stephen, Enos, and Warren, also the 
families of Elijah Young and Isaac Hinckley. Their enthusiasm for the 
frontier had inspired them to exchange their home lands for those offered 
for sale in the new territory west of the Cuyahoga River. Hinckley stopped 
to rest in Euclid, but the others pushed on to Cleveland. The news of their 
coming was alarming to the Cleveland Township trustees, who feared the 
"avalanche" of immigrants to be a band of paupers that would burden them 
for support. A constable set out to warn the caravan; and it was not until 
Alonzo Carter vouched for the newcomers that they were allowed to 
proceed. Isaac Hinckley carved a farm out of 360 acres of wilderness "a mile 
from anybody" (Schaaf Road district). Later came the Gates, Sears, Storers, 
Aikens, Fosters, Kroehles, and Poes to Brooklyn Township. 

Isaiah W. Fish, son of James Fish, was the first white child born west 
of the river, on May 9. 

With the arrival of Dr. Donald Mcintosh, Cleveland had two physi- 
cians. Although an able practitioner, he was restless and quick-tempered, 
and frequently risked his reputation at the expense of being a "good 
fellow." 

Alfred Kelley made a map of the village based upon SpafTord's map of 
1801, indicating on it the buildings in existence. It is interesting to note 
that a street crossing had not yet been introduced in the center of the Public 
Square. Some years later, Charles Whittlesey added shore lines to the map 



74 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1815] 

and showed important changes in the river entrance, based upon surveys 
beginning in 1796. 

In a clearing on his 17-acre tract east of the Square (EucHd and East 79th), 
Timothy Watkins built a cabin for his family and laid out a farm. Watkins' 
Tavern, erected on the Euclid Road, was the half-way house between the 
Public Square and Doan's Corners, and it served until 1867. To the south, 
a brook trickled merrily through the woods known as Watkins Glen, 

Newburgh Township was organized on October 15, and included 
practically all of township 7, range 12, in the Western Reserve. The first 
township officers were Erastus Miles, first clerk; Giles Barnes, Charles Miles, 
and Daniel Marvin, trustees. Gains Burke, one-legged and one-armed, was 
constable of the justice court — Newburgh's first policeman. Burke was 
elected county treasurer in 1827 and served until 1832. Newburgh produced 
many of Cleveland's most influential families, among them the Morgans, 
Wightmans, Peets, Hubbells, Baldwins, Hamiltons, Warners, Whites, 
Dilles, Gilberts, and Ingersolls. 

An 85-acre tract of land in Euclid Township was purchased by Paul P. 
Condit, of Morristown, New Jersey. Felled timbers were converted into 
Farmer's Inn, sometimes called the Condit House. It provided a "spell" for 
the traveler until 1859, when its days of public service ended. 

A charter of incorporation as a village was granted to Cleveland — spelled 
"Cleveland" — by the Ohio Legislature on December 23, largely through 
Alfred Kelley's efforts. At this time there were thirty-four dwellings and 
business places. Existing streets were Superior, Water, and Bank, the latter 
two merely wagon roads. Stores and most of the homes faced on Superior. 



1815 

Phinney Mowrey — Plinney Mowry or Mowery — was erecting his tavern 
in May at the southwest corner of Superior Street and the Public Square. 
It was a small log structure, situated on lot No. 82, which he had purchased 
from Samuel Huntington for $100 in 1812. Taverns and hotels were located 
here continuously through the years (Hotel Cleveland site). A spring near 
the barn was a favorite meeting place. 

Noble H. Merwin was favorably impressed upon his visit to Cleveland, 
and built a log warehouse at the corner of Superior and Merwin streets 
this year. The next year he brought his family from Connecticut, and his 
career of business importance began. Merwin Street in the "Flats" bears 
his name. 

Under the new charter, the first officials of the newly incorporated Village 
of Cleveland held a quiet election on June 5. Of the twelve male voters, nine 
received offices: Alfred Kelley, president, twenty-five years old; Horace 
Perry, recorder; Alonzo Carter, treasurer; John A. Ackley, marshal; George 
Wallace and John Riddle, assessors; Samuel Williamson, David Long, and 
Nathan Perry, Jr., trustees. Government was administered in a small frame 



[1815] COMING OF LEADERS 75 

building on Superior Street that had been erected by John Walworth. In 
the following March, Alfred Kelley resigned, and his father, Daniel Kelley, 
was appointed president. He served four successive terms. Trustees were 
empowered to pass and enforce ordinances, lay out streets, and operate as 
a council. The charter defined the village limits from Erie Street west to the 
river, and from Huron Street north to the lake. 

Village tap rooms were still echoing Perries Victory on Laf^e Erie, a 
triumphant ballad of twenty verses, when George Wallace purchased Spaf- 
ford's Tavern on June 13, and named it the Wallace House. Michael 
Spangler purchased Wallace's tavern and operated it as Spangler's Inn. 

Phineas Shepherd made a home for his family in the new land west 
of the river (near St. John's Church, Church Avenue and West 26th). 

In October, the village trustees laid out a number of streets to be known 
as St. Clair — named for General Arthur St. Clair, first governor of the 
Northwest Territory, Bank, Seneca, Wood, Bond, and Euclid. Diamond 
Street was to encompass the Square. These new streets were not shown on 
the early maps of Cleveland. Euclid Street was surveyed the next year. It 
extended from the Square to Huron Street. Its name was inspired, no doubt, 
by the little settlement of surveyors to the east; but as late as 1825, it was 
known as the Buffalo Road. When broad Superior Street was laid out parallel 
with the lake, it was expected to be the main thoroughfare; but as trade 
and traffic expanded, it deferred to Euclid. 

Robert Harper brought his bride to Shandy Hall, their new home nestled 
under locust trees (about a mile east of Unionville). In June, 1798, his father, 
Colonel Alexander Harper, with a party of twenty-five including his family, 
had claimed extensive lands in the area, where he established a home (on 
Johnny Cake Ridge). The pioneer died on September 10, 1798, having sur- 
vived the campaigns of the Revolutionary War and the rigors of two years 
and eight months as a prisoner of the British. He had named the new settle- 
ment Harpersfield after the old home in New York State. Colonel Harper 
was buried in a hollowed-out log in Unionville's little cemetery, which was 
later beautified and given to the town by members of the Norton family. 
His is the oldest marked grave in the Western Reserve. Additions to Shandy 
Hall were built in 1826, and seventeen rooms were fully equipped "with all 
that a good home of Jackson's time possessed," from French wallpaper to a 
priceless grand piano brought by oxcart from the ancestral home in Harpers- 
field, New York. The Harper house was occupied continuously for 120 years 
by the builder's family. When Mrs. Fred R. White, Laurence Harper Nor- 
ton, president of the Western Reserve Historical Society, and Robert Castle 
Norton inherited Shandy Hall from their father, David Z. Norton, they 
secured the assistance of George W. Bierce in restoring the homestead. The 
treasure-house was later placed under the care of the society as a public 
museum. 

Serenus Burnett settled on the Chagrin River in township 7, range 10, of 
the Western Reserve. Within a few years, Jesse Kimball, Rufus Parsons, 
John White, Theron White, Amos Boynton, and Thomas King were 
clearing farm land. In 1820, Orange Township was created, containing both 



76 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [ 1 8x6 J 

townships 6 and 7. It later became the townships of Solon and Orange. 
Chagrin Falls was formed from portions of these subdivisions and Geauga 
County in 1845. It was first called Morensi, and later named Chagrin Falls, 
originating in an Indian name meaning clear water. 



1816 

"Cleaveland never would amount to anything because the soil was too 
poor," observed a visitor, and he moved on toward Newburgh where he 
spent the night. Indeed, the area from Doan's Corners to the Public Square 
showed pitiful signs of settlement, according to Captain Lewis Dibble, who 
declared many years later: 

On leaving Doan's Corners, one would come in a little time to a cleared 
farm. Then down about where A. P. Winslow now lives (Euclid and E. 
71st) a man named Curtis had a tannery. There was only a small clearing, 
large enough for the tannery and a residence. There was nothing else 
but woods until Willson avenue was reached, and there a man named 
Bartlett had a small clearing, on which there was a frame house, the boards 
running up and down. Following down the line of what is now Euclid 
avenue, the next sign of civilization was found at what is now Erie street, 
where a little patch of three or four acres had been cleared, surrounded by 
a rail fence ... I don't remember any building between that and the Square, 
which was already laid out, but covered with bushes and stumps. 

Superior Street west of the Square was almost cleared, and teams could 
travel EucUd Road and part of Ontario Street, Water Street, Union and 
Vineyard lanes were mere paths. Mandrake Lane, Seneca and Bank streets, 
Ontario north of the Square, Superior to the east, and Erie, Bond, and 
Wood streets were still in the woods. Cleveland-Newburgh traffic had created 
a road out by Ontario Street. 

Ashbel W. Walworth was appointed corporation clerk in January, with 
well-defined orders not to "issue any amount of bills greater than double 
the amount of the funds in his hands." 

On the wooded river bank near the foot of Eagle Street, Levi Johnson had 
built the schooner Neptune, 65 tons, launching it this spring. It later 
engaged in the fur trade. 

The assessed value of Cleveland real estate was $21,065, including the 
entire plat surveyed in 1796. A tax of one-half of one per cent was laid on 
all lots in the township. 

The first application for divorce was filed this year. From 1820 to 1835, 
thirty suits were entered, but a large number were settled out of court. 

The capital of the State of Ohio was moved from Chillicothe to Columbus. 

John S. Strong headed a small party that settled Strongsville Township, 
No. 5, range 14, in the Western Reserve survey. They represented two 



[l8l6] COMING OF LEADERS 77 

influential land owners — Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut and Governor 
Caleb Strong of Massachusetts. In March, John Hilliard and his small 
family took up residence, followed by the Whitney, Haynes, Porter, Gilbert, 
Nichols, Goodwin, Cole, Avery, Bennett, Hall, and Smith families, early 
settlers who sought the Strongsville highlands. The first township election 
was held in 1818. The mill built by Strong in about 1821 was acquired by 
Cornelius Roy years later, and continued in the family. Ahijah Haynes, 
Sr., pioneer, built a homestead in 1830 that decade after decade was preserved 
by his descendants. 

Lack of a central bank made it difficult to finance the War of 1812, and 
the end of the conflict found the country flooded with unsound currency 
and its financial system in chaos. Despite arguments of unconstitutionality, 
enough support was secured to charter a new institution for twenty years, 
and the Second National Bank of the United States was established this 
year. Cleveland was to have a branch in the proposed new Commercial Bank 
of Lake Erie. 

Leonard Case "wrote a good hand and was a good accountant," and Judge 
James Kingsbury recommended that he be brought to Cleveland from 
Warren, Ohio, to be cashier of the new bank. Case came in June, as the 
first bank in the village was being organized. His salary was $800 annually. 
He was born in 1786 in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, the son of 
Meshach Case, a poor frontier farmer. His parents brought their large 
family to Warren Township in 1800. In 1801, Leonard suffered from ex- 
treme outdoor exposure leading to an illness that left him a cripple and in 
pain during his lifetime. This was, however, no handicap to his ambition. 
He served as confidential clerk to General Simon Perkins, land agent for 
the Connecticut Land Company in 1807, and studied law in his spare time. 
During the War of 18 12, he collected delinquent taxes. When Case came to 
Cleveland, he brought a valuable knowledge of the Western Reserve gained 
in the Warren tax office; and besides serving as cashier of the bank, he prac- 
ticed law and dealt in real estate. 

A fierce blizzard raged in the East, commencing June 17, and people froze 
to death. On August 30, another heavy storm swept through, and freak 
weather reigned throughout "the year without a summer." Ohio's frost- 
bitten crops yielded small return. 

There were fifty members in the little Plan of Union church founded by 
the Presbyterians and Congregationalists in Euclid Township, admitted by 
a stern session after strict evaluation of past actions, present beliefs, 
and rigid promises for future conduct. Having outgrown the crude log 
cabin, a white frame meeting house of New England architecture was erected 
this year in its place, the first in the county. The Rev. Thomas Barr was 
pastor until 1820. Ministers from Cleveland supplied the pulpit until 1825, 
when the Rev. Stephen Peet was ordained. In 1828, the First Presbyterian 
Society of Euclid (later First Presbyterian Church of East Cleveland) was 
organized. Staunch leaders of the caliber of the Rev. William H. Beecher, 
brother of the famed pulpit orator, the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, guided 
the congregation through eventful years. 



78 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1816] 

Levi Johnson was soon to have competition, now that Philo Scovill had 
come to Cleveland. He was the son of Timothy Scoville — who retained 
the "e," and he had come from his home in Buffalo with his talents of 
carpenter and joiner. Notwithstanding, he became interested in the drug 
and grocery business, which proved disappointing and unprofitable. Building 
a sawmill with Thomas O. Young on Big Creek, near Cleveland's southern 
limits, was more to his liking; and, once it was operating successfully, he 
commenced to take building contracts. There was business enough in the 
growing village for both Johnson and Scovill, and they prospered. Scovill 
Avenue is a monument to this pioneering family. 

Quicksand and storms put an end in a short time to the first pier, built by 
the Cleveland Pier Company. Leading businessmen headed this pioneer 
harbor development. 

The Commercial Bank of Lake Erie was incorporated by John H. Strong, 
Samuel Williamson, Philo Taylor, George Wallace, David Long, Erastus 
Miles, Seth Doan, and Alfred Kelley. It opened for business on August 6 
in the parlor of a house at the northeast corner of Superior and Bank 
streets. Alfred Kelley was president, and Leonard Case, cashier. 

Mindful of the need for education of the young, twenty-seven of Cleve- 
land's prominent citizens subscribed almost $200, in amounts ranging from 
$2.50 to $20, to erect a small school building in a grove of oak trees on St. 
Clair Street near Bank (Lincoln Hotel site). It was a typical early-day 
school, "one story, the size about 24 by 30, chimney at one end, door at the 
corner near the chimney, the six windows of twelve lights each placed high; 
it being an old notion that children should not look out to see anything." 
This was Cleveland's first schoolhouse. 

A two-acre parcel, sublot 84, at the southwest corner of the Public Square 
(portion of the Higbee store site) was purchased by Samuel Huntington 
for $1.12. In 1819, it was sold for $45; and on September 21 of the same 
year, the purchase price was $300. The property changed hands again in 
1834 for $630. 

Carter's warehouse had been undermined and washed away by high 
waters, and at about this time Leonard Case and Captain William Gaylord 
built the first frame warehouse in Cleveland, a little north of St. Clair Street 
on the river. Dr. David Long and Levi Johnson built another in the 
neighborhood "not long afterwards," and John Blair erected still another. 
Commerce was growing steadily. 

Daniel Kelley was appointed postmaster on October 22, and at the same 
time served as president of the village. 

Rufus Wright paid Gideon Granger $300 for three-quarters of an acre 
of land on the west bank of Rocky River (Westlake Hotel site). Here he 
built a large frame tavern from stout timbers cut from the thick woodland. 
The twin-gabled, squat structure with its wide porch was a welcome resting 
place for travelers for decades, and the location served hotel purposes con- 
tinuously through the years. 

Despite the claim that there were but two Christians in Cleveland, devout 
religious effort manifested itself this year. The house of Phineas Shepherd, 



[i8i7] 



COMING OF LEADERS 



79 



west of the river, was selected as the meeting place on November 9 "for the 
purpose of nominating officers for a Protestant Episcopal Church" in Cleve- 
land. Timothy Doan was chosen moderator, and Charles Gear, clerk; war- 
dens elected were Phineas Shepherd and Abraham Scott; Timothy Doan, 
Abram Hickox, and Jonathan Pelton, vestrymen; Dennis Cooper, reading 
clerk. The meeting adjourned "till Easter Monday next." This congregation 
became known as Trinity Parish of Cleveland, one of the earliest Episcopal 
churches organized west of the Alleghenies. 



1817 

Cleveland's trustees voted on January 13 to assume an interest in the new 
school building on St. Clair Street, declaring that the subscribers should be 



First schoolhouse built 
in Cleveland, on St. Clair 
Street near Bank. 




refunded their money from "the treasury of the corporation at the end of 
three years from and after the 13th of June, 1817." The village thus became 
the sole owner of its first schoolhouse, and at the same time manifested a 
glimmer of interest in the importance of education. Admission, however, 
was not "free, except to a few who were too poor to pay tuition. The town 
gave the rent of the house to such teachers as were deemed qualified, sub- 
jecting them to very few conditions. They were left to manage the school 
in all respects just as they pleased. It was, in short, a private and not a public 
school." Unmarried men of the village were compelled to pay the tuition 
of the poor, which was considered an equitable arrangement. Religious 
services were held in the schoolhouse regularly, "Judge Kelley offering 
prayer, a young man read the sermon, and my mother led the singing," 
related George B. Merwin in Recollections. 

Cleveland was having trouble making ends meet, and additional revenue 



80 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1817] 

was sought by taxing every horse in the township 50 cents, and every head 
of horned cattle 25 cents. Those persons Hkely to become a burden on the 
community were notified to leave town. Solving the problem of poor relief 
was as simple as that at the time. 

An unstable money market prevailed, and small change became so scarce 
in Cleveland that the trustees issued corporation scrip or "shinplasters" to 
the amount of $100, and running in value from 6% cents to 50 cents. These 
due bills, intended to relieve the situation, were pressed into use for personal 
obligations, as well, leading to much confusion. Silver dollars were cut into 
nine pieces and half dollars into five, each passing for a shilling; and a 
Spanish peseta, worth i8')4 cents, went also for a shilling. The Commercial 
Bank of Lake Erie was unable to withstand the troubled times, and it failed 
in 1820. The village felt the blow for years. 

At a vestry meeting held on March 2 in the Court House, a congregation 
called "Trinity Parish of Cleaveland, Ohio" was formed, and it was resolved 
that the persons present were attached to the Protestant Episcopal Church 
of the United States. Those present at the meeting held on November 9, 
18 16, were declared in attendance officially, together with John Wilcox, 
Alfred Kelley, Irad Kelley, Thomas M. Kelley, Noble H. Merwin, David 
Long, D. C. Henderson, Philo Scovill, the Rev. Roger Searle — or Searl — of 
Plymouth, Connecticut, and others. The little congregation could not afford 
to pay a minister for the first few years, and the services were conducted by 
laymen at the Court House, the schoolhouse, or members' homes. In the 
spring, Rev. Searle reported that the infant parish represented thirteen 
families and eleven communicants. 

Job Doan replaced his father's log tavern at Doan's Corners (Fenway Hall 
site) with a new structure. It was cut in two, years later, and moved to 
Cedar Avenue, east of East looth Street, where after more than a century it 
was still serving as a residence. 

One of Cleveland's earliest industrial products was the burr millstone, 
quarried in the Mill Creek area around Newburgh and cut by Abel R. Gar- 
lick on Bank Street. Millstones were soon shipped in quantities. 

In the summer, Alfred Kelley and his bride left Lowville, New York, 
where they were married, in a new carriage that he had purchased in Albany. 
Setting out for Cleveland, they found traveling difficult upon reaching Buf- 
falo. As the schooner lying at anchor was not ready to sail, they took a side 
trip to Niagara Falls, returning to find that the vessel had caught a favorable 
breeze and was on her way. Getting back in the rig, they started on the 
seven-day journey. Sometimes the newlyweds had to walk, but they finally 
reached their new home — ahead of the schooner! This was the first carriage 
in Cleveland. It set a pace for ambitious citizens, and was in great demand 
at public functions. 

Leonard Case and Elizabeth Gaylord were married at the home of her 
brother-in-law. Captain William Stowe in Portage County on September 28. 
Case borrowed Alfred Kelley's carriage to bring his bride to Cleveland. 
Until 1826 they lived in a frame house at Bank and Superior streets, which 
also housed the Commercial Bank of Lake Erie. Then they moved to their 



[l8l8] COMING OF LEADERS 81 

new home at the northeast corner of Superior and the Square, which also 
served as Case's business headquarters. 

When Irad Kelley became postmaster on December 31, he moved the Post 
Office to his brick store on the south side of Superior Street opposite Bank. 
Receipts for the year amounted to $500, and the postmaster retained one- 
fourth as compensation and expense for rent, fuel, and clerk hire. The priv- 
ilege of franking letters was considered a valuable asset to the chief of the 
office. Postage was never less than five cents, and twenty-five cents was 
charged for distances beyond 300 miles. 



1818 

The Commercial CofTee House on the north side of Superior Street, west 
of the Square, was the depot for the rumbling Conestoga wagons that labored 
from Pennsylvania into Cleveland loaded with nails, iron, and heavy freight, 
and drawn by four- to eight-horse teams. The arrival of a fleet of the brightly 
painted land frigates was the signal for the community to assemble and get 
a glimpse of the latest shinments from the East. The drivers were profession- 
als, receiving large salaries and dressing in furs and fine clothing. Their 
horses were geared with heavy harness, trimmed with bells, fur, and gleam- 
ing brass. The name Conestoga, or "stogie," also identified the strong black 
cigars, a foot in length to provide the drivers with a long, steady smoke as 
they pushed their teams overland. 

Some of Cleveland's taverns aflForded space for business purposes, at the 
same time catering to transient guests. They were considered as landmarks 
in the location of homes and commercial institutions. 

In bitter February, Ahimaaz Sherwin left Middlebury, Vermont, with his 
wife and baby daughter in a large sleigh drawn by two farm horses, bound 
for the western frontier. Taverns were widely scattered, and for ten days the 
temperature was below zero. From Buflfalo, they journeyed on the frozen 
lake, breaking through the ice near Dunkirk. On the eighteenth day, they 
reached Job Doan's tavern, at Euclid and Doan streets, where they found 
warmth and rest. Sherwin purchased 15 acresi of land on Euclid (at East 
96th). Here he built a humble home, and his parents from Vermont joined 
the family. In about 1820, he moved to Cleveland and established a carpenter 
shop at his residence. He was one of Cleveland's pioneer builders. 

The record speaks for Ara Sprague, who relates his impressions of Cleve- 
land upon his arrival in April: 

I arrived a few weeks after the first census — of the village — had been taken. 
Its population was, at that time, but one hundred and seventy-two souls; all 
poor, and struggling hard to keep soul and body together. Small change was 
very scarce. They used what were called "corporation shinplasters" as a 
substitute. The inhabitants were mostly New England people, and seemed 
to be living in a wilderness of scrub oaks. Only thirty or forty acres had 



82 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [l8l8] 

been cleared. Most of the occupied town lots were fenced with rails. There 
were three warehouses on the river; however, very little commercial busi- 
ness was done, as there was no harbor at that time. All freight and passen- 
gers were landed on the beach by lighter and smaller boats. To get freight 
to the warehouses, which were a quarter of a mile from the beach, we had 
to roll it over the sand. 

Faced with this menace to shipping progress, the villagers petitioned Con- 
gress for channel improvements, but without avail. 

There were three practicing physicians in the village, with the arrival of 
Dr. Israel Town. Later he opened a drug store, and announced free profes- 
sional service to prospective patients who purchased their medical require- 
ments from him. 

A circuit-riding Methodist preacher, who traveled northern Ohio, gathered 
together eight followers west of the river — Seth Brainard, Moses Fish, Wil- 
liam Brainard, Ebenezer Fish, and their wives, and organized the first 
Methodist Church society (later Brooklyn Memorial Methodist Church) in 
May. The log town hall (West 25th and Denison) was their place of wor- 
ship, A class formed in Newburgh this year did not survive. Then members 
formed a class at Euclid Creek three years later. In 1822, itinerant ministers 
began preaching in Cleveland. 

Brooklyn Township was organized on June i, embracing territory west 
of the river, excepting a farm owned by Alfred Kelley. This area later be- 
came Ohio City, West Cleveland, early Brooklyn Village, Brighton (South 
Brooklyn), Linndale, Brooklyn Heights, Brooklyn Village, and Lakewood. 
The first four were ultimately annexed to Cleveland, the others continuing 
to exist as independent municipalities. Corn was a principal product, and 
the name Egypt was proposed; but agreement finally settled on Brooklyn. 

Dorcas Hickox, sister of Abram Hickox, Cleveland's blacksmith, taught 
the first school in Brooklyn during the summer in the house of James Fish. 
A log schoolhouse was later built on David Brainard's farm. 

Mars Wagar, a student of Latin and Greek and a skilled writer, also had 
a background of mathematics and surveying. He was influenced to settle in 
Avon this year, and two years later he purchased 160 acres on Detroit Street 
(east of Warren Road) for $7 an acre. Later he bought iii acres on the west 
of his tract, and acquired 12 acres (along Belle Avenue) in trade for a yoke 
of oxen valued at $84. (The third Wagar homestead was razed to make way 
for the Bailey Company store, Detroit Avenue and Warren Road.) Mars 
and Wagar avenues in Lakewood perpetuated the pioneer's name. 

The burden of taxes rested heavily on the citizens, as assessments were 
levied for road, poor relief, corporation, and state purposes. Tax gatherers, 
it was affirmed, handled all the currency of the country. 

The first recorded ordinance, enacted in June, provided that "if any person 
shall shoot or discharge any gun or pistol within said village, such person so 
offending shall, upon conviction, be fined in any sum not exceeding five 
dollars, nor under fifty cents, for the use of the said village." 

On July 4, liberty-loving Americans saluted their new flag, authorized by 



[l8l8] COMING OF LEADERS 83 

Congress, with thirteen horizontal stripes and a union of twenty stars. 
Henceforth, a new star was to be added for every new state. 

Twenty-one boats entered or cleared the Cleveland port for BuflFalo and 
Detroit during the week of July 8-13. Cargoes consisted of household furni- 
ture, stoneware, salt, groceries, dry goods, whisky, livestock, pork, flour, 
butter, grindstones, and tallow. 

Cleveland's story of growth and promise had reached beyond the Atlantic; 
and when the schooner American Eagle arrived from Buffalo on July 22, it 
brought "six families of Irish, forty-seven passengers, three months from 
Ireland." The steady stream of foreign-born that followed exerted a lasting 
influence on the character and development of their new home. 

The first newspaper, The Cleat/eland Gazette and Comfnerctal Register, a 
weekly and rarely on time, was published in a small structure on the north 
side of Superior just west of Public Square (220 Superior, N.W.). The editor, 
publisher, and entire staff was Andrew Logan of Beaver, Pennsylvania, who 
brought a well-worn hand press and type with him by wagon. The first 
issue appeared on July 31, a four-page, four-column paper that sold for two 
dollars per year, if paid in advance, or three dollars otherwise. Headlines 
screamed "Shocking Murder" and "The Sea Serpent Again!" A featured 
quotation was Paine's "Where liberty dwells, there is my country." Editor 
Logan's first editorial characterized his consuming passion for liberty "as 
laid down by the Declaration of Independence and secured by the Constitu- 
tion, and the sovereignty of the people." News of struggles against tyranny 
in Mexico, South America, and Spain was given great prominence; and 
domestic news centered in an attack on the United States Bank, recently 
chartered and viciously opposed by the paper, the building of the Erie Canal, 
and the invasion of Florida. The name of the paper was soon condensed to 
Cleat/eland Register. In March, 1820, the brave little publication succumbed 
to its competitor and the paper shortage. The plant was advertised for sale, 
and Logan became the first village inspector, operating the new hay scales. 

Richard and Samuel Lord and Josiah Barber, of the firm of Lord & Barber, 
realtors, came to Brooklyn this year. Barber built his pioneer home on a 
bluff overlooking the river valley, the high, steep banks of Cleveland, New- 
burgh, and Brooklyn rising around it. Later a brick dwelling replaced the 
log house. Barber Avenue was named for this west-side leader. 

General stores had sprung up in a surprising number, engaging in friendly 
competition. As there was practically no money in circulation, country 
produce was accepted by the merchants in payment for goods. Elisha Taylor 
moved into his new store opposite the Commercial Coffee House in 
December, and offered a typical line of goods for sale: groceries, dry goods, 
paints, dyestuffs, drugs and medicine, crockery, glass, and chinaware. 

Price French had purchased 50 acres of forest-land in Rockport, from the 
Connecticut Land Company (north of Detroit Avenue, Lakewood), and 
to this wilderness he brought his wife and six children. At the conclusion 
of the War of 1812, in which he served as captain, his older brother. Lord 
French of England, died; but Price French frowned on the title and remained 
at the western frontier. French Avenue was named for him. 



84 



CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 



[1818] 



Leonard Case advertised 90 acres of land in Warrensville for cash, salt, 
flour, whisky, wheat, or rye. This notice characterized the trade of the times. 

A regular stage Hne commenced operation on August 11, leaving Cleve- 
land every Thursday for Chagrin (Willoughby), Mentor, and Painesville. 
The eighteen-hour trip included putting up for the night at Chagrin. The 
public was urged to ride the springless wagon with its plain board seats, 
and, after all, the Register declared, the canvas-topped mail coach afforded 
greater comfort than horseback. When the traveler climbed aboard, he 
reached for a leather strap fastened to the side of the coach that was standard 
equipment. With his life in the balance, he hung on, as the stage swayed 
and jostled mile after mile in the dust or mud; there was always one or 
the other. Strap-hanging was the style long before the advent of streetcars. 

Clevelanders lined the bluff overlooking the lake and crowded along the 
bank of the river as the W alkjin-the-W ater entered the port on August 25. 
The elegant little steamer, the first on Lake Erie, was named for an Indian 
chief who had served with the Americans after the War of 1812, and helped 




The Walk-in-the-Water, first steamboat on Lake Erie. 

to make the boilers for his namesake at Black Rock (near Buffalo). This 
was her maiden voyage from Black Rock to Detroit, a trip that required 
nine or ten days. She traveled at from eight to ten miles an hour, and 
accommodated 100 cabin passengers with a large number in the steerage. 
Tonnage is variously reported at from 240 to 342. As the sidewheeler 
approached, a field piece fired a salute from the shore. After a cheer for 
Captain Job Fish and his crew, a group of the populace were permitted to go 
aboard. The fare from Black Rock to Cleveland, including board, was $10. The 
proud vessel was driven ashore near Buffalo in November, 1821, and wrecked. 
In the morning, citizens assembled near the Commercial Coffee House on 
September 18 to learn why "all the strangers were in town." It developed 
that a meeting had been called to select a slate of candidates in the coming 
elections. Some of the thirty-six delegates — two from each town in the 
county — had brought women and children to shop, and the stores were 
thriving on the "rushing business." At the political pow-wow in the Coffee 
House, Elias Lee was chairman of the meeting, and the following candidates 
were recommended for office: Ethan A. Brown for governor; General Peter 
Hitchcock for congressman; John Campbell for state senator, and Philo 



[1819] COMING OF LEADERS 85 

Taylor for sheriff. In this small assembly, Cleveland's great convention 
business had its beginning. 

A supplementary treaty with the Wyandot, Shawnee, Seneca, and Ottawa 
tribes, eflfected October 17, permitted the Indians to hold as reserves about 
160 sections of land, with an addition to their annuities of $3,500. All claims 
to the fee of the lands reserved to them were reUnquished. The tract of Ohio 
land to which the Indian title was extinguished by the treaty amounted to 
about 6,000,000 acres. 

The newspaper of November 10 mentioned a stage performance, the 
Theater Royal, at the Shakespeare Gallery, No. i Superior Street, once a 
week, admission $1. This was a high price in the period of hard times. 

Eager to raise bigger and better crops, enterprising farmers met at the 
home of James Hillman in Warren on December 22 to organize the first 
Agricultural Society in the Western Reserve. Three years later a "Cattle 
Show and Fair" was held in the vicinity of Warren. It opened with "a plow- 
ing match," and included horse races. 

The popular sport with the men was hunting, and large numbers turned 
out, particularly for the big holiday hunt. Three hundred took part in 
an event at Chagrin (Willoughby) that netted two elk, seventy-five deer, 
twenty-three bears, seventeen wolves, and ten turkeys. 

This year witnessed the arrival in Cleveland of Reuben Wood, Vermont 
lawyer, who was to experience a distinguished career at the bar and in public 
office; Ahaz Merchant, surveyor and engineer, who laid out the most im- 
portant allotments in what was to become Ohio City, a portion of Brooklyn 
Township; Orlando Cutter, who opened a store with a $20,000 stock of mer- 
chandise — a big store in those days; Samuel Cowles, bus nessman and attor- 
ney; Levi Sargent — or Sargeant — with his family that included his young 
son, John H., who was to gain prominence as a civil engineer and railroad 
builder. 

1819 

Farming was the principal occupation around Cleveland, and the soil 
yielded good corn, grains, and produce. Invention of labor-saving machinery 
was encouraged, the latest equipment being a machine that operated 20 
flails, threshed 100 sheaves an hour and was worked by a horse. The cost 
of a cow and her year's "keeping" was estimated at $33; and a four-year-old 
stray horse, a natural trotter, was valued at $i8. 

Rockport Township, created on February 24, was bounded by Brooklyn 
Township on the east, Middleburgh Township on the south, Dover Town- 
ship on the west, and the lake on the north. Colonel O. J. Hodge, historian, 
relates that as the first election day approached, the outcome was pretty well 
determined. The candidates played safe, however, and provided a jug of 
free whisky. The spirits produced an unanimous victory, and until 1827 
the "jug ticket" won. Then Datus Kelley staged a one-man temperance 
campaign that abolished the practice. 

Court week opened on May i8, and the village was entertained with a 



86 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1819] 

wax museum in the ballroom of the Navy House operated by Dr. Donald 
Mcintosh. Featured were Washington, founder of the Republic; Monroe, 
the President; Commodore Decatur; an Indian warrior; and a Baltimore 
belle. Admission 25 cents, and half price for children. 

The Savannah, first American steamboat to cross the Atlantic, left 
Savannah on May 22 and reached Liverpool June 20 on her historic voyage. 
River men were laying plans for finer Cleveland-built vessels that would 
some day travel the trade routes of the world. 

Transportation charges were high for eastern goods, and there was 
antagonism toward foreign products. This resulted in a newspaper campaign 
to encourage home industries. It was not until a decade later, however, that 
manufacturing had its start. Community needs were supplied by the 
journeyman and apprentice form of labor. 

The Erie Canal was on the way to reality, and the subject of canals for 
Ohio dominated conversation and politics. The entire state was stirred, and 
the next year the Legislature authorized the appointment of commissioners 
with power to employ technical assistance to study the practicability of the 
canal project and make surveys. Benjamin Tappan, Alfred Kelley of Cleve- 
land, Thomas Worthington, Ethan A. Brov/n, Jeremiah Morrow, Isaac 
Minor, and Ebenezer Buckingham were appointed in 1822. Kelley was a 
firm believer in the inland waterway, and gave his best years and his brilliant 
efforts to the cause. 

State authority was exercised in local affairs, and prohibited the sale of 
more than 50 cents worth of liquor "to any resident of the county where 
a tavern is kept or within ten miles of it." Tavern keepers faced a fine of 
$50 and suspension of license for four months if there was rioting, revelling, 
or drunkenness. Peace-loving citizens welcomed the laws that would 
"secure the slumbers of the sober part of the community from the din and 
vociferations of the midnight fry," a local paper stated. 

Leather was Joel Scranton's stock in trade when he came to Cleveland 
this year; and his schooner-load of the highly essential commodity was the 
basis of his fortune. Scranton was a man of wisdom and keen merchandising 
ability. He purchased the "Scranton Flats," west of the river, and Scranton 
Road bears his name. 

With $3 in his pocket, John Blair, new arrival from Maryland, speculated 
in pork. He was lucky, and soon opened a produce and commission 
business on the river. Building a warehouse this year, he competed with 
Giddings and Merwin in the purchase of wheat. 

The "dandy" of the day dressed himself according to strict propriety. His 
hat brim was six inches wide, and a green or black ribbon was the style. 
The coat buttoned under the chin, had no pockets, sleeves hid the fingers, 
and any color was correct, excepting drab. The white or black vest was two 
inches longer than the coat, showing a strip in front when the coat was 
buttoned. A white-cambric or black-silk cravat was proper. Pantaloons, cut 
cossack or meal-sack pattern, reached within eight inches of the ankle, 
hanging in folds from the hips. Short boots laced before, and a watch chain 
of gold, black ribbon, or braided hair completed the costume. 



[1819] COMING OF LEADERS 87 

The Sunday School movement had spread beyond the mountains, and 
in June, the first reUgious school was formed. Elisha Taylor, of the Plan 
of Union Church in Euclid (East Cleveland), was the superintendent, and 
Moses White, a Baptist layman, served as secretary. For some time, about 
forty pupils attended. This pioneer organization developed into the First 
Presbyterian Church of Cleveland (Old Stone Church). 

Presbyterian missionaries organized a church in Brooklyn under the 
Plan of Union principle on July 25 with six members: Amos Brainard, 
Isaac Hinckley and wife, James Smith and wife, and Rebecca Brainard. 
The Revs. William McLean and S. J. Bradstreet of the First Presbyterian 
Church of Cleveland first served in the pulpit. Records reveal stern discipline 
of church officers in the forties. A deacon and his wife were expelled from 
the church for their belief in "universal salvation." Another deacon was 
admonished because of "rumors" that he used "very profane language." A 
good anti-slavery resolution forbidding invitation of a slave-holder to the 
pulpit and refusing a welcome to him at the Communion table was lost 
in debate. Years of hardship marked the first four decades of the church's 
"Presbygational" existence, when meetings were held in the town house 
and in homes of the community. Although fostered by the Presbyterians, 
it was incorporated as the First Congregational Society of Brooklyn (later 
Archwood Congregational Church) ; a Congregational meeting was recorded 
in early March, 1831. Official union with the Cleveland CongregationaHsts 
did not come, however, until 1867. 

The first issue of the Cleav eland Herald, with the "a" in the masthead, 
appeared on October 19 without a single subscriber. Eber — or Eben — D. 
Howe encountered many difficulties in publishing his new paper in the 
Z. Willes & Company plant that had been moved from Erie to Cleveland 
on Superior Street. Mails were carried on horseback weekly from Buffalo, 
Pittsburgh, Columbus, and Sandusky. Printing paper was brought by 
wagon from Pittsburgh, sometimes arriving too late for publication deadlines. 
In two years, the subscription list had grown to 300, scattered over the 
Western Reserve, except Trumbull County. Howe traveled 30 miles on 
horseback between Cleveland and Painesville, delivering the weekly in all 
kinds of weather, and with his tin horn announced the arrival of the latest 
news — usually 40 "news" days from Europe and ten days from New York. 
After two years, he left the Herald and moved to Painesville, where he 
established the Telegraph. Cleveland's second newspaper claimed to be 
independent of politics, but in 1832 it favored Democracy or "Jacksonianism," 
causing displeasure among the Cleveland Whigs. The Herald became a 
daily in 1835 and supported the Whigs. In 1819, Ohio had thirty-three 
papers, located in the most populous districts. 

Noble H. Merwin, Nathan Perry, and William Gaylord were appointed 
on November 22 to study ways and means for strict enforcement of an act 
requiring inspection of wheat and rye flour, buckwheat meal, Indian corn, 
biscuit, butter, hogs, lard, pork, and beef. Flagrant violations must be 
penalized, they declared. 



CHAPTER 5 



Beginning of Canal Commerce 

1820-1829 



DESPITE roads o£ "extreme badness," frontiersmen continued to make 
their way laboriously to the Western Reserve, where the ring o£ the 
ax echoed through the timberland, and self-reliance and resourcefulness were 
man's greatest assets. 

Cleveland was emerging from the log-cabin stage. Houses were small struc- 
tures, for the most part, with an occasional brick dwelling, located between 
Superior and Lake streets and Ontario and the river. Commerce and industry 
had not yet provided the wealth that made possible fine residences such 
as were found in other parts of the Reserve. Stumps dominated the Public 
Square, and forests rimmed it to the east. Euclid Street was a narrow 
thoroughfare through the woods, and only a few streets were entirely cleared. 
Yet an enthusiastic observer described it as "a pretty place nested upon a 
high bluff." Land in the "Flats" brought $7 per acre. Indians lived along the 
river. 

In 1820, the village ranked fourteenth in the Western Reserve, with a popu- 
lation of 606, according to the United States census. The metropolis of 
Ohio was Cincinnati, numbering 9,642; Chillicothe was second with 2,426; 
and Zanesville, third, with 2,052. Detroit had reached 1,422, and Youngs- 
town was not far behind, having just passed the thousand mark; Washing- 
ton, 13,247; Philadelphia, 63,802; and New York, 123,706. Ohio's population 
was 581,434, and that of Cuyahoga County, 6,328. 

The little Cleveland community was making some progress despite re- 
tarding economic influences. Trading was difficult, due to the great variety 
of paper money in circulation and the constant change in value. It was not 
unusual to see a man leave for market with a cow, and return with bartered 
purchases ranging from cast iron, salt, and utensils to whisky. Swindlers 
flourished by counterfeiting and issuing notes on non-existent banks. Lists 
of delinquent taxes in the newspaper reflected hard times and tragic failures. 

Canal commerce was inaugurated in the middle of the decade, when the 
Erie Canal opened in New York State, and its many benefits in facilitating 
trade soon inspired a feverish demand for waterways in Ohio. The success 
of the Ohio Canal stands as a monument to the foresight and abiUty of 
Alfred Kelley, who was instrumental in selecting Cleveland as the northern 
terminus. This new form of inland transportation had inched its way toward 
Newark as the decade closed. New markets were being opened, increas- 



BEGINNING OF CANAL COMMERCE 89 

ing wealth, broadening sectional feeling, and starting Cleveland on its way to 
future greatness. 

Thousands of workers were employed in building the Ohio Canal, and, as 
Cleveland grew, so did its problems of government and welfare. Irish and 
Germans had begun to crowd into the village, many of them political 
refugees from abroad, bringing strange languages and customs along with 
the best learning and culture the homeland had to offer. Near the river 
mouth on the West Side the Irish settled, while the Germans located on 
Superior and Garden streets and along Lorain Street west of the river. Wages 
were low, averaging about $8 for twenty-six "dry" working days. 

The Ohio Canal followed the east side of the Cuyahoga Valley as it ap- 
proached Cleveland, terminating at the river, where docks and warehouses 
had already been established. This valley, known as the "Flats," was Cleve- 
land's cradle of industry, forming a natural dividing line between the eastern 
and western highlands. Farms flourished on the heights, residential dis- 
tricts developed, and business and commerce gained a foothold. Deep ravines 
and gullies formed the physical boundaries between the early communities. 
Kingsbury Run was the line between early Cleveland and Newburgh. Big 
Creek Valley became the boundary between Cleveland and Brooklyn on 
the west, and later Doan Brook would separate Cleveland and Glenville. 
Highways followed the ridges, and the ravines would become the routes 
of railroads. 

As Cleveland gathered industrial strength, a campaign was launched to 
attract new industries. It advertised steam power at "trifling expense," power 
from the canal for mill purposes, and an "abundance" of iron ore. "No safer 
nor more profitable investment of capital" could be found. The twenties saw 
the establishment of primitive plants for making axes and tools, French 
burr millstones, hats, castor oil, gilt and mahogany-framed looking glasses, 
lumber, tin, sheet and iron products, chairs, guns, and castings. 

Super-selling was required to dispose of the first load of coal brought to 
Cleveland. Wood was plentiful and cheap, and finicky housewives refused to 
use the dirty, black fuel; but industry found it superior, and soon coal was 
firing the foundries and steamboats that broadened the lines of the lake 
city's commerce and trade. Realizing the potential importance of Cleveland's 
strategic location as a shipping center by lake and by canal, harbor improve- 
ments were undertaken, and the first steamboat was launched. 

Local merchants were now handling products of sister cities, and profiting 
by lower prices and shorter distances. From Pittsburgh came printers' sup- 
plies and glass; from Cincinnati, pottery; from Steubenville, fine-quality 
woolens, and iron came from the Canton and Youngstown area. 

A mushroom growth had begun to develop as canal-building progressed. 
The tavern bowed to a new hotel. Merchants did a thriving business in 
goods and wares shipped from the East to the new frontier market. As the 
population grew, Cleveland boundaries were extended and court facilities 
were enlarged. Fire protection was inaugurated, and a pubHc market was 
established. 



90 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 

The authorities, however, were not prepared for the rising tide of oppor- 
tunity seekers that were arriving by all manner of transportation; and as the 
decade closed, they were already confronted with serious problems of health, 
housing, and management. 

Among the newcomers during this period were John W. Willey, John 
W. Allen, and Sherlock J. Andrews, lawyers who gave distinguished public 
service; and Peter M. Weddell, Richard Hilliard, and Richard Winslow, in- 
fluential businessmen. They were men of unusual ability, whose wise leader- 
ship guided the community through years of economic chaos and unhealthy 
growth. With the coming of Harvey Rice, education had a champion not 
only in Cleveland but throughout the State. 

A few cultural institutions had taken root in Cleveland, and the citizens 
were manifesting greater interest in private schools. Forums and debates 
on topics of the times provided inspiring and valuable means of entertain- 
ment and enlightenment. 

Prosperity brought with it increased worldhness, and followers of the 
faith raised their voices against the curse of whisky and in defense of the 
enslaved. Trinity, Cleveland's first house of worship, was built by the Epis- 
copalians. Other denominations, weak in numbers, threaded their way to 
meeting, in log cabin or public hall, by oxcart or horseback. In Hudson, 
Ohio, staunch Presbyterians and Congregationalists had founded a new insti- 
tution that was to be guided by "the four basic controlHng ideas of religion, 
morahty, law observance, and education." Here Western Reserve University 
had its beginning. 

The regions from which Cleveland's early settlers came are revealed by 
Mrs. Gertrude VanRensselaer Wickham in Pioneer Families of Cleveland. 
Slightly over half had a New England background; one-third were directly 
from Connecticut, and one-third from New York and Pennsylvania. Many 
families in other parts of the Reserve came from Connecticut. Dr. Frederick 
C. Waite characterized the times by "trinitarian Congregationalism in relig- 
ion, democracy in government, agriculture as the major occupation and 
frugality in personal affairs." Yale College manifested its influence in the 
services of itinerant missionaries and college instructors for many years. 

Near the end of the decade, neighbors raised a sawmill without accident, 
without disputes, without profanity, and without ardent spirits, a report 
that was certainly worthy of public print. The desire to lend a hand brought 
out the community for miles around when there was a house, a barn, or a 
more pretentious building to be raised. Organized effort cut the timber, 
erected the scaffolding, and stayed with the job until the last nail was in 
place. Meantime, the women prepared a feast for the hungry builders, and 
made the most of the occasion by exchanging bits of gossip. This was a 
great day for young and old in the building of co-operative enterprise 
and friendly helpfulness. Together the citizens labored through pestilence 
in their battle with the wilderness. They were respectful and proud as they 
joined in displaying their accomplishments at the first fair, held on the 
Public Square. Cleveland was founded upon unselfish, united effort. 



[l820] BEGINNING OF CANAL COMMERCE 91 



1820 

The census of Cleveland showed a population of 606. Compared with the 
following, it was one of the smallest towns in the Western Reserve: Ashta- 
bula, 929; Austinburg, 720; Brooklyn (Ohio City), 348; Burton, 506; Can- 
field, 787; Chagrin Falls, 733; Elyria, 174; Euclid, 809; Hudson, 491; Huron, 
651; Jefferson, 150; Black River (Lorain), 354; Madison, 931; Newburgh, 
756; Norwalk, 579; Painesville, 1,257; Perry, 614; Poland, 990; Ravenna, 418; 
Sandusky, 243; Tallmadge, 742; Warren, 340; and Youngstown, 1,025. 

Dr. Donald Mcintosh had purchased Mowrey's Tavern on the Public 
Square for $4,500, and on January 25 he sold it to Leonard Case. In 1822, 
Case deeded it to Thomas Hartford for |8io. It was known as the Cleve- 
land House or Cleveland Hotel. 

Horace Perry was elected president of the village this year. He was suc- 
ceeded in 1 821 by Reuben Wood. Leonard Case served until 1825, when he 
failed to qualify on his election, and Eleazur Waterman, the recorder, be- 
came president ex officio. At this point the record is defective, but it is 
assumed that Waterman continued to serve until 1828, when poor health 
forced him to resign. Oirson Cathan, son-in-law of Lorenzo Carter, became 
president in May of that year; Dr. David Long in 1829; Richard Hilliard, 
1830-31; John W. Allen, 1832-35. Twelve votes were cast for Alfred Kelley 
in 1815; in 1835, Allen received 106, which is a fair indication of village 
growth. 

The Episcopal Church, called Trinity, had been in existence for about 
two years when the vestry adopted a resolution on Easter-Monday declar- 
ing "that it is expedient in future to have the clerical and other public 
services of the Episcopal Church in Trinity Parish, heretofore located in 
Cleveland, held in Brooklyn ordinarily, and occasionally in Cleveland and 
Euclid, as circumstances may seem to require." The majority of the members 
were residents of Brooklyn. 

Men's clothing was colorful, and elaborately tailored, as exemplified by 
the newspaper description of Joseph Smith, who disappeared in April, 
on his way to Painesville, where he was to exchange a load of castings for 
merchandise. Smith wore a light-drab great-coat without a cape, lined with 
red flannel; a black domestic coat with long skirts and metal buttons; a 
vest; loose, deep-green pantaloons; thick shoes; and new felt hat. Also miss- 
ing was his boy, who wore a faded black great-coat; butternut-colored coat; 
light, striped swansdown vest; blue pantaloons; and fur cap. 

Forums and debates emerged in the community. Lively themes provided 
heated pros and cons, such as "Ought Females of Full Age to have an equal 
share with Males in the Government of the Nation?," "Is Love a Stronger 
Passion than Hatred?," and "Do National Manufactures contribute more 
to the wealth of a Nation than National Commerce?." 

Blanchard's visiting troupe of entertainers gave the first professional 
theatrical performance in Cleveland in Mowrey's Tavern (Hotel Cleveland 



92 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1820] 

site) on May 23. The sensational event drew an audience from miles around, 
and the players performed nightly for a week, their features being The 
Purse Won the Benevolent Tar, and The Mountaineers. Admission was 
the high price of 50 cents, and 25 cents for children. 

Herschel Foote opened the Cleaveland Book Store in June, and promptly 
advertised "a general assortment of books and stationery" to "the inhabitants 
of the Western Reserve." Book titles related largely to theology, histories of 
foreign countries, travel in distant lands, and strange phenomena. As was 
the case with the newspapers, there was nothing relating to the Western 
Reserve or of local interest. A deal with a publisher or a paper mill may have 
prompted this advertisement: "Rags! Rags! Two cents per pound, in books, 
will be given for rags." 

Gunfire at sunrise announced the celebration of Independence Day. A 
procession started from Merwin's Hotel at ten o'clock, led by martial music. 
Officials, citizens, and strangers participated. At the Court House, the Dec- 
laration of Independence was read, and Alfred Kelley delivered an oration 
that filled four columns of the paper next day. At a banquet in the evening, 
twenty-three scheduled and ten volunteer toasts were proposed after the 
cloth was removed. Liberty was precious and inspiring to the pioneers. 

Horace J. Hulbert opened the first bindery in Cleveland early in July in 
the rear of Nathan Perry's store. Here he bound books and periodicals. 

The first stage set out for Columbus in the summer, and in the autumn, 
another line started to Norwalk, inaugurating rapid transit to the south. 
Wagon lines were estabUshed to Pittsburgh and Buffalo in 1821. In bad 
weather, "The traveler was sure to be called on to go on foot a large portion 
of the time, and was often expected to shoulder a rail and carry it from 
mudhole to mudhole to pry out the vehicle in which he was, in theory, sup- 
posed to be riding." The mail was soon carried by stage. 

In August, trustees enacted legislation to clean up the village. Owners 
who allowed their swine to run at large were fined $1 to I3; wandering 
geese rated penalties of not less than fifty cents; cattle permitted to roam 
during January, February, and March meant $1 fine for each oflfense. A 
pound was established for stray animals, with levies for maintenance. 
Butchering within the village limits was subject to a $50 fine, unless the 
platform "was kept well washed and cleansed so no unhealthy smell may 
arise." "Every dog, hound, cur, or spaniel was to be registered with the 
village recorder." Horse racing, shouting, disorderly conduct, and resisting 
arrest were outlawed. Strict measures regulated the licensing of public amuse- 
ments. Fines of from $5 to $15 were to be imposed on householders for each 
month's delay in providing their fireplaces with adequate "good leather 
fire bucket" protection. Fire hazards were great in these early days, when 
practically everything in the home was made of wood, and a spark from a 
blazing fireplace might easily bring destruction. Fires must be well secured 
after nine o'clock in the evening under penalty of $50 fine. Juvenile delin- 
quency may have prompted the law which made "all parents, guardians or 
masters of any child, children, infants or wards punishable for their 
children's offenses against the village." 



[l820] BEGINNING OF CANAL COMMERCE 93 

With the village "inspector" rested the responsibility of enforcing many 
of the new laws enacted by the trustees. History is hazy, but Andrew Logan 
is credited with being the first inspector, and at the same time the operator 
of the new hay scales. 

The village authorities advertised on August 15 that they would receive 
bids to dig and stone a public well near Bank and Superior streets, the 
diameter to be ten feet at the bottom and six feet at the top. 

Elisha Taylor's Bible class met in the Court House on September 19 and 
organized the First Presbyterian Church of Cleveland (later Old Stone 
Church). Signing the charter were Elisha Taylor and his wife Ann, Samuel 
I. Hamlen, Phihp B. Andrews, Mrs. Sophia L. Perry, Mrs. Bertha Johnston, 
Sophia Walworth, Mrs. Mabel Howe, Henry Baird and his wife Ann, 
Rebecca Carter, Juliana Long, Isabella Williamson, Harriet Howe, and 
Robert Baird and his wife Nancy. When the Rev. Randolph Stone was 
engaged as pulpit supply, fifty-seven men signed the subscription list for his 
support. The Rev. William McLean came to the pulpit in 1822, followed 
by the Rev. Stephen J. Bradstreet, who served until 1830. For more than a 
decade, the congregation, popr in earthly goods but rich in spirit, worshiped 
in the Court House and in public meeting halls. 

A dancing school was opened in October for ladies and gentlemen, with 
tuition at $5 per quarter. 

Fifty feet of land on Superior Street (east of West 9th) was purchased 
by Timothy Scoville from Nathan Perry for $300. In 1830, Scoville sold it 
to his son, Philo, for double the figure. 

The Isaac Hinckleys in Brooklyn Township had new neighbors this 
year, when Edwin Foote claimed 640 acres of adjoining land that had been 
awarded him for surveying the area. Together they controlled a large, 
fertile tract (north and south of Schaaf Road, from about West nth 
Street to the top of Schaaf Road hill) that was gradually reduced to smaller 
farms. When a German named Schaaf moved into the district (Brookpark 
and Schaaf roads), the turnpike assumed his name because of the large 
number of his children who traveled it. 

Two runaway slaves, Martin and Sam, had escaped from their owner at 
Clarksburg, Virginia, and were captured by Joseph Keeler (in Inde- 
pendence), who claimed the $500 reward. While trying to return them, 
he was arrested at Hudson upon a kidnaping charge and the Negroes were 
released. On November 6, he was tried in Cleveland before Judge George 
Tod. Alfred Kelley was prosecuting attorney, and Samuel Cowles and 
Reuben Wood represented the defense. At the end of the spectacular 
two-day trial, Keeler was found guilty. This was the first trial of a slave- 
hunter in Cleveland. 

A twenty-eight-page missionary drama entitled Catherine Brown, the 
Converted Cherokee was signed "Written by a Lady," and recognition 
of Cleveland's first author is lost forever. The pamphlet was printed on the 
presses of Z. Willes & Company and sold for i2/^ cents. 

The price of flour was about $2.50 per barrel; wheat, 37 cents per bushel; 
corn, 25; rye, 31; oats, 18; hay, $6 per ton; beans, 50 cents per bushel; but- 



94 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1821] 

ter, 8 cents per pound; cheese, 6; pork, 3^,; beef, 4; sugar, 5; whisky, 20 cents 
per gallon. Storekeepers accepted pork, whisky, and beeswax in payment o£ 
merchandise, with special preference for "ginseng with the curls taken ofl." 



1821 

Private subscription schools provided educational opportunities for those 
who could afford them. State legislation relating to education was confined 
to the passage of bills authorizing the incorporation of seminaries, religious, 
and educational organizations, and arranging for the lease of school land. It 
was not until this year that village and township trustees were authorized 
to establish public schools by levying taxes. Local taxpayers, however, resisted 
another burden, and for many years private schools carried the load. There 
were no citizens of wealth in Cleveland; and the institutions that were 
established were supported from the modest means of public-spirited 
pioneers, interested in educational advancement. 

The township tax amounted to |86.02. 

In his dealings as land agent, Leonard Case was obliged to take over 
two-acre lot No. 63 (Federal Building site) in settlement of a debt. Reluc- 
tantly he paid $266.50 for it. In 1826 he moved his family into the beautiful 
Case homestead that he had built on the property. In 1856, the Federal 
Government purchased 199 feet on the Square and 105 feet on Superior 
Avenue for $30,000 for the site of a Federal Building. 

Gypsum, or plaster of paris, was discovered on the government lands 
bordering Sandusky Bay, and Clevelanders could expect to pay a cheaper 
price for this essential product. 

An election or appointment to public office was equivalent to a draft, and 
a fine was imposed upon a man who declined to serve. When Peter M. 
Weddell refused an appointment as overseer of the poor, he was fined $2. 
Weddell had first come to Cleveland in 1802, a fatherless Kentucky lad of 
fourteen, used to hardship. He found work in a general store, and five years 
later became a partner. When the senior partner died, young Peter went to 
Newark, Ohio, for a time. He married Sophia Perry, daughter of Nathan 
Perry, Sr., and returning to Cleveland, he opened a store on Superior Street. 
Keen in business matters, Weddell had a talent for making money, and in 
1823 he built a pretentious dwelling and store on the northwest corner of 
Superior and Bank streets. His mercantile business became one of the largest 
in Ohio. 

A Connecticut citizen, by name Dr. Hand, put his impressions of Cleveland 
into letters which he wrote to his brother at home. He was particularly 
impressed with women's dress in the Western Reserve, as shown by his 
comments : 

Caps are little worn by the women except on Sabbaths or other high days, 
and they are such as worn long ago, as I can remember. As to the bonnets. 



[l822J BEGINNING OF CANAL COMMERCE 95 

I will describe them as well as I can. I have seen three or four imported 
from New York of the Dunstable kind, and quite in fashion, and as to the 
rest, they are something like a parson's wig, and it would hardly be con- 
sidered as idolatry to worship them as they were in the likeness of nothing 
on earth. The stuff of which they are made is every kind of cloth from silk 
to flannel. I have just seen one made of yellow flannel quilted and trimmed 
with fur of muskrat, and it is made to set close to the head answering 
the purpose of an ordinary skull cap. Some are made of chambray and 
trimmed with scarlet, crimson, green, or any colored ribbons. Some are 
white trimmed with any of the vast varieties which can be made by a com- 
position of all of the colors of the rainbow. 

Departing from his report on caps and bonnets, the doctor continued: 

The gowns worn by women as dress gowns in winter are either light- 
colored calico, or new domestic flannel of any color which may please the 
wearer. Crapes, silks, or even bombazetts, are seldom seen on the Reserve, 
although there are a few which are occasionally worn by the wealthiest 
people. The dress of misses on gala days is in many instances a yellow 
flannel frock, with a small ruffle, sometimes of muslin; but more frequently 
of colored cotton stuff with one of the above described bonnets and a stout 
pair of cowhide shoes. 

Commenting in an offhand manner, Dr. Hand wrote: 

The men generally dress in homespun cloth and in many cases appear 
quite decent on days of exhibition. It is much the custom here to overlay 
pantaloons on the seat and the inside and front of the legs with sheepskin. 
A small part of the community, both male and female, dress with some 
good degree of taste and neatness. 

Farmers took pride in their agricultural achievements, some of their 
produce assuming gigantic proportions, on testimony of the Herald. Major 
E. Taylor grew a radish 3 feet long, 20 inches in greatest circumference, and 
weighing 11^ pounds when stripped for market. The largest pumpkin of 
the season measured 6 feet, 10 inches in circumference, and weighed 131^ 
pounds. Whether or not these figures are exaggerations, in later years the 
fertile soil of Cuyahoga County produced the largest and most concentrated 
greenhouse area in the United States. 



1822 

"This morning throws us into the year 1822, sans ceremony," announced an 
editorial in the Herald of January i, "and there is not really felt any hesitancy 
in entering it with all and singular every token of benevolence that the 



96 Cleveland: the making of a city [1822] 

most unbounded philanthropy can dictate. . . . Our Country has run ahead 
of her income; acknowledges her financial deficiencies, and has committed 
her credit to the ordeal of such as have been wiUing to put it to the test, but 
she holds high expectations of her future destinies; means to condnue 
steadfast at the watchtower in view of better times, and intends to live to 
see a return of the golden days of prosperity." Reporting on the latest state 
legislation, a letter dated in Columbus, December 16, 1821, declared that 
the bill reducing the pay of members to $2 per day had passed the House; 
the governor's salary was fixed at $1,000; salaries of the auditor and secretary 
of state were reduced to $200 each, and the state treasurer's salary to $300. 
From the column devoted to the "weekly corrected bank-note exchange," 
it was learned that Pennsylvania banks were all sound; and that there was 
not a single bank in Ohio whose notes were quoted at par, Ohio bank notes 
being discounted at from one per cent to as high as 75 per cent. Crowded 
into the advertising section were the public notices of the few business 
houses offering their stocks in exchange for cash, pork, flour, whisky, and 
essential commodities. Local news was pitifully scarce, and in these cramped 
little ads, weighted with type, was the story of Cleveland's forward march. 
Having reported the news of the world to its readers, the Herald disclosed 
its poor financial health in a sentimental New Year poem: 

Does the mechanic cease to fret 
Over the long unsettled debt 

Due from the rich delinquent? 
Can printers yet escape from care 
And hope for punctual payment where 

Their labor and their ink went? 

Then followed an urgent and realistic appeal to the editor's delinquents: 
"Wood! Subscribers to this paper who wish to pay in wood must deliver it 
soon." 

Real-estate transactions reveal the meager education of some of the early 
justices, and their struggle to phrase and spell in keeping the public records. 
Job Doan, esteemed and a credit to his office, witnessed a deed as follows: 
"Personly appeared John Gould and his wife, PhiHnda Gould, she being 
examing separate and a part from Her Husband. They acknowledg the 
with in Instrument to be there free act before me at Cleveland This 26th 
day of Jany, A.D. 1822." Justices were now permitted to draw marriage 
covenants and perform the nuptial ceremony. 

John W. Willey, twenty-five. New Hampshire lawyer, towered head and 
shoulders in importance above the newcomers to Cleveland this year. He was 
to become outstanding in his profession, and a leader in municipal, judicial, 
and legislative affairs. 

On Giddings Street there was a private school — a block log house, 15 by 20 
feet, with five windows and a six-foot fireplace. George Watkins, son of 
Timothy Watkins, attended this school. He relates that "We wrote with a 



[l822] 



BEGINNING OF CANAL COMMERCE 



97 



goose quill, and every morning the master set our copies and mended our 
pens. We had school but three months in the winter." 

Noble H. Merwin, river man, built and launched the 44-ton schooner 
Minerva at the foot of Superior Street in March. Her chain, fashioned on a 
Cleveland anvil, was one of the first products of home industry. To test its 
strength, it was fastened to a butternut tree, and the strain of twelve yoke of 
oxen parted it. "When she was launched," George B. Merwin relates, "I 
stood on the heel of her bowsprit, and as she touched the water, christened 
her, by giving her my mother's name, 'Minerva' and broke a gallon jug of 
whisky over her bows, as was the custom on similar occasions in those times. 
She was dispatched to Mackinac, loaded with provisions, for the garrison 
on that island, and made the round trip in four weeks, which at that time 
was regarded as a wonderful achievement." 




The Cleveland 
Academy, opened in 
1822, stood on St. 
Clair Street opposite 
the first schoolhouse. 



Ulysses Simpson Grant was born at Point Pleasant on the Ohio River on 
April 27, He was to become the eighteenth President of the United States. 

Noble H. Merwin purchased the Wallace House on June i, and in its place 
built a two-story frame tavern with a grand name, the Mansion House, a 
favorite for twenty years. Fire destroyed it in 1835, when the south side of 
Superior Street was reduced to ruins. 

In June, local merchants inaugurated a price war that lasted through the 
year. Nathan Perry fired the opening gun with an advertisement of new 
goods from New York offered on "better terms." Orlando Cutter purchased 
large space to herald "New Goods" of as good quality and equally cheap. 
The battle went on for months. Cutter failed to survive the price-cutting 
campaign, and sold out the following spring. 

The Cleveland Academy opened on June 26 on the north side of St. Clair 
Street, nearly opposite the first schoolhouse, under the direction of the Rev. 
William McLean. His prices per twelve-week term were: Reading, spelling, 
and writing, $1.75; grammar and geography, $1 additional; Greek, Latin, 



98 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1823] 

and the higher mathematics for a grand total of $4. The brick building was 
about 45 by 25 feet, and had a handsome spire. Two schoolrooms occupied 
the lower story of the little building with its proud bell tower, and the upper 
floor was used for reHgious services, lectures, and public purposes. 

Wolves roamed the neighboring forests and preyed upon farmers' stock. 
To encourage extermination, the Legislature offered a bounty of $3 for 
the scalp of a grown wolf, and $1.50 for each scalp of animals under six 
months. 

Isaac Warren, an original stockholder in the Connecticut Land Company, 
settled this year in Rockport Township on the land he had purchased 
(Warren Road and Madison Avenue, Lakewood). In 1824, Warren Road 
was laid out. 

At about this time, Ralph Russell, Warrensville farmer, established a 
Shaker colony, knov/n as North Union (in Shaker Heights), after having 
become a follower when he visited the sect near Warren. In its most 
prosperous days, from 1840 to 1858, the Cleveland society numbered about 
two hundred, and owned approximately 1,400 acres of land. They were a 
respected, energetic, peaceful people, and farmers came from miles around 
to have their grain ground in the Shaker mills. The Shakers' establishments 
included a grist-mill, a sawmill, a woolen factory, a woodenware works, 
a tannery, a linseed-oil mill, and a broom factory. In This Cleveland of 
Ours, Wilfred H. Alburn gives a comprehensive story of the Shakers. 

Rutherford Birchard Hayes, born at Delaware, Ohio, on October 4, 
became the nineteenth President of the United States. 

A reward of $30 was announced by Seth Doan, Cleveland sheriff, for 
the apprehension of Stockwell S. Hillibert, who escaped from the county 
jail in the little log Court House on the Public Square. The fugitive, who 
had been awaiting trial for passing counterfeit money, was arrested in 
December in New York State. 

One of the early newspapers in the Western Reserve was the Sandus\y 
Clarion (later Sandusky Register-Star-N eu/s) , founded this year, edited and 
published by David R. Campbell. It became a daily in 1848, and was a 
charter member of the Associated Press. 

The new lower bridge across the Cuyahoga River was completed this 
year, a "free bridge," of sturdy whitewood timbers. Citizens subscribed 
to it in labor or in produce — 50 cents per bushel for wheat, 25 cents for 
corn, 25 cents per gallon for whisky, and I7 per thousand feet of lumber. 
This floating structure could be drawn aside, allowing boats to pass on 
the river. It was Cleveland's first bridge. 



1823 

The Traveler's Guide or Pocl{et Gazetteer of the United States, published 
by Jedidiah Morse, D.D., and Richard Morse, A.M., gave a quick picture 
of the "capital" town of the Western Reserve: "Cleveland — post town and 



[1823] BEGINNING OF CANAL COMMERCE 99 

capital of Cuyahoga County, O., at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, on 
Lake Erie, 54 miles N.W. Warren, 150 miles N.E. Columbus, 60 miles 
E. Sandusky, 180 miles W. Buffalo, 131 miles N.W. Pittsburgh. Population 
606 (1820 figures). It has a bank. It is favorably situated for trade and is 
one of the principal places for embarkation on the lake." 

This v^as the era of road-building. A growing demand for improved 
public highways resulted in action by the State toward laying out a "free 
road" from Cleveland to the Ohio River in Columbiana County. The stage- 
road to the southwest was converted to a turnpike by private interests — one 
of the best highways in Ohio; and the following year, another state road 
was laid out, running from Cleveland (along Kinsman) through Warrens- 
ville and Orange. These wagon and stage roads were primitive indeed, 
but the traveling public was obliged to use them until the advent of the 
railroad. 

Progress in the East inspired citizens to meet on March 29 at the Court 
House to establish the Cuyahoga County Agricultural Society. Farmers' 
prosperity was reflected in the development of Cleveland business generally. 
Flour had sold for $2.50 per barrel in a slow market not so long before; 
now it brought from I5 to $5.25 and moved rapidly, principally to Buffalo. 
The raising of hemp was introduced on farms in the locality. 

Leonard Case was responsible for an ordinance regulating the planting 
of shade trees on village streets, and starting the Forest City on the way to 
fame. Case was the first auditor of Cuyahoga County. While serving in 
the State Legislature, he was a champion of the canals, and he drafted the 
first bill providing for taxation of Ohio lands according to their value. 

With the establishment of a paper mill in Brooklyn, the Herald purchased 
a supply and on May 29 printed the publication on the first paper made 
in the Western Reserve. To have paper so close at hand was a great boon 
to printers. The Herald editor indulged in the making of printing ink 
on the side, and produced a good quality with local ingredients to sell at 
50 cents per pound. 

Dutch immigrants erected a distillery for producing gin and brandy, 
which was followed by a series of breweries and some thirteen tanneries. 
The first legitimate chemical product was "saleratus" — bicarbonate of soda, 
a food-leavening agent, and a commercial alkali for soap-making. It was 
produced from wood ashes by West Side manufacturers. 

There was wisdom in Richard Hilliard's decision to abandon school- 
teaching in New York State and come to Cleveland. Here, as a young 
merchant in his late twenties, he built up a large dry-goods and grocery 
business that was profitable, and enabled him to build a brick block on 
Water Street at the corner of Frankfort. Until his death in 1856, Hilliard 
was one of Cleveland's leading figures. 

Job Doan and associates, acting as "The Society for a Publick Burying 
Ground in the East Part of Cleaveland near Job Doan's Esqr," purchased 
about an acre and a half of land from John F. Strong (northwest corner 
of Euclid and East 105th) for $40 this year. Stately elms bordered the 
property, and for many years the north end was used as a cemetery, while 



100 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1^24] 

the south portion served as a village common. In 1895, a frontage of 118.5 
feet on Euclid at the corner was purchased by the Euclid Avenue Congre- 
gational- Church at a tax sale for $1,021.02. Ten years later, after H. Clark 
Ford had laboriously cleared the title at considerable expense, the Cleveland 
Trust Company paid $40,000 for the parcel. 

A news item announced that the Christmas sport would be "to expose 
to the aim of our sharpshooters a few dozen geese, pigs, dunghill fowls, etc. 
Pigs at 350 feet, 9 cents a shot, dinner for all and spirits at a low rate." 



1824 

Newspapers carried an advertisement of a commission of the Presbyteries 
of the Western Reserve, for 60 acres on which to found a college for the 
education of young men for the ministry, as the Burton Academy did not 
meet educational requirements. Cleveland passed up the opportunity. 
Hudson's citizens, however, offered a high, healthful location and subscribed 
$7,500, while David Hudson, the village founder, gave $2,142 and 160 acres 
of land for the future home of Western Reserve College (later Adelbert 
College of Western Reserve University). A charter with broad powers 
was secured in 1826, and support came largely from the Presbyterian and 
Congregational churches. 

Redistricting of the State took place from time to time until now there 
were twenty medical units, with Cuyahoga and Medina counties in the 
nineteenth medical district. From three to five censors were elected in each 
district to approve applications of those who wished to practice, and to 
deal with vendors of high-powered patent medicines and cure-alls. 

The first convention drawing delegates to Cleveland from outside the 
county was held in May for the purpose of organizing "quaUfied physicians 
and surgeons" of the nineteenth district. Dr. Donald Mcintosh, physician 
and proprietor of the Navy House, is acknowledged as the first Clevelander 
to influence a convention to meet in the village. Impressed with their 
welcome, the society returned for most of its sessions until 1832, when it 
faded from history. Leaders in medical affairs in Cleveland were Drs. 
David Long, N. H. Manter, George W. Card, Bela B. Clark, and John M. 
Henderson. Dr. Mcintosh lost his life when thrown from a racing horse 
in 1834. 

Levi Johnson and the Turhooven brothers launched the Enterprise, 
about 220 tons, the first steamboat built in Cleveland, just below the foot 
of St. Clair Street. The vessel carried merchandise from Buffalo to Cleveland 
and lake towns. Johnson's lake experience gained during the War of 1812, 
led to realization of the need for improved facilities. Primitive craft, joined 
with wooden pins, did not meet the demands of increasing lake commerce. 
There was great need for shipbuilders and caulkers as the new industry 
kept pace with the city's trade expansion. 

Harvey Rice of Massachusetts, twenty-four-year-old graduate of Williams 



[1825] BEGINNING OF CANAL COMMERCE 101 

College, was a poor boy who worked his way through school. He and his 
traveling companion were rowed into Cleveland from a sailing vessel on 
September 24, and landed at the foot of Union Lane at midnight. Shoulder- 
ing their trunks, they groped their way in the darkness to Spangler's tavern, 
where they lodged. "Entering the bar room, which was lighted by a solitary 
candle," Rice relates, "we stumbled over several teamsters who lay fast 
asleep on the floor laboriously engaged in complimenting the landlord with 
a nasal serenade. This was the first musical concert that I attended in 
Cleveland." In the morning, Rice spent a half hour surveying the Public 
Square, "begemmed with stumps" with here and there a house nestled among 
the trees around it. Then he traveled down St. Clair Street to the Academy. 
The next day he was appointed principal and teacher of classics. Chemistry 
and natural and moral philosophy were added to the course of study, and 
"vulgar arithmetic" continued to be taught. Rice abandoned teaching in 
1826 for the law profession, and through his pioneering educational plans 
he became known as the father of Ohio's free public schools. 

Rufus and Jane Pratt Dunham, of Mansfield, Massachusetts, purchased 
13^ acres of land facing Euclid Road for $147, and here they built their 
log home (Dunham Tavern site) . 

At the northeast corner of a lOO-acre lot, wooded and extending to the lake, 
Nathan Perry, Jr., built the Perry House (the center portion of the historic 
house at 2157 Euclid Avenue, with its quaint porch, entrance, and cupola. 
As the family grew, it expanded with their needs.). Here the Indians brought 
furs to Perry, often spending the night bundled in blankets before his 
friendly fire. Traveling musicians were his guests, and from a balcony they 
played for the famous Cleveland parties. 



1825 

The Cuyahoga River emptied into the lake at a point west of what later 
became the harbor entrance. A low sandbar ran out from the eastern shore 
of the lake, and the depth of the water at the river mouth was only 3 or 
4 feet; but after crossing the bar, the depth was 15 feet. By an Act of 
Congress passed on March 3, $5,000 was appropriated for the building o£ 
a pier at Cleveland as a solution to the navigation problem; but the 
600-foot-long jetty brought no relief, as sand continued to fill in as rapidly 
as before. In 1827, an additional $10,000 was provided, and a new and more 
direct channel was opened at a point where a bend of the river carried it 
near to the lake shore. A dam was built across the river, opposite the south 
end of the experimental pier. When high water came, men with spades 
and teams with scrapers dug a trench across the isthmus from the river to 
the lake. With the first break in the outlet, the force of the water came 
into play and the work was about done. An eastern pier, built parallel to 
the first, increased the velocity of the current and scoured away the bar. 
Through the river-straightening process, 8 acres of Cleveland — part of the 



102 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1825] 

Carter farm — were thrown into what became Ohio City. This old river 
bed was rich in soil, rushes, bullfrogs, and game. By 1840, $75,000 had been 
used in harbor improvement to good advantage. 

Asa Brainard baked the brick for the first brick house in Brooklyn 
Township, built this year (Scranton Road and West 25th Street). It was 
the popular stopping point for drovers who brought their herds to the 
Cleveland markets. The tavern was later modernized with a handsome three- 
story front and pillared porches. Grace Hospital took quarters in the rear. 
The tavern finally became a rooming house, then a night club, and it was 
razed in 1937. 

Cleveland's newspaper had grown in importance and page size. At the 
expense of news from South America, advertising space was increased not 
only through the patronage of local merchants, but also those of Newburgh, 
Medina, Euclid, Elyria, Tappanville (Ravenna), and Buffalo, who saw in the 
village a market newly created by the steamboat and the advent of the canal. 

Canal, Michigan, Champlain, and a portion of Seneca streets were laid 
out. Paving was believed unnecessary, as the coarse native gravel and sand 
afforded quick drainage of the heaviest rainfall, according to a local news- 
paper. A tax of one-fourth of one percent was levied on all village property 
this year. 

Largely through Alfred Kelley's efiforts, Cleveland was selected as the 
northern terminus of the Ohio Canal. Rival towns wanted the canal badly, 
and the commissioners found great difficulty in compromising with the 
many interests. Five natural routes were available, and two major canals 
were finally recommended. One was a 309-mile route starting at Cleveland 
and following the Cuyahoga Valley to Massillon, Coshocton, Newark, 
Chillicothe, to Portsmouth on the Ohio River, to be known as the Ohio 
Canal. This choice was inspired by the large natural reservoir of water in 
the Portage Lakes. A second route, to be known as the Miami and Erie 
Canal, was planned from Toledo to Cincinnati, to serve the western part 
of the State. 

The first shovelful of earth was turned by Governor DeWitt Clinton of 
New York, on Licking Summit, just west of Newark, on July 4, marking 
the beginning of construction of the Ohio Canal. Prior to the inauguration, 
an impressive reception was staged at the Mansion House in Cleveland 
for the governor and dignitaries. Warehousing and forwarding men, how- 
ever, were gloomy as they realized what this new competition in transporta- 
tion would do to overland hauling of wheat, pork, flour, potash, and 
produce by wagon. 

Spirited citizens advanced a step beyond the militia and organized the 
"Light Horse" Troop, the first mounted cavalry unit. It disbanded in the 
early thirties. 

A few equestrian acts were staged for the citizens in a three-day event 
that opened on September 29. It had no menagerie and no band, but it 
was called a circus, Cleveland's first. 

The Erie Canal was opened on October 26, a monument to the perse- 
verance of Governor DeWitt Clinton. The first boat left Buffalo and 



[1826] BEGINNING OF CANAL COMMERCE 103 

reached New York City, November 4. Cleveland celebrated the epochal 
event with a "grand dinner." Soon Cleveland merchants were inviting their 
patrons to purchase "cassimers and sattinettes, changeable lute strings, silk 
and tabby velvets, Marseils, Swansdown, Toitonette, Valentia, Florentine 
and elegant figured silk vestings, Denmark, Sattin Prunell, white kid and 
Morroco shoes" . . . "for Ready Pay Only." Freight rates dropped to one-tenth 
their former figure. One barrel of salt had cost four barrels of flour before 
the canal opened; now one barrel of flour was worth ten of salt. Mail went 
by stage and canal to New York in five days, and eastern and import 
markets were brought within reach of Cleveland, 

Painted houses were coming into vogue, and on October 27 Thomas 
Tyler advertised his services and his shop on Ontario Street. Painting of 
tavern signs, regimental colors, and Masonic "transparencies" could be 
had by calling upon Jarvis F. Hanks. He was also a portrait painter of 
some repute, for he is known to have painted "Uncle" Abram Hickox, 
Truman P. Handy, and Peter M. Weddell. There were few pictures and art 
objects in the early homes — those brought from the East, or produced by 
itinerant painters, wood carvers, and stonecutters. It was several decades 
before the fine arts would have a place in community living. 

A rumor that the village was "sickly" resulted in an investigation by 
a "respectable physician" into the health of the community. His findings, 
published in November, indicated that there were twelve deaths per thousand 
population in the twelve-month just closed, six of which were children 
under a year and a half. Only one death was caused by fever, although the 
season had been warm and sultry. 

Two sons of Connecticut joined the ranks of the law profession this 
year — John W. Allen, twenty-three, who studied with Judge Samuel Cowles; 
and Sherlock J. Andrews, twenty-four-year-old son of a physician, who 
became associated with the judge. From Rhode Island came Samuel 
Starkweather, twenty-six, to study law. His exceptional talents and unusual 
powers of oratory soon brought him into the limelight. Ahead of these 
young lawyers were distinguished careers of pubUc service. Another arrival 
was that of Melancthon Barnett, merchant, whose son, James, became one 
of Cleveland's most useful citizens. 

In December, a bakery opened, where loaf bread, cakes, and Boston and 
butter crackers could be purchased. 



1826 

With the coming of Irish immigrants to work on the canal, there was 
need of the ministrations of a Catholic priest. Upon the direction of the 
Rt. Rev. Edward Fenwick, bishop of Cincinnati, the Dominican Fathers 
in Perry County sent the Rev. Thomas Martin on a visit to the village in 
the autumn. Later he was succeeded by the Very Rev, Stephen T. Badin, 
the first priest ordained in the United States, Mass was said in private homes. 



104 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1826] 

Immigrants from the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea were arriving in Cleve- 
land. William Kelley of Newburgh was prominent in the clan, which was 
to include names of distinction and achievement. Among them were the 
CoUister, Corlett, Quayle, Ramsey, Kerruish, Gill, Creer, Teare, and 
Christian families. 

In the "Hall Room" of the Navy Hotel, managed by Dr. Donald Mcintosh, 
an ardent Mason, Webb Chapter No. 14, Royal Arch Masons, was organized 
on January i8. The second Masonic body in Cleveland, it was named in 
honor of Thomas Smith Webb, chairman of the initial proceedings when 
Freemasonry was brought into existence in Boston in 1797. Webb established 
the Grand Chapter of Ohio, October 21, 1816. The local chapter received its 
charter on January 11, 1827. 

Disappointment and hardship sharpened the determination and resource- 
fulness of the founders of Western Reserve College (later Adelbert College 
of Western Reserve University) at Hudson, as they labored to provide 
education for their sons in the "art of right living." There had been 
considerable debate as to whether to locate the new college in Cleveland 
or in Hudson, the latter being chosen when a campus site was offered. 
Cleveland was voted down by arguments that the village was unhealthful, 
and that the presence of so many rowdy lake sailors would be a bad influence 
on young students. Besides, Hudson was a day's journey closer by stage to 
flourishing Pittsburgh. 

The trustees of Western Reserve College, earnest and hard-working 
pioneers, were men of vision : David Hudson — who gave Hudson Village its 
name, Elizur Wright, Joshua B. Sherwood, Henry Brown, Simeon 
WoodrufT, Zalmon Fitch, John Seward, Harvey Coe, Benjamin Fenn, 
Harmon Kingsbury, the Rev. Stephen J. Bradstreet of the First Presbyterian 
Church (Old Stone) in Cleveland, Caleb Pitkin, and William Hanford. 
When a large quantity of building brick proved inferior, they purchased 
facilities for making their own material. First-quality chimney brick, 
however, was hauled from Cleveland by oxcart. When funds were exhausted, 
they challenged poverty and sacrifice, and raised the required amount. When 
they learned that the charter failed to provide for theological training, 
they rode to Columbus in bitter winter and achieved their purpose. 

On April 26 the trustees of Western Reserve College laid the cornerstone 
of Middle College, the first building of the proud new "Yale of the West," 
located in a typical New England campus setting. The first three students 
were admitted in December to the college for men, and they were instructed 
in an academy at Tallmadge until the new building was ready in 1827. A 
preparatory school was established as indispensable (later Western Reserve 
Academy). 

To meet the demands of stagecoach business, Philo Scovill built the 
Stage House on Superior Street (712 Superior, N.W.), soon afterward 
named the Franklin House, in honor of Benjamin Franklin. It was a white 
frame structure, the first three-story building in the Western Reserve. 
Finding the cost greater than he had anticipated, Scovill offered to sell for 
$300, but there were no buyers. His popularity can be measured by his 



[1826] BEGINNING OF CANAL COMMERCE 105 

election as county commissioner in 1827, when he received more votes than 
David Long. For nearly a quarter century he was owner-manager of the 
hotel, his wife's good housekeeping adding to a reputation for "neatness 
and sumptuous fare." Traveling showmen used the Franklin, and an 
early feature presented a museum of curiosities including "quadrupeds, 
birds, fishes, insects, minerals, and mussels" — admission 25 cents, children 
half price. The ambitious collectors advertised in the local press for a 
weasel and a pelican in "a state fit of preservation." The Franklin House 
was Cleveland's largest tavern, the headquarters for the various stage lines 
centered in the village under Levi Sartwell, genial stage manager. Lake 
captains and itinerant lawyers favored it. 

In April, a new stage was operating regularly twice a week between 
Pittsburgh and Cleveland. The mail coach, advertised as comfortable, closed 
and drawn by four horses, traveled the 104-mile distance between Cleveland 
and Erie on a daily schedule, with the fare $3. BufFalo was 40 hours away, 
and passage for the 200-mile trip cost $6. Some of the lines, however, col- 
lected fares according to the weight and size of the passenger. The arrival 
of the stagecoach was the signal for townfolk to put on their best clothes 
and be on hand to greet newcomers and await mail. Wild cheers went up 
as the team pulled to a halt. With considerable importance, the driver 
stepped down from his high seat, and well-shaken passengers alighted to 
stretch tired limbs, brush oflF the dust, and smooth out wrinkles. 

Discussion of the location of a new church in the Trinity Parish produced 
rivalry between Brooklyn and Cleveland, and the matter was settled in favor 
of the latter at the Ninth Annual Convention of the diocese held June 7. 
In the fall, the Rev. Silas C. Freeman of Virginia was engaged as rector 
at an annual salary of $500, to be paid partially by the Norwalk church, 
with which he was to divide his time. 

In a room in the Franklin House, S. Hardyear, traveling dentist, "inserted 
artificial teeth, in most cases without pain." Thus read his advertisement 
on July 28. False teeth of porcelain or mineral were being used, and fillings 
were made from gold, lead, or tin. 

At about this time, Newton E. Crittenden arrived and opened the first 
jewelry store in a small brick building next to the Franklin House. He 
offered such luxuries as watches, perfume, and plain and twisted-hair rings 
and necklaces. His five-hundred-dollar stock of goods was obtained on credit. 
In 1868, he moved into a fine Euclid Street home, with a long, successful 
record of mercantile experience behind him. 

David H. Beardsley moved to Cleveland from Lower Sandusky (Fre- 
mont), where he served as a judge and a member of the Legislature. In 
1827, he was appointed collector for the Ohio Canal at Cleveland, serving 
for many years with a highly creditable record. Nicholas Dockstader, also a 
newcomer, soon became the leading hat, cap, and fur dealer in town, yet 
he had time for public service along many lines. 

Joseph Triskett came to Rockport Township with his father and brothers 
this year. They cleared 50 acres from the wilderness (bordering on Triskett 
Road). 



106 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1827] 

As the owner of the property occupied by the Ontario Street burying 
ground took action to gain possession for building purposes, Leonard Case 
and civic-minded men purchased about 10 acres of land "far out of town" 
on Erie Street, south of Prospect, for the City Cemetery (later Erie Street 
Cemetery). Title was passed to the Village of Cleveland with the under- 
standing that the land be used for burial purposes. The first interment was 
that of Minerva M., daughter of Moses and Mary White, who was laid away 
in September, 1827. Remains of the pioneers buried in the original cemetery 
(at Ontario and Prospect) were removed to Erie Street. 

On the eastern portion of land acquired for the Erie Street Cemetery, a 
"township poorhouse" was built to accommodate elderly patients and those 
afflicted with chronic disease. This was the beginning of City Hospital. 

The first hall consecrated to Masonic purposes and owned by Cleveland 
Masons was dedicated December 27. Concord Lodge and Webb Chapter had 
united in an unusual building plan whereby Brother Marvin Oviatt, mer- 
chant and first secretary of the chapter, built a third story to his new block 
at the northwest corner of Superior and Water streets as a Masonic Hall 
for $956, title being vested in the Masons. A keystone cemented in the 
doorway was symbolic of brotherly affection. Widespread antagonism to 
Freemasonry and secret societies resulted from the mysterious disappearance 
of William Morgan in western New York this year, giving rise to the 
Anti-Masonic Party. Lodges began to deteriorate under the heat of flagrant 
persecution; and in 1829, the Cleveland Masons had lapsed into a "period 
of repose" that continued for a decade. The Methodist Society took over 
the hall. 



1827 

The first plant in the county worthy to be called a manufactory was 
started in a workshop in the "Flats" (southeast corner of Detroit Avenue, 
N.W., at the drawbridge). Seven years later it became the Cuyahoga Steam 
Furnace Company. Its output consisted of cast and wrought iron work, the 
pig iron used being brought from a blast furnace in Dover. 

The First Presbyterian Society of Cleveland (later Old Stone Church) 
was incorporated on January 5. Samuel Cowles was president; David H. 
Beardsley, secretary; and Peter M. Weddell, treasurer. Although composed 
chiefly of Congregationalists and organized by Congregational ministers, the 
church was Presbyterian in government, and became the Mother of Cleve- 
land Presbyterianism. Six years later, the Ladies' Missionary Society was 
organized and began its influential service that was to become worldwide. 

James S. Clark — or Clarke — had established a rental agency, and on April 
6 listed stores for rent on Superior and Ontario streets, on the river, and in 
the business section, as well as dwellings on Water, Bank, and Euclid 
streets. 

Peter M. Weddell, Edmund Clark, and George Stanton organized The 



[1827] BEGINNING OF CANAL COMMERCE 107 

Cleaveland & New York Line, a "commission, storage and transportation 
business." Their warehousing interests and connections with lake and Hud- 
son River steam navigation prepared them to "ship expeditiously," so they 
advertised. 

The first Methodist society of Cleveland, which became the First Meth- 
odist Church, was formed, with the Revs. John Crawford and Cornelius 
Jones in charge. Founders were Mrs. Grace Johnson, Andrew Tomlinson, 
Eliza Worley, Elizabeth South worth, Job Sizer and wife, Elijah Peet and 
wife, and Lucinda Knowlton. The Cleveland circuit comprised Cuyahoga, 
Lake, Geauga, and Summit counties, and a part of Ashtabula and Portage. 
Cleveland was made a permanent station in 1830, and the Rev. George 
McCaskey became pastor. The congregation met in public places until 1841. 

The question of slavery was discussed publicly for the first time in the 
county at a meeting of the Cuyahoga County Colonization Society in the 
Academy. Its followers believed that the Government should buy the slaves 
and send them back to Africa, the theory being that many slave-holders 
would free their bondsmen if assured they would be sent out of the country. 
Samuel Cowles was president, and prominent citizens were members. With 
overwhelming opposition of the Abolitionists, the society soon faded out. 

Harmon Kingsbury and the Rev. Randolph Stone edited the first religious 
weekly published in Cleveland, the Western Intelligencer. It appeared on 
July 21 and was discontinued in 1830. 

A log church was built by the Brooklyn Methodist Church Society (later 
Brooklyn Memorial Church), and it was finished in June (northeast corner 
West 25th and Denison). In January, the membership had reached fifty- 
seven. A Sunday School had been organized with twenty-one members, and 
Ebenezer Fish was the first superintendent. In 1849, a one-story frame 
sanctuary was erected on the original site, serving until 1881. During the 
pastorate of the Rev. W. Arthur Smith in 191 1, it was replaced by a two- 
story brick house of worship at West 25th and Archwood. The Rev. William 
J. Hodder was pastor in 1946. 

On July 4, the first canal boat navigated 37 miles and passed through forty- 
one locks of the Ohio Canal from Akron to Cleveland. As the two northern- 
most locks were not yet completed, the mule-drawn packet bearing Governor 
Allen I. Trimble and members of the canal commission was met by a wel- 
come party aboard the Pioneer, 6 miles from the village. A great day of 
celebration heralded the new era of transportation progress. 

An epidemic of typhoid fever swept over Cleveland in midsummer, 
originating in the canal area and aggravated by unhealthful and unsanitary 
conditions. In less than two months, seventeen deaths occurred. Cleveland's 
first charitable activities on anything like a mass scale began when provisions 
were distributed to families of canal workers, who appealed to citizens for 
help. According to Ara Sprague, "A terrible depression of spirits and stagna- 
tion of business ensued. The whole corporation could have been bought 
for what one tot would now cost on Superior street. For two months I 
gave up all business; went from house to house to look after the sick and their 
uncared-for business. People were generally discouraged and anxious to 



108 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1828] 

leave," but the desire to achieve progress and improvement kept them in 
Cleveland to help build a city. 

A tract of 100 acres southeast of Cleveland (Woodland Hills Park) was 
purchased for $400 this year. In 1918, 86 acres were bought for real-estate 
development at $216,000. 

The Newburgh Literary Society was incorporated on December 14. It 
was a substantial organization, and the first evidence of determined literary 
effort. 

Horse racing had already become a popular sport on the Water Street 
speedway, from Superior to the north end of the street. Purses of from 
$25 to $100 for quarter-mile contests attracted crowds from the county. 

Alfred Greenbrier, a distinguished-appearing mulatto from Kentucky, pur- 
chased a farm (vicinity of Bridge Avenue), where he engaged in the breed- 
ing of fine horses and cattle. His horses furnished speedy transportation 
for fugitive slaves. Stock raising was an important industry attracting 
eastern buyers. 



1828 

When a tax of two mills on the dollar was levied, and the trustees set 
aside $200 "to put the village in proper order," the citizens challenged such 
waste, demanding to know "what on earth the trustees could find in the 
village to spend two hundred dollars on." 

Cleveland's smoke nuisance had its beginning when Henry Newberry 
brought the first load of coal to Cleveland, mined from his land on the 
banks of the Cuyahoga at Tallmadge near the canal. He peddled it door to 
door, offering it for sale to housewives; but they spurned the dirty, black 
stuff in favor of cheap, clean wood. Finally, Philo Scovill was induced to 
try burning the new-fangled fuel in his barroom grate, and blacksmiths 
began using it. In this new product was the future greatness of industry 
and commerce, and the fortunes of Cleveland men. John Ballard & Com- 
pany commenced to operate a small iron foundry in the spring. 

Noah Webster's famous Elementary Spelling BooJ^ was studied dil- 
igently in pioneer homes where children could not attend school. Where 
there were schools, it was a fundamental text-book, and inspired thrilling 
spelling matches. At the age of seventy Webster published his American 
Dictionary of the English Language this year. The volumes made a lasting 
contribution to educational and cultural advance. 

Yearning for higher education was revealed in the formation of the 
Twinsburg Literary Institute, which prepared "any young people" for 
college. It continued for more than sixty years, and at one time had an 
enrollment of three hundred students. 

The first pretentious map of the United States, published by John Cary in 
London this year, slighted Ohio. The Western Reserve was ignored, as were 
all the lakeshore towns, excepting Sandusky. Gnadenhutten and several 



[1828] BEGINNING OF CANAL COMMERCE 109 

small places were shown, but Cincinnati and Cleveland, the coming cities 
of the West, did not appear. 

The first court session was held in the new eight-thousand-dollar, two- 
story, brick Court House, surmounted by a wooden dome, on the southwest 
quarter of the Square facing the lake. Here public and social gatherings 
were held. Four years later a stone jail, with three cells and living quarters 
for the sheriff, was erected at the rear, fronting on Champlain Street. It 
was familiarly known as "the Blue Jug." The bitter struggle that had been 
waged between Newburgh and Cleveland for location of the county building 
was ended. 

Newburgh erected a brick town hall on the site of its first school (9213 
Miles Avenue), and it served at one time as the meeting place of town- 



The second Court 
House, opened in 1828, |=^ 
served as the commu- 
nity center. 




ship officials, a schoolhouse, and a church. It ceased to be used for public 
purposes around i860, and was converted into a dwelling. On an adjacent 
lot, Edward Taylor built a frame house in 1832. The two landmarks con- 
tinued in service through the years. 

Ebenezer Williams, Disciples minister and former Universalist, was 
preaching at this time to scattered Disciples in the vicinity of Newburgh. No 
converts were gained, however, until 1832, when William Hay den held a 
meeting and John Hopkinson was inspired to join. In the following year, 
Colonel John Wightman and his wife, Eliza Everett, with several others, 
responded to the preaching of Williams and Hayden. The Disciples of 
Christ in Ohio were an outgrowth of a "reform" movement within the 
churches of the Mahoning Baptist Association. In 1830, a formal separation 
took place, and each congregation became a Church of Christ, independent 
of the others. 



110 



Cleveland: the making of a city 



[1829] 

A Sunday School, started this year near Doan's Corners by Mrs. Sally 
Mather Hale in her home (site of entrance to Flora Stone Mather College), 
was the forerunner of a Presbyterian church founded in 1843 (later EucHd 
Avenue Congregational Church). In the early thirties, Benjamin F. Rouse 
began another Bible school in a stone shop to the east. 



1829 

John Kilbourn of Columbus wrote a book advertising Ohio for circulation 
in the East. His boost for Cleveland stated, "Cleveland, the seat of justice 
of Cuyahoga County, will in time become one of the most important." He 




T rinity in 
1829, the first 
church erected 
within the 
boundaries of 
Cleveland. 



credited the village with 168 dwelling houses, 13 mercantile stores, 15 ware- 
houses, 4 drug stores, i book and stationery store, 9 groceries, 6 taverns, and 
about 1,000 inhabitants. 

Cleveland was growing in importance as a meat-producing center, and 
its products were reaching the New York markets. Two establishments 
were slaughtering 1,400 hogs weekly, and 50,000 pounds of ham were cured 
during the winter. 

When Daniel Worley became postmaster on April 15, he moved the 
delivery office to the north side of Superior Street in Miller's Block, between 
Seneca and Bank streets. In the rear was the Custom House. Aaron Barker 
became postmaster on March 2, 1839; Benjamin Andrews on September 6, 
1842; and Timothy P. Spencer on April 11, 1845. 

Small private schools were opened from time to time, many of them of 
short duration. J. Mills announced a college-preparatory course in his 



[1829] BEGINNING OF CANAL COMMERCE 111 

"Select School" on Ontario Street, and a dancing school taught the cotillion, 
mazurka, waltz, and Spanish dance. 

The Rev. Silas C. Freeman's money-raising efforts in the East on behalf 
of a new church home for Trinity Parish were successful, and a site was 
secured (southeast corner of St. Clair and West 3rd). Trinity Parish of 
Cleveland had been incorporated in 1828, with Josiah Barber, Phineas 
Shepherd, Charles Taylor, Henry L. Noble, Reuben Champion, James S. 
Clarke, Sherlock J. Andrews, Levi Sargeant, and John W. Allen, wardens 
and vestrymen. Trinity Church, "the first house devoted to the worship of 
God in the present City of Cleveland," was consecrated on August 12 by 
Bishop Philander Chase. It was a frame structure, costing $3,070, surmounted 
by four belfry pinnacles bearing weathercocks of sheet-iron, so heavy that 
the winds could not turn them and they had to be removed. The little 
white church with the green blinds was Cleveland's first religious center. 
Trinity joined with Grace Church in Chagrin (Willoughby) and St. James 
in Painesville in an arrangement whereby Rev, Freeman traveled a 228- 
mile circuit on horseback every month. He resigned at the end of the year, 
having served since 1825. The Rev. William N. Lyster, a deacon, who 
opened a Sunday School with about thirty scholars, was placed in charge 
of the parish for a time. It is said that he was the first minister in the West 
to wear a surplice. 

The first fire engine was purchased at a cost of $285. Trustees who voted 
for it were defeated for re-election. Many citizens firmly declared that buckets 
were good enough. The new officials repudiated the note for a substantial 
balance owing on the engine, and when it came due, judgment was rendered 
and the bill was paid. Early the next year, a volunteer fire company was 
organized in the community. 

When young George Worthington rode into Cleveland on horseback, 
immigrants were arriving at the rate of about six hundred in a fortnight 
to work on the canal. He found them poorly equipped with tools, and here 
was his opportunity. Turning his horse back toward Cooperstown, New 
York, he borrowed $500 from his brother and purchased an assortment of 
implements in the East, shipping his stock by Erie Canal to Buffalo, thence 
by schooner to Cleveland. The supply sold quickly, he doubled his money, 
and bought more stock with which he opened the first store of The Geo. 
Worthington Company (Superior and West loth). In 1835, he bought out 
his competitor and moved to the corner of Water Street. Business came from 
northern Ohio, but Worthington had to go after it through good weather 
and bad on horseback, delivering his wares by oxcart, until the first successful 
railroad came. 

Cleveland's first fair, a two-day event that opened on October 30, was 
held in the Public Square and the Court House under the auspices of the 
Cuyahoga County Agricultural Society. Livestock was tethered in the Square, 
and prizes of from $1 to $5 were given for the best brood mares and stallions. 
In the First Presbyterian Church (Old Stone) the ladies exhibited needle- 
work, quilts, and home products. Silkworm culture was the rage, and farmers 
were planting acres of mulberry trees, hoping to establish a stable industry. 



112 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1829] 

Mrs. David Long received a five-dollar prize for a pair of stockings she had 
made from local silk. Mrs. Mary L. Severance took the prize for silk twist. 
A Mrs. Brainard of Brooklyn received an award for eight shades of silk, 
for which she had produced both the silk and the dyes. James Houghton 
entered the best half acre of mulberry trees. The industry of the little silkworm 
proved disappointing, however, and the craze died with it; but the fair 
became an annual event of great importance in the life of the community. 

Entries in the daily-sales book of Peter M. Weddell from November 2, 
1829, to October 31, 1831, provide an interesting and revealing picture of 
the times. The first item in the journal, kept by young Dudley Baldwin, 
reads: "George G. Hills, per self. To lYz lbs tobacco i2/^c; nails, per James 
10 lbs. at 5^; goods for Miss Bidwell, $1.82; goods for self $1.19." On 
November 29, 1829, John W. Willey was charged with 36 gallons of whisky 
at 28 cents a gallon; while Reuben Wood, who must have been a fine dresser, 
bought 3M yards of blue suiting cloth for $26.25 and trimmings for I4.87. He 
later spent I3 for a Valencia vest, and purchased 25 quills and a quire of 
writing paper. Dudley Baldwin's purchases indicated that the social season 
was about to open: "blue suiting and trimmings for $6.64; paid I5.00 for 
having the suit made and bought a pair of pumps for a dollar and a half." 
Sometimes the entries show the need of a spelling teacher; for example, 
"i barl flower, i vest patron, 2 yds. bumbasette, 2 led pencils, i pare speck- 
tickles, 2 yards ribband, i parisoll, i lb beeswacks, i yard bonnanett." There 
was a great deal more than merchandising involved in the following entry: 
"Lucind Cold well By hur Bill skooHng Horace to dat Sep. 13, is I1.75." 

No doubt Jonathan Pearse grumbled when he paid the tax bill in December 
on his loo-acre tract of land in Newburgh (Harvard Avenue and Independ- 
ence Road). Assessments on his property, valued at $505, amounted to I4.69, 
of which 76 cents was for personal tax. 

The village fathers decided that Cleveland needed more room in which 
to grow, and in December, the General Assembly made possible the ex- 
tension of boundary lines. All the land was annexed "from the southerly 
line of Huron street down the river to a point westerly of the junction of 
Vineyard lane with the road leading from the village to Brooklyn, thence 
west parallel with said road to the river, and down the river to the old 
village line." Canal Street was laid out this year. 

The first public market was established on Ontario Street south of the 
Square, and regulated by city ordinance. Receipts for the year following were 
$27.50. The familiar neighborhood butcher with his cart and tinkling bell 
set up shop in a shed, where stalls were offered at auction to the highest 
bidder. Fresh meats could be sold daily except Sunday, and vegetables and 
other items could be sold on Wednesday and Saturday. 

Philip Cody and his wife, Lydia Martin Cody, native New Englanders, 
were past middle age when they came to Cleveland from Canada with 
their family about this time, making their home at Doan's Tavern for a year. 
Then Cody began to buy property in the vicinity. Shortly after 1831, he 
purchased a 63-acre tract on Euclid (near East 83rd). In the ancestral home 
that stood for many years, eleven children were raised. 



CHAPTER 6 



A Boom Town Becomes a City 

1830-1839 



An era of prosperity had begun in Ohio and the nation in 1825, 
XJL marked by great public improvements. The National Road was 
stretching westward from Wheeling to Columbus and beyond. Dirt roads 
were being converted into turnpikes, increasing the speed and safety of 
multiplying stage lines. With brave hearts and unquenchable faith, families 
moved slowly to the frontier to claim cheap land and map promising trails 
of progress. The growing influence of the new West strengthened Jacksonian 
democracy. 

The population of Cleveland in 1830, according to the United States 
census, was 1,075, and of Cuyahoga County, 10,373. The area of the village 
was about two-thirds of a square mile. Immigrants were arriving in increas- 
ing numbers to work on the canal, and housing had become a problem. 

The Irish were making their homes on the West Side near the river 
mouth. William Murphy, who came in 1830, was one of the earliest, followed 
by the Evans family, Arthur Quinn, John Smith, the Sanders family, Joseph 
Turney, Hugh Buckley, Sr., Father John Dillon, Father Patrick O'Dwyer, 
Hugh Blee, Patrick Smith, the Cahill, Conlan and Whelan families, Captain 
Michael C, Frawley, Michael Feely, Michael Gallagher, Father Peter 
McLaughlin, and others who were prominent in the colony. 

The Germans began to come in 1830, settling along Lorain Street on the 
West Side, and in the vicinity of Superior and Garden streets to the east. 
They were industrious folk, skilled in their trades, many of them political 
refugees, bringing with them a background of the cultural arts. The 
earliest families were the Silbergs, butchers; the families of Neeb, Kaiser, 
Denker, and Borges, tailors and clothiers; Wigman, mason contractor; 
Schiele, gardener; and the Diemers, Fingers, Rissers, and Freys. They were 
followed by the Wanglein, Laisy, Steinmeir, Hessenmueller, Henninger, 
Ehringer, Schaaf, and Umbstaetter families. Pioneering Carl Scheekley, 
John Krehbiehl, Fritz Hoffman, Gregor Dietz, and John Denzer sought 
opportunity and freedom in Cleveland, far from the political oppression of 
their old-world fatherland. 

Young men, many of them in their early twenties, were coming to 
Cleveland from New England and the East, endowed with energy and 
talent that were soon translated into responsible leadership in the city 
suffering from growing pains. 

The canal era in Ohio had begun in 1825. Ohio real estate at that time 

"3 



114 Cleveland: the making of a city 

was valued at $45,000,000 and personal property at $14,000,000; yet $16,- 
000,000 was spent by the State for two canals: the Ohio Canal, connecting 
Cleveland and Portsmouth on the Ohio River, and the Miami and Erie 
Canal, joining Toledo and Cincinnati — to provide transportation at the rate 
of three to four miles per hour! 

Clevelanders were more or less indifferent to the Ohio Canal at first, 
some of them being perfectly satisfied to "Give it to Painesville or Black 
River (Lorain)," who wanted it badly. The lakes to the south of Cleve- 
land, and the Cuyahoga and Tuscarawas rivers were the deciding factors, 
however, and the canal reached its southern goal in 1832, the total cost of 
construction and repairs to December i being $4,244,539.64, 

The Ohio Canal contributed greatly to the industry and wealth of farmers 
and townsmen in a wide territory bordering it, augmenting trade and 
increasing opportunities in many directions. Akron, Massillon, and other 
villages sprang to life, benefiting from canal commerce and water power; 
existing towns increased in population and trade. Products of farm and 
mine could now reach markets that were opened and expanded by lowered 
transportation costs. Prior to the canal era, it cost $5 to ship a barrel of flour 
150 miles; charges on carrying a cord of wood 20 miles were $3. Commodi- 
ties commanded higher prices for the producer. Formerly, wheat sold in 
interior Ohio for 20 to 30 cents a bushel; now it brought from 50 to 75 cents. 

The importance of canal navigation is traced in a cargo of goods shipped 
by water from New York to Dayton: New York to Buffalo via the Erie 
Canal, on the lake to Cleveland, Ohio Canal to Portsmouth, Ohio River to 
Cincinnati, and Miami Canal to Dayton, a distance of 1,100 miles in a 
record time of twenty days at a cost of $17.25 per ton! 

Cleveland's fame spread far and wide with the opening of the canal. 
Strategic location on lake and inland water route made the village an 
exchange point for goods from the south and east as well as for export. 
Long lines of overland wagons and heavy passenger traffic by waterways 
taxed housing facilities. Vessels crowded the river, light and heavy vehicles 
filled the unpaved streets, and pedestrians wormed their way around bags, 
barrels, and boxes on the sidewalks. Real-estate values rose at an alarming 
rate, and rents were high. 

Newcomers were met at the docks by smooth-talking promoters with 
beautiful city plans on paper, urging them to buy. Inflationary prosperity was 
manifested in new taverns and hotels, commercial blocks, stores, tenement 
buildings, and extended boundary lines. Cleveland, a boom town, was 
riding the crest of the wave! 

Canal boats were operated by private individuals and companies, subject 
to tolls charged by the canal builder. The boat or packet was between 70 
and 80 feet long, about 14 feet wide, and was usually drawn by two horses, 
tandemwise, on one of which the driver was seated. There was space for 
freight, cabins in front, and a saloon or dining room at the rear. Berths for 
ladies and children were in the cabins. The crew consisted of the captain, 
two energetic steersmen, two young drivers, and the cook, who worked 
"all of the time." Canal travel was safe and popular, especially in fair 



A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 



115 



weather, when passengers lounged on the top deck, leisurely enjoying the 
wooded hillsides, the shadowy mysteries of the canal, and the twinkling 
lights in isolated houses. 

"Missing the boat" was not necessarily a disaster. The passenger merely 
hired a rig and galloped to the nearest bridge across the canal, waited for 
the boat and climbed aboard. The expression, "low bridge," is said to have 
originated when the skipper warned passengers riding on top of the packet 
to prepare to recognize the three- or four-foot clearance between bridge and 
boat. 

After completing the Ohio Canal, the State seems to have abandoned the 
burden of laying out state roads, and gave to private corporations the right 
to improve certain roads and charge tolls. Stock in the company was usually 
purchased by the State. Turnpike and plank-road companies sprang up 
over night all over Ohio, building a network called The Farmers Railway. 
By 1870, the companies had almost all disappeared, leaving upkeep to the 
counties. 

Reports of railroad progress in the East incited emphatic expressions for 
and against the new development. Pessimists pointed to the hazards that 
accompanied wood-burning engines, their stacks belching great glowing 
coals along with the smoke. Goggles saved the eyes from cinders, but pas- 
sengers' protective coats and hats were not always adequate, they declared. 
"Oversets" were not uncommon, when a strip of strap-iron on top of a 
wooden rail became loose. There was little enthusiasm here for the iron 
horse. Speed by stage or canal was good enough, despite irksome winter 
isolation. 

On the other hand, Cleveland leaders were spurred to action, and they 
began planning rail connections with Pittsburgh and Cincinnati. In the 
face of many protests from the citizenship, forward-looking businessmen 
took their first steps in the long, uphill climb to bring the railroad to 
Cleveland. At the same time, local promoters were laying wooden rails for a 
streetcar line motivated by horsepower that was ahead of its time. 

Horses were replacing oxen as beasts of burden as the urge for speed 
increased. Fine farms around Cleveland boasted the best breeds. Those 
who wished to travel on business or for pleasure could hire saddle horses, 
gigs, sulkies, and hacks at a number of local livery stables. 

There was always room for one more rider on the patient family nag 
when ladies chose to do a bit of shopping. It was considered quite proper 
for two buxom females to mount one horse, jog to town with perhaps a 
basket of eggs and a pail of butter, and trade for their family needs at the 
general store. The one-horse principle served equally well when a young 
sprout took his best girl to a sociable. Starched and smiling, she stood on 
the mounting block; and with a sprightly leap, born of experience, she 
settled herself on the horse behind her escort, arranged yards of skirts and 
petticoats, and clung to him with genuine pleasure. 

This was a period of city-making. Under the first state constitution, 
municipalities were chartered by special act, and the legislative mill produced 
abundantly. The City Council was the supreme authority. Three members 



116 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 

were elected from each of three wards, with as many aldermen as there 
were wards, the mayor amounting to little more than a head magistrate. 
The marshal, his deputy or deputies, and the city treasurer were elected 
annually. Public and private corporations were also chartered by special act. 
This led to the issuance of charters and legislation designed to please grasping 
politicians and fanciful law-makers. 

In the race for incorporation as a city in 1836, little Ohio City won over 
Cleveland by two days. Since early in the decade, hostile relations prevailed 
between the new municipalities as they elected wise leaders to establish 
government, to regulate, restrict and reform, and to lay the foundations 
of orderly development. 

City management, however, did not rest entirely with the office holders. 
The Court House rang as citizens settled vital issues in democratic town- 
meeting debate. Community spirit raised a brigade of fire-fighting volunteers 
and a salvage corps, preserved law and order, tracked down horse thieves, 
launched cultural societies, cheered on Independence Day, and returned 
thanks to Almighty God at Thanksgiving time for blessings received. 

The business district of the new City of Cleveland fronted on the river, 
where steamers, schooners, and canal boats exchanged imported commodities 
for products of local industry. The river bank was a thriving center of 
forwarding and commission warehouses, ship chandlers, merchants, and 
artisans. Stores lined steep, unpaved Superior hill, and there were a few 
brick buildings of several stories on the street beyond. A flagged sidewalk 
had been laid in front of the bank at the corner of Bank Street, where a 
town pump stood. At the southwest corner of the Public Square stood the 
Court House; the new Presbyterian Church had been built at the northwest 
corner of Ontario Street, the First Baptist Church at the southeast corner 
of Seneca and Champlain streets, and at Seneca and St. Clair was Trinity 
Church. Pigs roamed at will, and cows browsed contentedly. 

Despite Cleveland's forward strides, the city bore the marks of a frontier 
village. Log houses were still in existence, although frame houses were 
plentiful, and there was an occasional brick building. Facing the Square 
were the modest residences of Richard Winslow, Leonard Case, Charles M. 
Giddings, Elijah Bingham, William Lemen, Dr. Erastus Gushing, and 
John W. Allen. Water, Seneca, Bank, St. Clair, and Lake streets constituted 
the principal residential section, but Michigan Street was considered more 
fashionable. 

The woods were being pushed back slowly along unpaved and unlighted 
Euclid Street, deeply scarred by the wheels of lumbering stages. Men of 
vision and influence, however, had employed prominent architects to build 
new homes here of classical and colonial design: Samuel Wifliamson 
(easterly portion of Williamson Building site), Sherlock J. Andrews, George 
Hoadley, Harvey Rice, Ahaz Merchant, Lyman Kendall, Samuel Cowles, 
and Truman P. Handy. Beyond Erie Street lived Thomas Kelley, Henry 
H. Dodge, and Nathan Perry, Jr. A Virginia rail fence lined the north side 
of Euclid from Bond almost to Erie Street. Groves of sturdy timber stood 
on Erie between Superior and Prospect streets and between St. Clair and 



A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 117 

the lake. A paint shop, shoemaker, blacksmith, wagon-maker, carpenter, and 
joiner represented the extent of trade, and thirty-five vacant lots, valued at 
about five dollars a foot front, were not considered a promising investment. 

The Euclid Road, as it was also called, was increasing in importance, 
affording the most popular route from Cleveland to Buffalo. In 1832, it 
was recognized by the Legislature as a public highway. As street systems 
developed, and Cleveland and Ohio City stretched their boundaries, com- 
municative progress demanded that waterways and ravines should be bridged. 
Yet when a bridge was raised to join the east and west sides of the Cuyahoga, 
a pitched battle delayed co-operative effort until the early fifties. 

It was easy to start a newspaper. A small printing press, some type, a 
printer, a little capital, and a lot of enthusiasm were all that were necessary. 
It might be an instrument of partisan or political power, a champion of 
religion, slavery, or free thought; frontier democracy could provide ample 
excuse for another paper. When Cleveland became a city, there was an 
overabundance of newspapers, the majority of them short-lived. 

There was a consciousness of the need for higher education, and itinerant 
schoolmasters established a number of private schools in Cleveland. Many of 
them existed only a short time, and are recorded only in newspaper notices 
and directories. Schools for special instruction in writing, ciphering, and 
bookkeeping, penmanship, art, and music were opened by professional men 
beginning about the middle of the decade. The meager tuition for poor 
children was paid by the village until free schools were established by the 
frugal city fathers of the new municipality in rented quarters. 

Academies, seminaries, and colleges prospered in the Western Reserve 
from 1830 to 1850. They were generally private schools in the form of stock 
companies, often operating under state charters and endowed by gifts of 
land or money. The extent of their popularity is indicated by their locations : 
Akron, Ashtabula, Aurora, Austinburg, Berea, Brighton, Brooklyn, Canfield, 
Chagrin Falls, Chardon, Chesterland, Cleveland, Collamer, Conneaut, 
Cuyahoga Falls, Farmington, Geneva, Hiram, Hudson, Huron, Kingsville, 
Kinsman, Kirtland, Madison, Mechanicsville, Milan, New Lyme, Norwalk, 
Oberlin, Painesville, Parkman, Poland, Richfield, Rome, Strongsville, 
Tallmadge, Twinsburg, Unionville, Wadsworth, Warren, Wayne, Wil- 
loughby, and Youngstown. 

Before a cheery fire in the plain little wooden "Ark" on the Public Square, 
the Case brothers and their friends talked of science and cultural things 
that would someday influence the life of their city far beyond their most 
cherished hopes. 

The Western Reserve was fertile ground for revivaHsts and reformers. 
Fear and loneliness had lived day and night with the settlers from the time 
they left their eastern homes. There was Httle gaiety, only occasional dances, 
entertainments, and cultural events, but no festivals. Stern New Englanders 
considered it pagan to celebrate Christmas. There was plenty of time to 
meditate on the soul; but with aching joints and a deranged liver to 
aggravate the body, it was no wonder that some of the pioneers submitted 
to the hypnotic influences of fiery new doctrines. 



118 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 

The arrival of a missionary or an impelling preacher was the signal for 
the community to awaken to a consciousness of sin, self, and personal 
shortcomings. This was a day of fierce revivals, jerkings, and shakings, 
when camp-meeting conversions took on highly emotional form. Swayed 
by fanaticism, people were persuaded to believe in revelations, dreams, and 
prophesies of the millennium. Thus Mormonism, the Shakers, Second 
Adventists, and Oberlin Covenanters arose, while, at the same time, vicious 
attacks temporarily exhausted the strength of the Masonic order. 

Temperance, slavery, and reform were heated subjects fanned by the 
sensational fire of isms and emotional doctrines. Church members were 
called upon to make decisions on these vital controversial issues, with the 
result that inevitably congregations began to divide. The Presbyterian 
General Assembly concluded that radicalism had invaded the synod of 
the Western Reserve. Consequently, the Plan of Union that had inspired 
co-operative effort of Presbyterians and Congregationalists since 1801, was 
repudiated in 1837. 

Saloons were doing a land-office business. Raw corn whisky and fiery 
liquors were on a par with beans and butter in many family larders. Sunday 
was just another day in the week, with business as usual. There was little 
incentive to practice religious doctrines and pious living in the rough pioneer 
village; yet from three churches in 1830, the number grew to eight congre- 
gations in 1837. The prosperity of the early thirties put more money in the 
hands of church members, who spent some of it to build churches, pay 
ministers' salaries, and establish Sunday School missions. Nevertheless, the 
faith and patience of even the most courageous man of God must have 
been sorely tried many times as he sought earnestly to inspire moral uplift 
and save wayward souls. 

Welfare work began in the ministry of early charities to boatmen and 
sailors who had failed to plan for slack seasons in lake and canal commerce, 
and to those who had suffered from misfortune or disaster. 

Few physicians in the Western Reserve had enjoyed a medical education. 
Knowledge and experience were generally gained as an apprentice to a 
practitioner during the early part of the century; and, armed with a 
certificate, the student began at once to practice. Bleeding, emetics, blisters, 
calomel, antimony, and the like were relied upon by pioneer men of 
medicine to produce a patient's recovery. Ethics of the day permitted 
physicians to hold public office, engage in business, advertise their services, 
and bear their share of community responsibilities. Cleveland had a number 
of flourishing drug stores that also sold groceries and commodities. The 
prescription business had hardly begun. Physicians purchased their drug 
supplies, mixed vile-tasting remedies, and passed them on to their patients 
for better or for worse. 

Eastern entertainers and novel exhibitions traveled a circuit that included 
Cleveland, but appearances were infrequent. Entertainment facilities were 
poor and inadequate. Three public halls were mentioned in the first 
directory, seating several hundred people each. They were located on the 
upper floors of commercial blocks, and could be reached by climbing 



A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 119 

narrow stairs. Despite feeble light, poor ventilation, smoking stoves, and 
uncomfortable chairs and benches, capacity crowds attended lectures and 
debates, entertainments, and concerts. Apollo Hall, on the third floor of the 
Merwin Building on Superior Street near Water, gained popularity later as 
a theater. Concert Hall,' three flights above Handerson's drug store on 
Superior Street, catered to music lovers. Liberty Hall, on the third floor of 
the Hancock Block, at Superior and Seneca streets, echoed to lively literary 
and debating programs. 

Recreation took the form of picnics, hunting and fishing expeditions, berry- 
picking and nut-gathering socials, singing in the schoolhouse, square dances, 
occasional concerts, and lectures. Children amused themselves with pom- 
pom-pullaway, duck-on-a-rock, shinny, one-old-cat — in which baseball orig- 
inated, anthony ("anty") over, and marbles. The entire community joined 
in house-raisings, husking bees, and wood-chopping contests. 

The City of Cleveland was little more than a year old, but according to 
the first Directory of Cleveland and Ohio, For the Years i8^y-^8, it was en- 
titled to call itself a manufacturing city. In it were four iron foundries and 
steam-engine manufactories; three soap-and-candle factories, two breweries, 
one sash factory, two rope walks, one stoneware pottery, two carriage shops, 
and two millstone factories in full operation. There were two banks, five in- 
surance companies, and four newspapers; the Post Office, connecting with 
eight mail routes; Custom House, ten hotels, and three coffee houses; eight 
church congregations, a hospital, theater, and four public open-air markets; 
a "free" school and numerous cultural organizations. The medical profession 
was represented by twenty-four physicians and surgeons; two surgical dentists 
were offering their services, and forty-six attorneys were expounding the 
law. Six stage lines and a number of forwarding lines on the canal and the 
lake connected Cleveland with the outside world. 

A small paragraph in the directory showed the remarkable population 
growth since early in the decade: 1831 — "not more than" 1,100; 1832 — 1,500; 
1833 — 1,900; January, 1834 — 3,323; November, 1834—4,250; and August, 1835 
— 5,080. "The number of inhabitants in the city of Cleveland at present (1837) 
exceeds nine thousand," estimated the publisher, "and judging from the rapid 
increase of that number, and the flattering prospects of this infant city, we 
anticipate its being doubled in less than three years." Editor MacCabe's 
prophetic figures never had a chance to materialize. Even as he computed 
them, depression had struck; and, as the decade closed, Cleveland's popula- 
lation barely passed the six-thousand mark. 

Lake commerce was fundamental to Cleveland's growth. Steamboats carry- 
ing freight and passengers were multiplying on Lake Erie, and in 1830 
the Government built a lighthouse at the port. Cabin fare from Buffalo to 
Cleveland in 1836 was $5; steerage, $2.50. Gradually, luxuries in the form of 
fabrics, furnishings, and foods were arriving from the East. In 1837, 
"lemons, raisins, figs" were abundantly advertised, and a few years later, 
Connecticut shad. Lake trout and whitefish had always been abundant in 
season. Over thirty sidewheelers were operating in 1839, most of them stop- 
ping at Cleveland. 



120 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 

Shipping and excliange constituted the principal commercial activity of 
the city. Manufacturing was still in the primitive stage. Until the canal 
era, Cleveland depended upon the farmers of the county for its business; now 
a vast fan-shaped agricultural area was opening up, and increasing com- 
merce and trade reflected the benefits to the city on the lake. 

The decade of the thirties witnessed the founding of three establishments 
that were still in existence in 1946: Strong Cobb & Company, 1833; HamUn 
Finance Company, 1834; and J. H. Brown & Son, Inc., 1837. 

Rumors of war were thick in 1837. Some two thousand "patriots" crossed 
the river at Detroit and took Fort Maiden from the Canadian garrison. 
A Mexican cruiser fired upon an American merchant brig. In Florida, an 
Indian uprising was in progress. In the midst of these threats and the 
turmoil of emotional and economic confusion came financial panic, retarding 
the training and progress that the two young military companies in Cleveland 
expected to make. 

Good management and the sale of public lands had squared the nation's 
obligations, and in 1835-36, its people owed not a cent of public debt! 

Speculative enthusiasm and promises to pay, however, were brought 
sharply to task with the Panic of 1837. President Andrew Jackson's "specie 
circular" of July 11, 1836, forbade the Treasury to receive anything but gold 
and silver in payment of public lands; and as state banks did not have ade- 
quate specie to redeem their notes, the inflationary boom in the West col- 
lapsed. By the end of May, 1837, all banks had suspended specie payment 
and many failed. As a result of the depression, the Government went into 
the business of borrowing — only $336,000, but the long upward climb to the 
astronomical billions of a century later had begun. 

While the canal era brought great commercial and industrial progress 
to Cleveland and the State, it hastened the financial crisis of '37. To satisfy 
local interests throughout Ohio, branches of canals were constructed in a 
network of more than a thousand miles. A fantastic period of borrowing 
brought about passage of the Plunder Act in 1838, committing the State 
to assist any private company that would build either a canal, railroad, or 
turnpike, by subscribing one-third of the capital stock of the company. 
Repeal of the act in 1840 saved Ohio from bankruptcy, but some of the other 
states that faced the same conditions were not so fortunate. The early canal 
days were indeed scandalous. 

Cleveland and Ohio City suffered from the hard times, and the Bank 
of Cleveland closed, leaving only the pioneer Commercial Bank. Land and 
building investors lost heavily. Public improvements were postponed. Cur- 
rency became worthless; and coin, especially silver, was so scarce that it was 
difficult to "make change." "Shinplaster" due bills appeared, often poorly 
printed, acknowledging obligations and leading to much confusion. 

High prices prevailed, as shown in a letter written by Theodore Breck 
to his brother, John, in Northampton, Masachusetts, on April 20, 1839: 
"Flour is worth $7.50 per bbl.; hay, $8.00 per ton; pork, $22.00 per bbl; beef, 
$6.00; corn, $1.00 per bushel; oats, 50 cents; potatoes, $1,00; oxen per yoke, 
$80.00 to $100.00." 




Shandy Hall, built in 1815, was in excellent condition in 1946 lohen it was 
given as a museum to the Western Reserve Historical Societi/ by the Norton 
family. Cleveland picture collection, Cleveland public library. 







i>r'--\ 



»,«*««^-**' 



.O - i l :!.. ■■ 






**«:«Mi*i^-......w 



The Astor House was the 
oldest building in Cleve- 
land when it was de- 
stroyed in 1923. It was 
said to have been a trad- 
ing post for fur traders 
before Moses Cleaveland 
arrived in 1796. Stanley 

L. M'MICHAEL COLLEC- 
TION, CLEVELAND PUBLIC 
LIBRARY. 

Cuyahoga County's first 
Court House and Jail, 
completed in 1813, from 
a painting in the Western 
Reserve Historical Society 
Museum. 





Tlie grist-mill, built by the 
Shakers in 1845, loas the 
only stone building in the 
Colony. It was destroyed by 
its owner, Charles Reader, 
in 1886. 




Curtis Cramer tvas a Shaker trustee at Clymena Minor was an eldress of the 
various times. Shaker Society. 




The neglected home of the East family as it appeared ten years after the Shakers 
departed. 



PICTURES ON THIS PAGE COUHTESY WESTEKN RESERVE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



[1830] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 121 

Cleveland's neighbors followed the growth of the lake city intently and 
sometimes jealously. The Erie Gazette observed in 1838, "Cleveland has had 
its day, and reached the zenith of its popularity . . . Erie (Pennsylvania) 
is progressing steadily and surely to greatness and importance, while the 
mushroom city of Cleveland is retrograding almost as rapidly as it sprang 
up." The Herald replied that there were no stores for rent in the city, and 
nine large warehouses had been erected during the year. 

Nathan Perry and one hundred and ninety-seven fellow citizens, repre- 
senting two-thirds of Cleveland's taxable property, protested in 1839 against 
an extravagant administration and excessive taxation. The City Council 
had too many arbitrary powers, they declared, and Cleveland was in danger 
of bankruptcy. Naturally, this sweeping charge further delayed public 
improvements. The "period of purging and sobering" continued until 1842. 



1830 

Having come under the influence of Thomas and Alexander Campbell, 
religious reformers who were recruiting converts in Mahoning, PortagCj 
and Geauga counties, young Sidney Rigdon joined them and became a 
popular and powerful orator. For some time he had been preaching in the 
vicinity of Kirtland, Mantua, and Hiram. In his discourses he prophesied 
wonders that were strangely related to the Indian mounds and lost races, 
and he announced that a revealing book would soon explain the mysteries. 
His remarks were based upon a manuscript that he had read a few years 
earlier. In the fall of this year, the first copy of the Bool^ of Mormon to 
reach Ohio fell into his hands. It contained translations from certain golden 
plates purported to enclose an ancient record, and was the foundation for 
Rigdon's sermon at a Campbellite meeting in Kirtland. Thus Mormonism 
was preached in the State for the first time. The minister and his wife were 
immersed as Mormons, and the Campbellites were incensed at Rigdon's 
desertion from their beliefs. The day of miracles had come for those who 
became followers of the new faith, preached the dramatic and pleading 
clergyman, and many joined under his frenzied spell. In these highly emo- 
tional meetings, people were overcome with convulsions and strange emo- 
tions, jabbering insanely in what were believed to be ancient tongues 
inspiring power and discernment. 

A "Free School," established in Cleveland this year, was supported by sub- 
scription, "for the education of male and female children of every religious 
denomination." It was predominantly a Sunday School. 

In "a large and respectable" group of citizens, meeting at the Court House 
on March 31, the temperance movement had its beginning. A drive was 
directed at "fifteen to twenty grog shops." This County Temperance Society 
inspired the comment that there was no "common drunkard" in the village. 

Early in the year, an ordinance was passed regulating markets. Fresh 
meats could be sold every weekday, and vegetables and "other articles" 



122 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1830] 

could be offered only on Wednesdays and Saturdays. Business ended at 
10 A.M. in the market on Ontario Street south of the Square. "Monopolizing" 
of stalls was prohibited. A village seal was adopted, and a tax of one- 
half mill on the dollar was ordered on city property. 

Railroad passenger service started in the United States on May 24, when 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company began running a "brigade" of horse- 
drawn cars on a 14-mile Hne from Ellicott's Mills, Maryland, to Baltimore. 
On August 25, Peter Cooper's Tom Thumb demonstrated its ability on the 
Baltimore & Ohio tracks between Baltimore and Ellicott's Mills, pushing a 
small, open car with eighteen passengers aboard. It was the first successful 
American-built steam locomotive; and while it swallowed the dust of a 
racing gray mare, it moved steadily toward its goal — the Ohio River and 
Lake Erie. 

Five sidewheelers were carrying passengers between Buffalo and Detroit 
via Cleveland. An occasional explosion called attention to the "devilish 
contraption," and some travelers preferred horseback, fearing that a side- 
wheel would fall off, creating abrupt finality. 

The Herald announced with pride on June 24, that "now the traveller to 
the South, instead of providing himself with a fleet horse, a carbine and a 
brace of pistols and toiling weeks in the forest to reach a point on the 
Ohio where he might take a Flat Boat, can take the Telegraph Line (of 
stagecoaches) at Cleveland and in four days sit down in Cincinnati, and in 
ten more bring him to New Orleans." An elegant coach with a team of 
prancing horses dominated newspaper advertisements, but there was little 
comfort in a journey over rutted roads, intolerably dusty in the dry season, 
indescribably muddy, and often impassable when wet. Travel many times 
became more burdensome than walking, yet it continued to be popular. 

Navigation was opened on the Ohio Canal from Lake Erie to Newark 
on July 10, a total of 174 miles, and Cleveland was flourishing under the 
impact of this new form of transportation. Large quantities of flour and 
wheat were coming from the south to be exchanged for salt and essential 
merchandise. Mechanics were in great demand, and cash was offered for 
their services. 

The Western Seamen's Friend Society was established as a Protestant 
mission and lodge for destitute sailors. It was the first Cleveland society 
to receive charitable donations. 

The Rev. James McElroy became "minister in charge" of Trinity Church, 
giving three-fourths of his time to the parish and receiving a salary of 
$450. A six-hundred-pound bell was placed in the church belfry. 

The first president of Western Reserve College, founded in 1826, was elected 
this year — Charles Backus Storrs, ardent Abolitionist, who served from 1830 
until his death in 1834. His faculty of five members gave heroic service in 
return for pitifully small salaries, paid most of the time in farm produce 
or merchandise. Storrs was succeeded by George Edmond Pierce, who guided 
the school's destiny through twenty-one perilous years. A theological de- 
partment, established in 1830, was abandoned in 1852; a professorship of 
chemistry was created in 1837. The college was a progressive institution. 



[1830] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 123 

experimenting in co-operative education, manual education, and co-educa- 
tion. It admitted Negroes long before the Civil War. Students were re- 
quired to attend services in the chapel which they erected on the campus 
in 1 83 1. The Sabbath was reUgiously observed, although in a strict sense 
the institution, forerunner of Adelbert College of Western Reserve Uni- 
versity and Western Reserve Academy, was considered undenominational. 

Western Reserve College was indeed fortunate in securing men of char- 
acter and achievement for its early faculties. The first tutor in chemistry, 
Elizur Wright, Jr., later became a newspaperman, campaigning against 
fraudulent insurance practices. He drew the tables upon which modern 
life insurance is predicated, devised the first paid-up policy, and earned the 
title, "father of life insurance." Nathan Perkins Seymour, professor of 
Greek and Latin languages from 1840 to 1870, was undoubtedly one of the 
leading scholars of his time. His son became a professor at Yale, and his 
grandson, its president. Charles Augustus Young, professor of mathematics 
and natural philosophy, 1856-66, was the author of an important series 
of mathematical text-books. Samuel St. John taught chemistry, mineralogy, 
and geology, 1838-52, and was one of the first lecturers on chemistry. 

Levi Johnson's shipbuilding career had closed, and this year he completed 
Cleveland's first lighthouse for the United States Government at a cost of 
$8,000. It was a brick tower, erected on a bluff at Main and Water streets. 
Johnson also erected a lighthouse at Cedar Point and set the channel buoys 
in Sandusky Bay. Later, he built 700 feet of the east pier for the Government 
in Cleveland. On "Lighthouse Hill" Johnson built his fine home (northeast 
corner of Lake and West 9th). One of Cleveland's most useful citizens, 
he died a wealthy man in 1871 at the age of eighty-six. 

There was a ready market for the product of Ebenezer Duty's labors. In his 
small yard he was molding clay forms and sun-baking them into brick, a 
substantial step in the building industry of the village. His son, Andrew, 
applied for a patent on a brick-making machine in 1832. The art descended 
to a great-grandson, Spencer M. 

Captain Jared Clark looked over 100 acres at the Public Square and 
Ontario Street, offered to him for $10 per acre, but turned them down as 
inferior farm land. Going south to Brecksville, he purchased 200 acres for 
I5 an acre. Euclid Street property (near East 4th) was now selling at $2 
per foot. 

John P. Spencer came to Rockport this year and commenced to clear his 
125-acre farm in the southwestern section of the township. A country highway 
later bore his name — Spencer Road in Rocky River. 

Eastern entertainers brought stark tragedy and amusing comedy to the 
boards of local halls. Sensational chemical and scientific exhibitions were well 
patronized. Collections of birds, animals, and curiosities, an Egyptian 
mummy in its coffin, a gory wax works, trained-animal acts, and the periodic 
visit of the circus delighted the citizens, 

Louisa Lane, child dancer, appeared in the village with her parents and the 
famous Madame Celeste, danseuse and pantomimist. Many years later, as 
Mrs. John Drew, "the grand old lady of the American stage," she recalled 



124 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1830] 

her childhood appearance. "I remember die village widi its pretty rose 
gardens leading down to the lake. There were only four of us in the company. 
I do not remember whether it was in Cleveland or Buflfalo that we had 
such a time to secure an orchestra. I believe the only talent was a solitary 
Negro who could play a fiddle and all he could play was Yan\ee Doodle and 
Hail Columbia^ 

Selling their property in New York, Benjamin and Rebecca Cromwell 
Rouse, agents for the American Sabbath School Union of Philadelphia, 
reached their frontier post in Cleveland on October 17. They rented a 
house on Superior Street for $91 a year, fitting the front room as a book 
depository from which religious literature was dispensed. Prominent women 
met in the Rouse home and assisted Mrs. Rouse with her evangelistic work. 
It is said that male "sinners" of Cleveland observed that "there is more 
religion in Rouse's windows than in the whole village besides." From this 
small eflfort grew the women's union gospel work of Cleveland. Benjamin 
Rouse organized Trinity Sunday School in 1830, and the First Baptist 
and First Methodist Episcopal Sunday Schools in 1833. Purchasing land 
on the northwest corner of Superior Street and the Square (Marshall Building 
site), he built a small two-story building with his residence above and store 
space for rental below. 

Thieves were helping themselves to all kinds of property, particularly 
horses, and citizens organized in self-defense. On November 23, farmers 
of the county formed the Union Club for the Detection of Horse Thieves 
at the Spangler Tavern, with Datus Kelley, chairman of the meeting. The 
first officers were Charles M. Giddings, commandant, and Gordon Fitch, 
secretary. 

A little group of colored folk, fugitive slaves from the deep South who 
were jubilant in freedom from their masters, met on an early winter 
evening in a house near the corner of Bolivar and Erie streets to form the 
first Negro religious body in Cleveland, St. John's African Methodist 
Episcopal Church. The Rev. William Paul Quinn, an itinerant preacher, 
had called them together into a prayer group, where they could manifest 
freely their impassioned spiritual emotions. The general Negro population, 
however, showed no interest, and it was not until 1848 that the church 
appeared in the city records. 

The Cleveland Insurance Company was granted a perpetual charter 
wdth power to operate both an insurance and banking business. Capital 
was $500,000. It was devoted entirely to banking until 1861, when re- 
organization solely as an insurance company was effected. The company 
was one of many in the nation that failed to survive losses sustained in the 
great Chicago fire of 1871. Eastern insurance companies opened offices in 
Cleveland as the city grew. 

There were a number of important arrivals in Cleveland this year. George 
Hoadley was elected justice of the peace, and "decided over twenty thousand 
cases," few being appealed and none reversed. He served as mayor of 
Cleveland from 1846 to 1848, moving to Cincinnati the next year. His son, 
George, who spelled his family name without the "e," was elected governor 



[1831] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 125 

of Ohio in 1883. Seth A. Abbey became city marshal and judge of the Police 
Court. Abbey Avenue was named for him. His son, Henry G., became a 
leading figure in Cleveland. Norman C. Baldwin joined Noble H. Merwin 
in the commission business. He was a member of the firm of Giddings, 
Baldwin & Company that owned one of the first regular steamship lines on 
the lake. In later years, Baldwin turned to banking and real estate. Richard 
Winslow brought with him both capital and energy, and opened a wholesale 
grocery store on Superior Street opposite Union Lane, His imposing residence 
facing the Public Square (May Company site) was built by Levi Johnson, 
and reflected his business success. Winslow's future lay in building lake 
vessels. S. H. Sheldon opened a drug store on Detroit Street, Brooklyn, and 
later turned to the grocery business. 



1831 

The first issue of the Cleveland Advertiser appeared on January 6 without 
the "a" in "Cleveland." Madison Kelley, editor, and Henry BoUes produced 
the weekly that first championed the Whig Party and later supported the 
Democrats. The paper changed hands several times. John W. Allen was one 
of its editors. In January, 1835, it located above the Post Office, and in 1836, 
it became a daily. 

When Milo H. Hickox came to Cleveland from Rochester he was 
shocked at the high price asked for a room — $1 a month. Writing to a 
friend, he commented, "Everything that we want to live upon commands 
cash and a high price. Mechanics' wages are low. Journeymen get from 
$10 to $20 per month and board; I get nine shillings and six pence per day, 
and board myself. I have the best of work . . . There are between fifteen 
and twenty grogshops, and they all live." 

Only one course in natural science was offered by the Ashtabula School 
of Science and Industry that opened to male and female students this year 
at Mechanicsville, Ohio. It was a self-help school, and students were 
required to work two or three hours a day. This greatly assisted parents 
who were obliged to stretch their finances to educate their children. In 
1835 the school and the building were moved to Austinburg, Ohio, and 
became the Grand River Institute. 

The first Shakespearean performance was given in the little brick Court 
House by Gilbert & Trowbridge. In lumber wagons and oxcarts the pioneers 
came from as far as Doan's Corners to see the showfolks present the drama, 
and they liked it. 

A boom in land speculation originated this year that produced virtual 
war between Cleveland and Brooklyn. It began in Brooklyn, when the 
Buffalo Company and the New Harbor Company, made up of Buffalo and 
Brooklyn investors, purchased the Carter farm between the Cuyahoga and the 
old river bed, consisting of about 80 acres. They laid it out in lots and streets 
— Centre, Main, and others — and put it on the market for anyone who 



126 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1831] 

could pay one-fourth of the purchase price in cash. Lots changed hands 
over and over at inflated prices that reached $250 a foot front in 1836. 
A distillery built on a mound in the vicinity further inflated the spirits of 
the investors, and gave the name of Whisky Island to the district. 

Prospect Street, first named Cuyahoga Street, was laid out this year from 
Ontario to Erie. 

In the early thirties. Dr. David Long built a substantial stone house at the 
southwest corner of Seneca and Superior streets. Here his daughter, Mary 
H., seventeen, became the bride of Solomon L, Severance, a young merchant, 
in 1833. He died five years later, leaving her with two sons, Louis H. and 
Solon L. The doctor maintained an office at Superior and Erie streets. In 
1836 he moved to a farm on Kinsman Street, where he built a fine stone house 
with classic columns, that he sold to Erastus Gaylord in 1845 (St. Ann's 
Maternity Hospital site). In his brick house built to the west (Woodland 
and Longwood avenues), Dr. Long died in 1851, and Cleveland lost one 
of its most valuable citizens. Long Street, cut through the doctor's pasture, 
and Longwood Avenue were named in his honor, 

John M. Hughes, a brewer in the "Flats," was a passenger on the DeWitt 
Clinton when it made its trial run from Albany to Schenectady, August 9. 
It was the first steam locomotive to operate on the 17-mile Mohawk & 
Hudson Railroad, pioneer unit of the New York Central System, hauling 
three converted stagecoaches on strap-type rails over a 123^-mile course 
in less than an hour. Despite enthusiasm for the new venture, it was believed 
impossible for the road to survive competition of the palatial steamers 
operating between New York and Albany. Besides, the physical difficulties 
of constructing a railroad were colossal. 

A Methodist class of nineteen members was organized at Doan's Corners 
by the Rev. Milton Colt, who established the first Methodist Sunday School 
in Cleveland Village. Meetings were held by the Methodist Church Society 
of East Cleveland in the stone schoolhouse until 1837, when their first 
sanctuary was erected. They shared it occasionally with the Presbyterians, 
and some of the good Methodist brethren protested at the desecration 
by Jarvis F. Hanks' fiddle, despite his claim that it had been converted. 
A brick church was completed in 1870 on the original site in the heart 
of the flourishing East End community. The congregation became known 
as the Euclid Avenue Methodist Church, and in 1920 it joined with Epworth 
Memorial as the Epworth-Euclid Church. 

A four-day series of revival meetings, bordering on the fanatical, was 
held in August, leaving in its wake "maniacs, family broils, neighborhood 
disturbances, assaults and misdemeanors." As a result, a citizens' committee 
was appointed to caution leaders against such vigorous religious demon- 
strations. 

James Abram Garfield was born on November 19 in a log cabin in 
Cuyahoga County (Jackson and SOM Center roads. Orange Township). 
A replica of the humble birthplace of the twentieth President of the United 
States stands on the grounds of "Lawnfield," the Garfield home in Mentor 
(maintained by the Western Reserve Historical Society). 



[1832] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 127 



1832 

James S. Clark razed the Cleveland House on the Public Square, and a 
larger, three-story hotel took its place in the early winter. Lorenzo A. 
Kelsey, wealthy and cultured, managed it for a short time in 1837. Meetings, 
balls, and public functions made the Cleveland the bright spot on the Square. 
In 1842, James W. Cook, proprietor, officially joined the "drys," banning the 
sale of liquors. There could be no doubt of his stand when he renamed 
the hotel the Cleveland Temperarice House. 

Having paid its liabilities after the financial crash in 1820, amounting to 
less than ten thousand dollars due the Treasurer of the United States, the 
Commercial Bank of Lake Erie was reorganized, opening its doors on April 
2, Leonard Case was president, and Truman P. Handy, cashier. It is related 
that through the influence of George Bancroft, eminent historian, capital of 
$200,000 was provided to make re-opening -of the bank possible. Bancroft sent 
Handy to Cleveland, where he became one of the city's great bankers. The 
new directors were Leonard Case, Samuel Williamson, Edward Clark, Peter 
M. Weddell, Heman Oviatt, Charles M. Giddings, John Blair, Alfred 
Kelley, David King, James Duncan, Roswell Kent, T. P. Handy, and John 
W. Allen. Upon expiration of the charter in 1842, the bank's affairs were 
placed in the hands of Handy, Henry B. Payne, and Dudley Baldwin, 
special commissioners, who made final disposition. The remaining assets 
were distributed in June, 1845. 

The first boat traveled the entire length of the Ohio Canal from Cleveland 
to Portsmouth on the Ohio River, a distance of about 309 miles. The 
Cleveland terminus was on the river near the foot of Superior Street. 

The Cleaveland Herald dropped the "a" from its masthead on May i, 
and, consistent with common usage, was henceforth known as the Cleveland 
Herald. One reason historians give for the change is that the letters in a new 
font of type were too wide for the space, and the compositor did the 
expedient thing — cut the "a." Another story states that the publisher received 
a stock of paper too narrow to accommodate the name of the newspaper in 
the heading, and to solve the difficulty, the "a" was dropped as superfluous. 
A third story relates that the "a" in the title type was broken, and there 
being none to replace it, the shortened form of spelling was used. Records 
of Cleveland Township show the "a" in general use until about this time. 
Newspaper advertisements were being dramatized with crude, impersonal 
woodcut illustrations. 

The first piano was brought to the village by the town brewer, and crowds 
gathered to hear this newest wonder. Short-term singing schools, church 
music, and an occasional brass band, imported for special occasions, con- 
stituted the gamut of early-day music. 

An epidemic of Asiatic cholera was raging in Quebec and Montreal, and 
panic spread throughout the Great Lakes region. With the arrival in 
Cleveland of a troop boat from the Black Hawk War came the scourge 



128 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY i'^^'P] 

that found fertile soil in the village that was without sanitation and health 
facilities. Dr. David Long appointed the first Board of Health, on June 24, 
consisting of Drs. E. W. Cowles, Joshua Mills and Oran St. John, Silas 
Belden and Charles Denison (latter two were not doctors); Dr. S. J. Weldon 
and Daniel Worley were added later. They were to take all necessary health 
measures in combating the disease. Vessels were quarantined and inspected. 
A "pest house" — Cleveland's second hospital — was set up on Whisky Island. 
A village hearse, harness, and bier were purchased. A system of smallpox 
vaccinations was adopted, and free inoculations were offered to those unable 
to pay. About fifty deaths resulted in Cleveland. News that Black Hawk and 
his warriors had sacked Fort Dearborn (Chicago) added to the fears of the 
stricken village. 

Charles Whittlesey, of Connecticut, twenty-four-year-old West Point 
graduate who had seen service in the Black Hawk War, resigned from the 
army and opened a law office in Cleveland this year. While he soon acquired 
an interest in local newspapers, he was to become best known for his 
geological surveys and historical writings. 

An ordinance established sidewalk lines on July 11 : on Superior Street, 
16^ feet wide; on 6-rod streets, 12 feet; on 4-rod streets, 10 feet; and on 
other streets, lanes and alleys, as might be designated. Trespassing on a 
sidewalk with a vehicle meant a fine up to $20. The luxury of new sidewalks 
was drowned, however, in taxpayers' grumbling, when they learned that 
a tax of two mills on the dollar had been levied. 

When the Mestayer theatrical troupe disbanded in Cleveland through 
inability to make ends meet, the managers of the company presented comic 
shows in Seth A. Abbey's new tavern at the corner of Ontario and 
Michigan streets (Higbee store site) to earn enough money to leave town. 
Here vaudeville in Cleveland had its beginning. During a performance, 
Dan Marble made his debut in a sketch and songs, starting him on the 
road to fame as a great comedian. 

Rufus Dunham owned a 140-acre farm that stretched northward from 
Euclid (to Hough), and this year he replaced his log cabin with a larger 
log structure called Dunham Tavern (6709 Euclid). 

The first Baptist meeting in Cleveland was held on November 19 at 
the Academy. 

Christian families, who had united in a Sunday School, met on December 
31 and organized the First Congregational Church of Newburgh, under the 
direction of the Rev. Stephen Peet of Euclid. Charter members were Edward 
and Theodosia Taylor, James and Sarah Ashwell, James and Elizabeth 
Southam, John and Amy Righter, John and Amy Stair, and Elizabeth 
Stair. They worshiped for a time in the town hall and in the schoolhouse. 
The Rev. John Keys supplied the pulpit, and was succeeded by the Rev. 
Matthew Fox, the first pastor. The church became Presbyterian in govern- 
ment in 1840 as the First Presbyterian Church of Newburgh. Willing 
sacrifice and earnest effort made possible the dedication of a little white 
meeting house in 1845 at Woodland Hills and Gorman Street. During 
the pastorate of the beloved Rev. Eleroy Curtis, a new brick edifice was 



[1833] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 129 

dedicated in 1872 on Miles Park that became known as the Miles Park 
Presbyterian Church (91 14 Miles Park). The Rev. Arthur C. Ludlow, 
who served from 1887 to 1923, was its best-known minister. He was not 
only an able pastor, but he was a writer and speaker of importance; and 
under his ministry, the church became a leader in the denomination in 
northern Ohio. The Rev. Peter Macaulay, pastor in 1946, had come to the 
pulpit in 1927. 

1833 

A hole was cut in the ice on January 13, and four persons were baptized 
in Lake Erie in the first baptismal service of the Baptist faith in Cleveland. 

Seventeen devout Baptists organized the First Baptist Society on February 
16, the charter members including Moses White, Benjamin and Rebecca C. 
Rouse, John Seaman, Horatio Ranney, Leonard and Sophia Stockwell, John 
and Harriet Malvin, and others. The Rev. Richard Taggart was the first 
pastor, and services were held in the Academy. At great sacrifice, a meeting 
house was provided in 1836 costing $13,000. Deacon Brewster Pelton, who 
lived in Euclid, was moved to mortgage his farm for $2,000 to provide his 
contribution, although neighbors questioned his judgment. John Seaman, 
William T. Smith, Loren Prentiss, and earnest families rejoiced when the 
brick sanctuary was dedicated at the southeast corner of Seneca and 
Champlain streets. It was said to be the finest church in Ohio, surmounted 
by the first steeple in Cleveland, a 150-foot spire having at its base a 
clock and a belfry. 

A bill passed by the Legislature in February encouraged the organization 
of fire companies, and forty-five volunteer citizens banded together as the 
Live Oak Company, under John G. McCurdy, foreman, to defend Cleveland 
against the fire menace. Purchase of a hand-pumping engine, called Live 
Oak No. I, bolstered, their spirits and cost the village $700. Headquarters 
were on Superior Street, just west of Water Street. 

Cleveland had found its place in "the age of lyceums." In February 
the Cleveland Lyceum was incorporated by Sherlock J. Andrews, John W. 
Allen, Orville B. Skinner, James S. Clark, Irad Kelley, John Barr, Leonard 
Case, Edward Baldwin, Richard Hussey, James L. Conger, and Thomas M. 
Kelley. Henry H. Dodge was recording secretary. Amusements were few 
at this time and there was a craving for knowledge. Young men of the 
community sought mutual improvement and entertainment in cultural 
organizations, where they exchanged the few books and magazines and 
settled the questions of the day. The lyceum flourished for about ten years, 
expanding its activity to present lecture courses and imported speakers. 

In February the newly incorporated Cleveland Library Company com- 
menced soliciting funds for a subscription library, the first in the village. 
It struggled through the panic of '37 and perished about 1840. 

Thomas Burnham decided to abandon his occupation as master of a 
freight boat running on the Champlain Canal from Whitehall to Albany, 



130 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [l^SS] 

New York, and with his young wife started to Cleveland. Their journey 
discloses the common modes of transportation at this time. From Glens Falls 
to Saratoga they traveled by team. Here they boarded the railroad for 
Schenectady. The cars on this line resembled stagecoaches, ran on strap 
rails, and were drawn by three horses driven tandemwise. At Schenectady, 
the Burnhams took passage for Buffalo on the Erie Canal, thence to 
Cleveland on the steamer Pennsylvania, which stopped at every port, taking 
four days and nights for the trip. Burnham took charge of a Brooklyn 
Township school at Washington and Pearl streets. 

The Black Hawk War was over. Black Hawk, famous Indian chief, had 
been subdued, and, in government custody, was peacefully observing eastern 
cities and the white man's progress. On his way back to the West, he 
asked to visit his mother's grave on the Cuyahoga's bank. Alone in a canoe, 
he paddled up the river to a blufE overlooking the valley (from the southeast 
corner of Riverside Cemetery), where he remained a while, and it is said 
there were tears in his eyes when he returned. It is believed that Black Hawk 
was born in the neighborhood of Cleveland. 

John A. Foote — or Foot, son of Samuel A. Foote, governor of Connecticut, 
came to Cleveland this year. His father had won distinction in the United 
States Senate, having introduced an historic resolution relating to public 
lands that prompted the famous Webster-Hayne debate. Foote, a Yale 
graduate, formed a law partnership with Sherlock J. Andrews that continued 
for a number of years, and he gave liberally in service to his city and 
state. 

In June, the Cleveland Water Company was incorporated by Philo Scovill 
and others to provide water for the village, but little seems to have been 
achieved beyond the charter stage. 

Cleveland's growth demanded an expansion of street facilities. River Street 
was laid out from Superior to Union Lane, and Meadow, Spring, and 
Lighthouse streets were planned this year. 

Jonathan Goldsmith, well-known Painesville architect, built the first im- 
posing house on Euclid Street (site of Taylor's department store) for Samuel 
Cowles this year. The three-story, brick residence, built "way out" of town, 
was the show place of the community. 

A steamer that arrived in Cleveland on about July i brought Stephen A. 
Douglas, twenty, equipped with letters of introduction to "gentlemen of that 
place." He was most fortunate in receiving the offer of Sherlock J. Andrews, 
distinguished lawyer, to study law in his office, and "with increased spirit 
and zeal" young Douglas went to work. In a few days, however, he was 
attacked with a fever that lasted four months. In spite of the doctor's 
predictions, he recovered, but with the urge to move westward, where he 
later embarked on his famous career as legislator and statesman. 

The Herald reported that to July i, two hundred and thirty ships had 
arrived in the harbor, and the docks were "thronged with passengers." A 
great deal of freight was being handled, and the canal was prospering. 
During the week of July 20, fifty-two vessels arrived with heavy cargoes. 



[1833] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 131 

twenty-four having come via the Welland Canal and eleven from Canadian 
ports on Lake Erie. 

Joseph Smith and fifty families had come from New York to join the 
Mormon colony at Kirtland, Ohio, in 1831. Inspired by vision and prophecy, 
the "saints" sold their farms, stock, and goods to provide $40,000 — a large 
sum in those days — with which to build a place of worship for the Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The cornerstone of the three-story, 
stone structure, 80 by 60 feet, was laid in July of this year. A belfry 
surmounted the building, which was an architectural confusion. Pews 
were hand-carved, and great windows reached to the ceiling. The faithful 
toiled unceasingly to fulfill their mission, and at night stood guard with 
their guns against opposition that had developed in the vicinity as a result 
of their fanatical behavior and strange practices. On March 27, 1836, the 
Temple was dedicated. Kirtland became a thriving town under the leadership 
of Brigham Young, who became one of the twelve apostles in 1835. In 
February, 1834, he married Mary Ann Angell, a Kirtland girl, who became 
the second of his twenty-six wives. Large business developments were under- 
taken, and the elders became involved in such financial difficulties that they 
were forced to leave Kirtland. On July 6, 1838, "vision and prophecy" 
guided 515 men, women and children out of the community, westward in 
58 wagons, and with them they took a large number of cows. A goodly 
number of the sect that did not join Young's caravan formed the Reorganized 
Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-day Saints. For many years, the Mormon 
property remained in the name of Joseph Smith or his family. The Kirtland 
Academy was later installed in the abandoned Temple; and the Western 
Reserve Teachers' Seminary trained teachers here. The blue exterior of 
the first Mormon temple in the United States had grayed by 1946, but the 
shrine of a courageous people remained firm and strong, the meeting place 
of the Mormon congregation in Kirtland. 

Datus and Irad Kelley purchased the westerly half of Cunningham's 
Island, north of Sandusky in Lake Erie, at $1.50 per acre, continuing to buy 
until they owned the entire island of about three thousand acres. They 
opened the famous stone quarries, and Datus moved his family there. 
A community was established, with a school, dock, hotel, and town hall. 
Kelley Island became famous for its red cedar, vineyards, and peach orchards. 
Mark Twain once wrote, "You can't fool me with Kelley Island wine; I 
can tell it from vinegar every time — by the label on the bottle." 

Theater audiences had outgrown the little Court House, and Samuel and 
William Cook erected the first theater building at about this time on the 
corner of Superior at Union Lane. It was a two-story, frame structure, with 
stores on the first floor, and an auditorium on the second, about 70 by 50 
feet, poorly equipped. 

John Stair, newcomer from England, opened a private school in New- 
burgh, and wrote home on August 16 to say that he regarded Cleveland as 
"an increasing place," and "for the size of it, the prettiest town I have seen 
in America." He reported interest in the fine arts, and observed that "this 



132 CLE\rELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [^^33>] 

is a poor man's country . . . Situations for single men are very scarce, 
except as bartenders at taverns, clerks, etc." Turkeys were being marketed 
at 50 cents each; roasting pigs, 25 cents; mutton, beef, pork, veal, 2 to 4 cents 
per pound; butter, 9 cents; cheese, 6 cents. "Many raise all they eat, with 
few exceptions, such as tea, coffee, etc. They raise their own wool and flax 
which are spun and woven by the women for clothing, so that a farmer 
is the most independent person in the country." Stair paid 25 cents to post 
his letter. 

Benjamin Harrison, twenty-third President of the United States, was 
born at North Bend, Ohio, on August 20. 

Carpentering was the trade of Admiral Nelson Gray, who arrived this 
year. He was joined in 1835 by his brother, Nicholas A., and a year later by 
his youngest brother, Joseph William, both bent on teaching school. After 
a time, the trio opened a college-preparatory academy on Euclid Street, 
west of Erie, but the project soon faded. J. W. then entered the law office 
of Henry B. Payne and Hiram V. Willson, and in about a year was 
qualified to practice. However, clients were slow in seeking the new attorney, 
and he found that writing partisan articles for the Advertiser helped to fill 
his free time and satisfy his interest in poHtics. 

Handerson & Punderson opened a retail drug store on lower Superior 
Street that was the leading establishment for many years. Lewis Handerson, 
one of the proprietors, was the uncle of Dr. Henry E. Handerson, who 
became one of Cleveland's best-known physicians. Concoctions that lined 
the shelves were carefully mixed by the partners: elixir, paregoric, Hungary 
water, soap liniment, Bateman's drops, Windham pills, milk of roses, 
verbena extract, chlorine tooth wash, cold cream, cream of lilies, and so on. 
Dragon's-blood, sassafras, opodeldoc, gum arable, quicksilver, opium, cam- 
phor, proof-spirit, turpentine, ginger, gentian, vitriol, cinnamon, sulphur, and 
arsenic were in demand. Prescriptions were filled according to physicians' 
recipes. Household items, such as sealing wax, bug bane, amalgam, lacquer 
and varnish, black ink, jujube paste, congress water, and shoe blacking were 
also handled. One of the earliest proprietary medicine concerns, it was the 
forerunner of Strong Cobb & Company. 

Ten Ohio City Methodists met in the home of Nathaniel Burton and 
formed a Methodist society, holding services in homes and in the Vermont 
Street schoolhouse. A building fund started by William Warmington 
provided a sanctuary on Church and Hanover streets that was leveled by 
a storm in 1836 before entirely completed. The basement was ready for use 
a year later, but not until nine years passed was the little Hanover Street 
Methodist Church dedicated. Abolition sentiments ruffled the calm of the 
membership; and, in 1849, the innovation of a choir shocked about ten 
members into demanding their letters. The York Street and Hanover 
Street congregations united in 1866, and a new church home was dedicated 
in 1870 at the northeast corner of what later became Franklin and West 
32nd Street. The Rev. James Erwin was pastor. The two-ton church bell, a 
replica of the Liberty Bell, only larger, crashed through two floors to the 
basement after a time. It was rehung and rang for the first time announcing 



[1833] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 133 

the Armistice ending World War I. The pew in which President WilHam 
McKinley worshiped in 1896 was inscribed with his name. Trinity Church, 
1894, and Garden Avenue Church, 1898, were the offspring o£ the FrankHn 
Boulevard Methodist Church, whose pastor in 1946 was the Rev. Wilbur B. 
Meiser. Time dealt unkindly with the Uttle pioneer church, built in 1836, and 
at the turn o£ the century it was being used as a livery stable. 

A statement published in September indicated that in eight years Cleveland 
exports had increased from $50,000 to $2,000,000; and imports, from $130,640 
to $4,700,000. New York and Pennsylvania markets were looking to the 
thriving village for a greater volume of its products. 

"A Sunday School was organized in 1833 ^"^ 1^34'" wrote Samuel H. 
Mather in a discussion of early Cleveland schools, "a kind of mission or 
ragged school. The children, however, were found so ignorant that Sunday 
School teaching as such, was out of the question. The time of the teacher 
was obliged to be spent in teaching the children how to read. To remedy 
this difficulty and make the Sunday School available, a day school was 
started. It was supported by voluntary contributions, and was a charity 
school, in fact, to which none were sent but the very poorest people." 

The Leonid shower, a brilliant meteoric display, was observed on Novem- 
ber 12, and continued for two days with marked intensity. 

James S. Clark, Edmund Clark, and Richard Hilliard laid out Cleveland 
Centre in December, comprising the land in Ox Bow Bend, the first curve 
of the Cuyahoga River, and offered town lots for sale at inflated prices. This 
was an elaborate piece of city planning. A geometric street pattern centered 
at Gravity Place, the east landing on the river. From it radiated China, 
Russia, British, French, and German streets, although not until several 
decades later was there a Chinese or a Russian in Cleveland. Of the streets, 
three became important: Columbus Street carried east-and-west traffic until 
the era of bridge-building; Merwin Street served the shipping and ware- 
housing industry along the river until the sixties; Commercial Street was 
preserved in the name given to the Commercial Street Hill. 

The union of Presbyterians and Congregationalists, as it pertained to the 
training of young men at Western Reserve College in Hudson^ was not 
satisfactory to either denomination and the founding of Oberlin Collegiate 
Institute (later Oberlin College) resulted in December at Oberlin, Ohio. A 
township was acquired and families were encouraged to settle on these lands 
to form a bulwark against the westward invasion of worldliness and irreli- 
gion. President Asa Mahan and Charles G. Finney, theology professor, were 
leaders in the international reform movement then in progress. Not only 
young men and women, but all colors and creeds, were admitted to Oberlin 
in this day of violent opposition to "joint education" and riotous debate on 
the Negro question. It was the first college to abolish race considerations in 
admission, and to give degrees to women, conferring them first in 1841. 
"Manual labor with study" constituted the educational system. Before the 
Civil War, Oberlin was a strong anti-slavery center. Early faculties were 
composed chiefly of New England Congregationalists, and the Oberlin the- 
ology was a modified form of Calvinism, which included the doctrine of 



134 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1834] 

free will. The college was named for Jean Frederic Oberlin, Strassbourg 
educator, a follower of die Pestalozzian system of education by manual 
labor. 

This year saw the completion of 400 miles of the Ohio Canal and its 
branches. Not long afterward the waterway was opened from Cleveland to 
Portsmouth via Columbus, and the canal had increased to a total of 500 
miles. 

Canal commerce in 1833 serves as an index to economic needs of the 
North and South. Freight shipped out of Cleveland on the canal totaled 
9,896,440 pounds of merchandise and 28,447 barrels of salt. Inbound shipments 
included wheat, corn, flour, tobacco, whisky, beef, butter, cheese, and 49,131 
bushels of coal. The Government had sold 4,000,000 acres of land at $1 per 
acre, and the combination of cheap land and canal progress lengthened the 
lines of pioneering families seeking new homes in the West. 

Until this time, early statutes governing the status of the Negro were 
scarcely observed, as there was little north-and-south traffic through Ohio. 
With the opening of the canal, however, there was a sudden consciousness 
of the slumbering Fugitive-Slave Law and the Ohio laws enacted in 1804 
and 1807, which required registry of blacks and mulattoes, bonding that 
guaranteed good behavior and payment for support, and penalty for harbor- 
ing escaped persons. As early as 1810, antislavery sentiment was stirring in 
Cleveland, and a conflict of interests was evident in 1827. It was the common 
understanding that no fugitive could be recovered in the village. The first 
school for Negroes was supported by subscription. It was opened in 1832 
by John Malvin, pioneer Negro preacher, engineer, canal-boat captain, and 
fervent Abolitionist. Dr. David Long was president of the Cleveland Anti- 
Slavery Society, organized in 1833, and his son-in-law, Solomon L. Severance, 
was secretary. 

Spectacular entertainment was provided this year by the "American 
Fire King," a so-called fire-eater, the Siamese Twins in a three-day appear- 
ance at the Franklin House, a circus and menagerie, a theatrical troupe, two 
equestrian companies, "General" Black Hawk, and a female orang-outang. 
Theatrical performances were rare, not more than one a year. Their runs 
were usually short and generally not profitable to the company. 



1834 

The first serious fire occurred on January 20, when the Martin C. Hill 
store on Superior Street burned. A loss of $12,000 was suffered on the 
two-story, frame building that had housed a stock of $9,000. Organized 
fire-fighting efforts were strengthened as a result. 

The Live Oak volunteers became an organized company this year, known 
as Eagle No. i. Captain McCurdy in command. A fire department was 
soon estabhshed, composed of Neptune No. 2, Phoenix No. 4, Forest City 



[1834] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 135 

Hook and Ladder Company No. i, Hope Hose Company No. i, and No. 3, 
the latter made up of boys with no official recognition. 

Cleveland boundary lines were extended on February 18, annexing "All the 
two-acre lots east of Erie street, the tier south of Ohio street, and a parcel 
at the southwest corner of the original plat, which was not surveyed or 
laid off." At about this time, Euclid Street, now a state road, was covered 
with planks from Perry Street to the city limits. A "corduroy" road was 
built out in the woods across the swamp (East 55th Street). 

The first church on the Public Square was dedicated on February 26. 
Land had been purchased several years before from Joel Scranton for $400 
by the committee of the First Presbyterian Society of Cleveland: Samuel 
Williamson, Samuel Cowles, John M. Sterhng, Leonard Case, Harmon 




The First Presbyterian Church was known 
as the Stone Church. 



Kingsbury, Nathan Perry, Samuel Starkweather, Ashbel W. Walworth, 
Edmund Clark, and Peter M. Weddell. Six of these staunch pillars of the 
church donated I50 each, and four gave $25 each to make the purchase 
possible. The structure was located at the northwest corner of the Public 
Square and Ontario Street. It represented a long struggle to surmount many 
difficulties, chiefly due to the scarcity of money and material. The building 
was temple-like in style, with pilastered front and high steps, surrounded by 
a low board fence, and cost $9,500. The Rev. John Keep of Oberlin, called as 
pulpit supply in 1833, preached the dedicatory sermon. Before long, the 
eighty-four high-backed pews, and the few in the gallery, were inadequate 
for the congregation, and the matter of expansion became a serious question. 
As the First Presbyterian Church was the first stone church in Cleveland, 



136 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1834] 

it came to be known as the Stone Church, or Old Stone Church, rather 
than for its denomination. The Rev. Samuel Clark Aiken became the first 
pastor in 1835, and served for twenty-six years. According to the Annals of 
the Early Settlers Association, Dr. Aiken came to Cleveland "at a time when 
there was much discussion in the church — 'throwing many unstable men 
off their balance, skepticism, infidelity, mormonism and universaHsm, was 
engrossing many minds.' Dr. Aiken held on to the old conservative way, 
with practical wisdom. Although it was said of him he was very arbitrary in 
his administration, and prosy as a preacher, at any rate his sermons would 
not keep old John Blair awake; while sleeping, leaning against the pew 
door, it suddenly flew open, and he lay sprawUng in the aisle, the con- 
gregation laughing audibly." Dr. Aiken took more than an active interest 
in Cleveland affairs, and his influence was broad and deep. Many of the 
men who were molding the future city were in his congregation, men of the 
caliber of Charles Whittlesey, Dr. Erastus Cushing, William Bingham, 
Dr. John Delamater, and Franklin T. Backus. 

The Cleveland & Newburgh Railroad Company was incorporated on 
March 3 with a capital of $50,000. Aaron Barker, David H. Beardsley, 
Lyman Kendall, Truman P. Handy, John W. A.llen, Horace Perry, and 
James S. Clark were the incorporators. Cleveland's first street railway, built 
by Ahaz Merchant, ran from the Blue Stone Quarries in Newburgh town- 
chip through orchards and woods to Euclid Street at Doan's Lane. At 
Kennard Street it followed the middle of Euclid to the southwest corner 
of the Public Square, disappearing in the barn back of the Cleveland House 
(Hotel Cleveland site). Two horses pulled a flat car on wooden rails, and, 
at first, stone and lumber were hauled. Conveniences were added for passen- 
gers the next year, and Silas Merchant, driver, conductor, superintendent, 
and barn man, made two trips daily. He did a brisk business on July 4, 1835, 
when he collected $125 in fares. Cleveland's first rapid-transit venture failed to 
pay, however, and after several years the project was abandoned. 

Levi BilHngs had erected a tavern on the EucHd road (between East loist 
and East 105th) about 1825, and his establishment took on importance when 
horses on the wooden-rail, streetcar line were stabled in his barn. Soon the 
Billings Tavern became known as the Railroad Hotel, distinguished by a 
sunken garden in the front yard, laid out with "excellent taste and some 
knowledge of gardening." At the edge of the stable yard were three 
poisonous shrubs, said to have been planted by foreigners living in the hotel 
"to scare away witches," and they persisted in defying efforts to kill them. 
Nathan Post converted part of the hotel into a family residence in 1846, and 
here Mary Post conducted a primary school in one room, while Laura Post 
taught "articulation to the deaf and dumb." Charles A. Post, banker and 
historian, was born here in 1848. The family razed the hotel and erected a 
new home in 1874. 

The first manufacturing concern in Cleveland, formed under a state 
charter, was the Cuyahoga Steam Furnace Company (Center and Detroit 
streets, almost under the High Level Bridge). It was founded on March 
3 with a capital of $100,000. The chief stockholders were Josiah Barber, 



[1834] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 137 

Richard Lord, and Charles Hoyt. It was the principal plant in the region, 
and the first Cuyahoga Valley furnace and foundry to use steam power 
instead of horsepower for blowing. Here was built the first locomotive 
operated west of the Alleghenies, machinery for the first successful screw 
propeller to operate on the lakes — the Emigrant, castings, wrought iron 
work, plows, and cannon. Fire swept the shop and a finer plant was erected 
in 1836 that produced "more than 500 tons of castings, besides a large 
quantity of wrought iron, giving employment to 70 men." 

The Bank of Cleveland was organized this year with a capital stock of 
$300,000. It was located at 7 Superior Street, according to the 1837 city 
directory, and its officers at that time were Norman C. Baldwin, president; 
Alexander Seymour, cashier; T. C. Severance, teller; H. F. Brayton, book- 
keeper. This was Cleveland's second bank and it closed in the panic of 1837. 

The Whig anti-Jackson sentiment was bitter, and a number of political 
gatherings chose Cleveland to air their feelings. The outstanding convention 
of the year was held at the Court House on March 18, where demand was 
made that congressmen "adopt measures to restore the country to its un- 
wonted prosperity." The attendance was two hundred and four, and the 
Herald stated that "never, since the organization of the county, has there 
been a meeting so numerously attended." Temperance, agricultural, and 
medical sessions met in Cleveland. 

In April, Leonard Case subdivided ten-acre lot No. i at the southeast 
corner of the old city plat, and widened the Newburgh Road — formerly 
Pittsburgh Street — from 66 feet to 99 feet to benefit his property. Residents 
were so impressed with the broad thoroughfare that the name was later 
changed to Broadway. During the year, John M. Woolsey placed on the 
market the 2-acre lots south of Superior Street and west of Erie. 

Brooklyn followers of the Episcopal faith organized the St. John's 
Episcopal Parish this year under the leadership of Josiah Barber, Phineas 
Shepherd, and Charles Taylor, who had been instrumental in founding 
the Trinity Parish in 1816. The Rev. Seth Davis became the first rector the 
next year, and services were held in schoolhouses and homes. The matter 
of prior existence is interesting as related by Elroy McKendree Avery in 
A History of Cleveland and Its Environs: "Whether Trinity Cathedral or 
St. John's Church is the oldest (Episcopal) congregation in Cuyahoga 
County is still a mooted question, but the matter was prettily stated in the 
congratulations sent by the church to the cathedral on the occasion of their 
respective centennials (November 9, 1916) : 

Trinity Cathedral, Cleveland — our twin brother, born in the same log cabin, 
on the same day and hour, under the protecting roof of the Pioneer of 
Brooklyn, Phineas Shepherd. We have long since forgiven Trinity for leav- 
ing our bed and board and changing its name from Trinity, Brooklyn, to 
Trinity, Cleveland, as it was obliged to do when it set up housekeeping for 
itself . . . because its members on that side of the river became weary or 
afraid of crossing over to Brooklyn on Sundays on a floating bridge which 
sometimes floated out into the lake. 



138 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1^34] 

The Fourth of July was devoted to a special celebration for the children 
of the county, to impress upon them the great significance of the holiday. 
They marched from their Sunday Schools to the Presbyterian meeting house, 
where services were held, and thence to a grove along the lake at Bond 
Street. Here children and teachers enjoyed "a repast of cakes, crackers and 
cold water." This was the largest assembly of children that had ever been 
arranged, reported a local paper. The practice was continued, and it was 
hoped that "in a very few years, the common method of using rum and 
gunpowder, will be wholly abandoned." 

L. L. Rice edited The Cleveland Whig, a weekly that appeared first on 
August 20. It merged with the Daily Gazette two years later. 

Cholera returned, originating, it is said, with decaying vegetable matter 
in the canal bottom, which was exposed to the sun when the water had been 
drained after a heavy rain. A day having passed with no new cases, the 
Herald issued Cleveland's first newspaper "extra" on August 28, declaring 
that it was believed the epidemic "has finally disappeared." The poor suffered 
dreadfully; and of the hundred dead, fifty-five were buried at the city's 
expense. In a vain effort to save the life of Postmaster Job Doan, leading 
citizen of Doan's Corners, Dr. Elijah Burton, pioneer physician in Euclid 
Township, almost succumbed to the disease. He was the head of a famous 
Cleveland family of physicians. 

Journeymen printers met in October to form the Cleveland Typographical 
Association, an auxiliary to the Columbus Society and the New York 
Trade Union. Its purpose was to promote "better protection of their rights 
and interests, by establishing prices and regular hours of labor." Within a 
few years it had become inactive. 

Members of a flourishing circulating library and lyceum at Chagrin 
(Willoughby) decided that if their town were to become a great lake 
port it must have a railroad and an important educational institution. 
The railroad service came later, but a charter was secured this year for 
Willoughby University on Lake Erie, independent of religious ties. Samuel 
Wilson of Chagrin; Dr. John Handerson, prominent physician; John W. 
Allen of Cleveland; and Joshua R. Giddings of Jefferson, Ohio, were among 
the founders. A medical college was opened on November 3, the first 
institution offering medical education in northern Ohio, but the collegiate 
department never materiaHzed. A remarkable faculty was built up that 
included men who became leaders in their profession: Drs. Horace A. 
Ackley, Amasa Trowbridge, J. Lang Cassels — or Cassells, John Delamater, 
Jared P. Kirtland, Noah Worcester, William M. Smith, and Daniel Piexotto, 
the first Jew to settle in the district, elected president of the college in 1836. 
The new institution was not equal to the times, however, and it struggled 
desperately through the Panic of 1837, until 1843, when it was moved to 
Cleveland. The name "Willoughby" was that of Dr. Westel Willoughby, 
noted physician and teacher of medicine in New York State, who had 
invested in lands in the district. Soon afterward, Chagrin changed its name 
to Willoughby. 



[1835] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 139 

Cleveland now had fifteen German families. Several of them met and 
organized the German Evangelical Protestant Church society this year. 

Holsey Gates, who gave the village of Gates Mills his name in 1826, built 
Gates Mills Inn (part of the Chagrin Valley Hunt Club) of stout timbers 
cut in his sawmill. During the year, Noah Graves raised the first house in 
Chagrin Falls Village, which was still in use more than a century later. 

In the brick schoolhouse on Vermont Street, The First Presbyterian 
Church of Brooklyn was organized on December 21, and forty names 
appeared on the charter. The Rev. John Keep of Oberlin, moderator of the 
meeting, was the first pastor of the church, the offspring of First Church 
in Cleveland. The schoolhouse sheltered the congregation until a temporary 
house of worship was dedicated in 1835 in the rear of a lot at the southeast 
corner of Detroit and State streets. While Presbyterian in name, the church 
was Congregational in form. In 1838, forty-four members withdrew to 
form a Congregational church, but the two bodies united on the "Presby- 
gational" basis three years later, calling the Rev. S. B. Canfield to the pulpit. 
During the pastorate of the Rev. C. L. Watson, 1844-48, the church became 
practically independent of the Presbytery. The ministry of the Rev. James 
A. Thome, 1848-71, witnessed dedication of a brick church on the front 
part of the lot in 1851, and union in 1857 with the Congregationalists under 
the name, First Congregational Church. Grace Church was given its 
start in 1881, and a new building was dedicated in 1885 at the corner of 
Taylor Street and Franklin Avenue, during the pastorate of the Rev. H. M. 
Tenney. The auditorium was dedicated in 1893, during the ministry of the 
Rev. James W. Malcolm, prominent lecturer and writer on Lincoln. The 
cornerstone was laid in 1917 for a new church home to replace the old. 
First Church survived the trials common to its neighbor, Archwood, and 
proudly passed the century mark. Membership neared five hundred and 
fifty in 1946, when the Rev. Earl Ware Foster was serving as pastor in his 
third year. ^ 



1835 

A group of young women of Oberlin College met to form a literary 
society that was one of the first formal woman's clubs of importance in the 
Western Reserve. It was called the Young Ladies Association of Oberlin 
College Institution for the Promotion of Literature and Religion. Teachers 
and townswomen were admitted, and the attic of Ladies' Hall was used 
for meetings. The room was warmed by a stove presented to the society 
by the young men of Oberlin. Club debates were spirited and covered a 
wide field of subjects, among them, "Are Sewing Societies More Productive 
of Evil than Good?", "Hoopskirts Are a Nuisance," "Is It Proper for Young 
Ladies to Make Gestures?" Of the first members, a number are mentioned 
for their achievement and prominence: Antoinette Brown Blackwell, the 



140 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [l^SS] 

first woman to be ordained as a minister in this coimtry; Josephine Penfield 
Bateham, the first foreign missionary sent out by the club ; Harriet Ingraham 
Livingstone, whose husband was David Livingstone's brother; Sarah Blachly 
Bradley, missionary to Siam and mother of Dr. Dan F. Bradley of Cleveland; 
Helen Finney Cox, daughter of President Charles G. Finney of OberUn and 
wife of Governor Jacob D. Cox; Martha Parmalee Rose, first president of 
Cleveland Sorosis and wife of Mayor William G. Rose; Helen Shafer, 
president of Wellesley College; and Harriet L. Keeler, author and educator 
of Cleveland. 

The Cleveland Harmonic Society was organized by seven amateur 
instrumental performers. They stressed their passion for "good music," as 
evidenced by their 1839 spring concert, when twenty-six numbers were 
presented, including works of Haydn and Handel. 

Under the direction of seven young German men, the First Evangelical 
Protestant congregation of Cleveland was organized on April 26. The Rev. 
F. J. Tanke was the first pastor at a salary of $300. According to tradition, 
German sailors, battling a furious Lake Erie storm years before, knelt in 
prayer and promised that if their lives were spared, they would erect a 
church to Almighty God. It is believed that the little church was built 
by them in 1842 at Erie and York streets, for it bore the name, SchifHein 
Christi, Little Boat of Christ. The congregation grew, and in 1876 the little 
church was sold and a new structure was built during the ministry of the 
Rev. C. Moench at Dodge Street and Superior Avenue, bearing the name 
of its predecessor. In 1923, the Schifflein Christi property was sold and plans 
were made to build a new church. The Rev. J. C, Hansen was pastor. 
Death came this year to the Rev. George Maul, pastor of the Ebenezer 
Evangelical Church, founded in 1904 on St. Clair Avenue (and East 73rd 
Street), and the two congregations joined to form the First EvangeHcal 
Church. Then followed the building of a new edifice at 841 Thornhill 
Drive. Trinity Evangelical Protestant Church, formed in 1874, joined in a 
second merger in 1929, and the Rev. Theodore Albert Kitterer, who had 
been pastor of Trinity, became head of the united church. It bore the 
historic "First" name, which upon denominational union became First 
Evangelical and Reformed Church. 

John Shaw had prospered during his thirty-two years of farming in 
Euclid Township (East Cleveland). On May i, he made a will with ample 
provisions for his wife, Sarah, and a bequest whereby rents and profits 
from ninety specified acres should be used to support an academy erected 
in Euclid Township at a cost of no less than two thousand dollars, including 
equipment. Administered by William Adams, Thomas Crosby, and Andrew 
Cozard, trustees, it was to be called The Shaw Academy (later Shaw High 
School). By this practical means, John Shaw manifested his earnest belief 
in education. 

Stagecoaches, wagons, and lake and river vessels continued to bring 
scores of new families to Cleveland from the East, and Ashbel W. Walworth 
decided to allot part of his farm for residences. In the summer, new homes 
were going up on a long strip of land running from the top of the Newburgh 



[1835] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 141 

Road blufF (Broadway) to the Cuyahoga. Hill Street became the principal 
thoroughfare, and here lived the Cottrells, Bakers, Judkins, and Gunnings, 
overlooking the lovely river valley. A century later, the street was deserted, 
except for vagrants. Homes, shops, and warehouses had disappeared, and 
the area had fallen into disrepute. 

On May 14, the Advertiser reviewed the building situation with pride. 
Stores and tenements were under construction, the latter being occupied 
immediately by immigrants as soon as completed. With the opening of the 
navigation season, eight thousand passengers left Buffalo during the first 
week, and many remained in Cleveland. 

Dr. Erastus Cushing came to Cleveland from Massachusetts in June. He 
had studied in eastern medical schools, and was a student under Dr. John 
Delamater, renowned professor. Dr. Cushing held a medical degree, and 
had practiced for ten years in his home state. With these rare advantages, it 
was natural that he should become a leader in his profession in Cleveland. 
The Cushing name was to be identified prominently with medicine down 
through the years. 

The Disciples of Christ joined in a "Yearly Meeting" of non-ecclesiastical 
fellowship at Colonel John Wightman's farm in Newburgh this year. Great 
crowds came to hear the forceful preaching of Alexander Campbell, William 
Hayden, A. B. Green, and M. S. Clapp. There were many converts, and 
a church was organized (later Miles Avenue Church of Christ). Services 
were held in the town hall, but there was no settled minister, and the 
congregation lapsed in a few years. 

Seth W. Johnson opened his shipyard to repair vessels. Soon, however, he 
turned to shipbuilding, and in Cleveland he built the steamer Robert Fulton, 
368 tons, and the Constellation, 483 tons. Prominent in the business for 
the next three decades were Johnson & Tisdale, Quayle & Moses — later 
Quayle & Martin, and Peck & Masters. 

A disastrous fire wiped out twenty-two stores and offices on July 29, 
resulting in a loss of $45,000. The Advertiser announced on July 30 that 
henceforth the authorities would permit only brick and stone to be used 
in rebuilding. The first life sacrificed to fire in Cleveland was that of a 
domestic in a boarding house. 

The first resident CathoHc pastor was the Rev. John Dillon, who engaged 
Shakespeare Hall in the Merwin Building, near the foot of Superior Street, 
as a chapel for his small membership. He then moved into Mechanics Hall 
in the Farmers Block, and transformed it into a chapel. The young priest 
died of fever the following year, leaving a fund of 1 1,000 which he had 
collected toward a church building. He was succeeded by the Rev. Patrick 
O'Dw^er. 

Interest in the theater had grown, and, in the thirties, Italian Hall was 
built on Water Street (1300 West gth). It was one of the few brick buildings, 
with three stories and a theater on the top floor, where traveling companies 
gave their performances to fashionable audiences. Raised seats were a 
novelty. 

Ahaz Merchant, surveyor and city engineer, pubHshed a "Map of Cleveland 



[1835] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 143 

and its Environs" in October showing the street plan to date for Cleveland 
and Brooklyn. Elevations, location of principal points of interest, detail 
of ten-acre lots beyond the eastern boundary Hne, and clearance and tonnage 
figures at the port for the preceding ten-year period were recorded. High, 
Sheriff, Middle, Rockwell, CUnton, Lake, and Ohio streets, Lake Alley, 
and extensions of Prospect and Bolivar streets were new additions to the 
Cleveland map. Merchant Street was named for the map-maker. 

Origin of some of the street names on the new map of Cleveland is 
interesting. Distinguished men in history or in the news were recognized; 
BoHvar Street, named for Simon BoHvar, famed South American hberator 
who died in 1830; Clinton Street for DeWitt Clinton; Columbus Street 
for the discoverer; Girard Street for the Philadelphia financier; Hamilton 
Street for the statesman. The names of men of influence related to Cleveland 
went up on street signs: Kinsman Street for John Kinsman, one of the 
original lot owners in Cleveland; Parkman Street for Samuel Parkman, also 
an original lot owner; Academy Street was inspired by the adjoining Acad- 
emy school building; Canal Street was located near the canal; Dock Street 
on the wharf; the lighthouse stood on the corner of Lighthouse Street; River 
Street ran along the river; Meadow Street lay in the lowland near the river 
mouth; and Spring Street perpetuated the location of a spring that was 
found by the first settlers on the hillside. A small section of Cleveland streets 
was devoted to the names of trees: Cherry, Chestnut, Oak, Walnut, and 
Orange. Main Street was certainly far from being the principal street. 
Cross Street connected Kinsman and Pittsburgh streets, but did not cross. As 
Cleveland grew and new streets were opened, the names of the city's mayors, 
benefactors, and prominent officials appeared on the maps. 

The Bethel Church was organized with nine members on October 25, 
an offspring of the First Presbyterian Church. It was located at Eagle and 
Diamond streets until the mid-century, when it made way for the Cleveland- 
to-Cincinnati railroad, by moving to the east side of Water Street, north 
of St. Clair. The "Free School" for underprivileged children was held in 
the basement of the church. 

Dr. Benjamin Strickland, the first dentist, arrived in the village from 
Vermont. He was the first surgeon-dentist in Cleveland, and practiced 
for more than a half century. 

Toward the end of the year, the Cleveland Reading Room Association 
was organized by voluntary subscription, with John M. Sterling, president. 
Periodicals, reviews, and daily papers from different parts of the country 
were available to about two hundred subscribers every day in the reading 
room, and evenings until ten o'clock. 

Twelve names were signed to the charter membership roll of the First 
Congregational Church and Society of Parma when it was formed on 
November 7. The guiding spirit was Elder Hudson, physician and minister. 
The congregation worshiped in a schoolhouse until 1839, when they made 
the building of a meeting house their spare-time project. Although the 
church changed to Presbyterian government in 1874, twenty-four years 
passed before it was permitted to use the name, First Presbyterian Church 



144 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1836] 

of Parma. Fire destroyed the sanctuary in 1898, and a new building was 
erected (6155 Pearl Road). When a merger was consummated with South 
Presbyterian Church, organized in 1892, the name was changed to Parma 
South Presbyterian Church. The Rev. Howard B. Withers became pastor 
in 1929. 

In November, at the peak of the real-estate boom, land for Clinton Park 
(East 17th Street near the lake) was donated to Cleveland by Lee Canfield, 
Sheldon Pease, and associates. It was located adjacent to their allotment of 
2-acre parcels at the northeast corner of the city plat, and was the first tract 
preserved for park purposes in Cleveland outside of Public Square. The 
park was named for DeWitt Clinton, popular national figure. Residences 
were built around the elaborately planned grounds that were to be the 
fashionable retreat in the area; but the advent of the railroad and industry 
interfered with its bright future. 



1836 

As the year opened, trouble was brewing along the Cuyahoga. Arrivals 
from the east were shunning Cleveland and settling in the real-estate devel- 
opments west of the river; new stores, warehouses, and residences studded the 
western hillsides, and some Cleveland famihes were moving to Ohio C^ty, 
the name by which the settlement beyond the river was now known. Further- 
more, two bills had been introduced in the Ohio Legislature — one for the 
incorporation of Ohio City and the other for Cleveland. Strife began as the 
two communities within almost a stone's throw raced for incorporation 
priority. 

A tract of real estate was placed on the market in January by Thomas 
Kelley and Ashbel W. Walworth, consisting of the two-acre lots south of 
Ohio Street as well as 100 acres adjoining, reaching to the river. By this time, 
most of the original two-acre lots had been subdivided, or were in the hands 
of owners who improved them. 

A wave of lawlessness and crime was laid at the door of the Council, many 
claiming that too many liquor licenses were being issued. To preserve law 
and order, a City Watch was estabHshed on January 3, consisting of eight 
volunteer companies of six men each. They policed the village from sundown 
to sunrise, each company serving once in four weeks. 

The Mansion House site, with 40-foot frontage, was leased on February i 
by Mrs. Jane Merwin to her son, George B., and two children for an annual 
rental of $1,350 on a basis of about $675 per foot front. The transaction, re- 
corded this year, is believed to be the first ninety-nine-year lease executed in 
Cleveland. 

Benevolence and the diffusion of useful knowledge prompted the organiza- 
tion of the German Society of Cleveland on Washington's Birthday. 

Keen competition this year resulted in a newspaper publisher's agreement 



[1836] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 145 

to Standardize prices for advertisements and subscriptions, the latter to be 
paid in advance. 

The bill incorporating the City of Ohio was passed on March 3. Two days 
later, on March 5, the City of Cleveland was created, and pride mingled 
with chagrin and bitterness when Clevelanders, numbering nearly six thou- 
sand, learned that Ohio City, with about two thousand souls, had gained the 
advantage. 

Cleveland boundaries were described by law as follows: 

Beginning at low water inark on the shore of Lake Erie at the most north- 
eastwardly corner of Cleveland, ten-acre lot number one hundred and thirty- 
nine, and running thence on the dividing line between lots number one 
hundred and thirty-nine and one hundred and forty, numbers one hundred 
and seven and one hundred and eight, numbers eighty and eighty-one, num- 
bers fifty-five and fifty-six, numbers thirty-one and thirty-two, and numbers 
six and seven of the ten-acre lots to the south line of the ten-acre lots, thence 
on the south line of the ten-acre lots to the Cuyahoga River, thence down the 
same to the extreme point of the west pier of the harbor, thence to the town- 
ship line between Brooklyn and Cleveland, thence on that line northwardly 
to the county line, thence eastwardly with said line to a point due north of 
the place of beginning, thence south to the place of beginning. 

A charter was granted to the Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati Railroad 
Company (forerunner of the Big Four Route, New York Central System) 
on March 14. There was no practical progress during its first decade, how- 
ever, as the project was caught at the start in the throes of financial chaos. 
In March, 1845, the charter was revived, and an act permitted the building of 
a road as far as Columbus, rather than to Cincinnati, as originally prescribed. 
Financial assistance came so slowly that failure threatened time after time; 
and to encourage the enterprise, the City of Cleveland voted its credit to the 
extent of $200,000. In 1847, Alfred Kelley, then of Columbus, accepted the 
presidency, and influential men lent their support. To keep the charter alive, 
Kelley, T. P. Handy, treasurer; J. H. Sargent, engineer; James A. Briggs, 
attorney; Henry B. Payne, Oliver Perry, John A. Foote, and others took to 
the shovel. Through one fall and winter a laborer was kept at work moving 
the earth on the right-of-way toward Columbus, shovel by shovel, simply to 
hold the charter. Frederick Harbach, Amasa Stone, and Stillman Witt agreed 
to build the road, taking part payment in stock. Kelley 's super-selling pro- 
duced sufficient finances to push his "wheelbarrow road" to its goal in 1851. 

The Cleveland, Warren and Pittsburgh Railroad Company (forerunner of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad), also received its charter on March 14, authoriz- 
ing the construction of a road from Cleveland to the Pennsylvania state line. 
It was destined to suffer the same financial difficulties that befell the Cleve- 
land-to-Cincinnati road. In March, 1845, the charter was revived, and a com- 
pany was organized at Ravenna on October 24, with James Stewart of 
Wellsville, president; A. G. Cottell — or Cadett, secretary; and Cyrus Pren- 



146 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1836] 

tiss, treasurer. The City of Cleveland subscribed $200,000 to the capital stock, 
but the work dragged through lack o£ adequate finances. There was a seven- 
year struggle ahead before the road would connect with Pittsburgh. The 
privilege of avoiding Warren was given in order to provide the most direct, 
practical, and convenient route to the Ohio River. 

The Cleveland City Temperance Society was organized on March 15. A 
year later, it numbered 260 teetotalers, and claimed to be the only active 
society. 

The first state convention held in Cleveland was that of the Carpenters' 
and Joiners' Benevolent Society, held "at the school house" on March 21. 
The Cleveland "local" was the host. A ten-hour day was adopted. 

The trustees of the Village of Cleveland held their final meeting on March 
21 in Brown's Hotel, formerly Abbey's Tavern. It was ordered that an elec- 
tion for city officials under the new charter be held in the three wards on 
the second Monday of April — the eleventh. The first charter is considered to 
be the work of John W. Willey. It is characterized by precision and certainty, 
reflecting the author's "clear understanding of municipal rights and duties." 

The first election in Ohio City was held in March, some time before 
Cleveland's first election. On the evening of March 30, the officers constitut- 
ing the municipal government assembled for their first meeting at the office 
of Ezekiel Folsom: Josiah Barber, mayor; Cyrus Williams, E. Folsom, B. F. 
Tyler, Norman C. Baldwin, C. E. Hill, Luke Risley, F. A. Burrows, Edgar 
Slaght, H. N. Ward, Edward Conklin, Richard Lord, and L. W. Benton, 
councilmen; Richard Lord, president of the Council; Asa Foote, treasurer; 
George L. Chapman, marshal; and Thomas Whelpley, recorder. They voted 
to rent space for a Council chamber in the Columbus Block at an annual 
rental of |8o. Those who filled the office of mayor of Ohio City until the 
consolidation with Cleveland in 1854 were: Francis A. Burrows, 1837; Nor- 
man C. Baldwin, 1838-39; Needham M. Standart, 1840-41; Francis A. Bur- 
rows, 1842; Richard Lord, 1843; Daniel H. Lamb, 1844-46; David Griffith, 
1847; John Beverlin, 1848; Thomas Burnham, 1849-50; Benjamin Sheldon, 
1851-52, and William B. Castle, 1853-54. 

Ohio City had a Franklin House, built this year at 14-16 Pearl Street. It 
was the political and social center of the community and the sheriff used it 
frequently for the sale of the property of bankrupts. After a fire in 1855 it 
was rebuilt "in as good style as any $1 a day house in the city." WilHam 
H. Baird, proprietor in 1862, was convicted for passing counterfeit notes, and 
a number of other law-breakers were arrested later in the house. The Frank- 
lin was razed in 1910. 

Cleveland's growth demanded increased fire protection, and Cataract No. 
5 was added to the department in April. 

The City of Cleveland held its first election on April 11 in the several 
wards: First Ward — conducted in the Court House. Richard Winslow, Seth 
A. Abbey, and Edward Clark, judges; Thomas Bolton and Henry H. Dodge, 
clerks. Second Ward — in the lower room of the Stone Church. Gurdon Fitch, 
Henry L. Noble, and Benjamin Rouse, judges; Samuel Williamson and 
George C. Dodge, clerks. Third Ward — in the Academy. John Blair, Silas 



[1836] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 147 

Belden, and Daniel Worley, judges; John A. Vincent and Dudley Baldwin, 
clerks. Historian James Harrison Kennedy observes that "the new-born city 
started oflF well, holding its first election, as it were, within the visible portals 
o£ the law, the gospel, and education." 

The results of the first Cleveland election were: John W. Willey, mayor; 
Richard Hilliard, Nicholas Dockstader, and Joshua Mills, aldermen; George 
Kirk, marshal; Daniel Worley, treasurer. Councilmen: Morris Hepburn, 
John R. St. John, and WiUiam V. Craw, first ward; Sherlock J. Andrews, 
Henry L. Noble, and Edward Baldwin, second ward; Aaron T. Strickland, 
Archibald M. C. Smith, and Horace Canfield, third ward. 

At the first meeting of the City Council of Cleveland, held April 15 in the 
Court House, the new officers took their oaths, including George Hoadley, 
justice of the peace. Sherlock J. Andrews was unanimously elected president. 
Henry B. Payne became city clerk and city attorney. After the "swearing-in," 
the iniportant business before the officials was to establish their names on the 
city payroll. In August, Andrews resigned, and Joshua Mills was elected 
president. Payne resigned his office in October, and was succeeded by George 
B. Merwin. The offices of the City of Cleveland were located in the Commer- 
cial Block on Superior Street (near the entrance to Hotel Cleveland). Prior 
to this time, official business of the village was conducted in the Court House. 

At the foot of Columbus Street, James S. Clark and his associates had 
built the first fixed bridge across the Cuyahoga, consisting of two covered 
timber spans, one on each side of a drawing span. It was 200 feet long, 33 
feet wide, and about 24 feet high. A stone abutment supported it on either 
shore, and masonry piers at the center permitted a draw sufficient to allow a 
vessel of 49-foot beam to pass through. The bridge was erected at a cost of 
$15,000. Beyond the river, they had graded the Columbus Street hill at great 
expense, to connect with the Wooster and Medina turnpike. Travel would 
thus be facilitated to their new Cleveland Centre real-estate development and 
to Cleveland. At the second meeting of the City Council on April 18, Clark 
gave this bridge outright to Cleveland, in which his land was located, thus 
winning a valuable ally. The opening was a great occasion, marked with 
luxurious feasting on hard cider, doughnuts, apples, and coffee, climaxed 
with a rousing barn dance. At the same time, a tempest had begun to boil in 
the proverbial teapot, and the lid was blown off the next year. 

Typical of the elaborate planning schemes that originated in the get-rich- 
quick era was that of the Ohio Railroad Company, organized at the Mansion 
House in Painesville, Ohio, on April 25. Among the incorporators were Eli- 
phalet Austin, R. Harper, Heman Ely, John W. Allen, P. M. Weddell, and 
Charles C. Paine, men of leadership and vision. A charter was granted in the 
heat of the speculative period, providing for banking powers and the issuance 
of paper money, as well as the right to build a railroad. The plan was to 
build a trans-Ohio road connecting Richmond at the mouth of the Grand 
River and Manhattan on the Lower Maumee River, visionary cities existing 
only on paper. The stupendous engineering plans called for driving a double 
line of piles, on which rested ties and stringers and a hght strap-iron rail, 
estimated to cost $16,000 a mile. The expense of grading would thus be saved 



148 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1836] 

by utilizing this elaborate "stilt" system. The company struggled until 1843, 
when building ceased. For many years piles remained on Lorain Street and 
along the ridge toward Elyria, grim reminders of about 63 miles of "stilt" 
road built in the air. 

Fire Hmits were set by the City Council on May 4, embracing the village. 
Buildings were rented to house the fire companies: on Superior Street (west 
of West 9th) for No. i; on Seneca Street for No. 2 (Blackstone Building 
site); on St. Clair Street for No. 4 and the Hook and Ladder Company 
(corner of West 4th), Wood inspectors were also appointed, and it was de- 
creed that each cord of wood should contain 128 cubic feet. Stephen Wool- 
verton was placed in charge of a public stand for the sale of wood at Superior 
and Water streets, and Samuel Brown directed operations at the yard on the 
Public Square near Ontario Street. An early appropriation provided for "re- 
pair or replacement of the town pump near the courthouse." 

Volunteer firemen provided their uniforms and equipped their headquar- 
ters. The personal experience of George F. Marshall gives an insight into the 
spirit and character of these brave defenders of life and property. The depart- 
ment, he stated, 

was simply a concentrated man power, with willing hands and without 
horses or steam. It comprised a goodly share of the young blood of the city 
. . . men who had no other purpose in "running with the machine" than a 
desire to do something worthy their manhood. Of those who did not belong 
to that volunteer band were Joel Scranton, Philo Scovill, Benjamin Harring- 
ton, Nathan Perry, Peter M. Weddell, George Kirk, Moses White, Erastus 
Gaylord, Dr. Long, Levi Sartwell, Daniel Worley, Melancthon Barnett and 
many more like them, whose hearts were in the work, but were not fleet of 
foot enough to keep out of the way of the engine. . . . They could work 
with the same vigor to save the poor man's cottage from the flames as the 
rich man's palace; while on parade and drill days they would march with a 
more stately tread, and run with greater speed, if they but knew their sweet- 
heart was among the spectators. . . . The "machines" were well enough for 
those times, but they were heavy to handle, while the streets, during one- 
third of the year, were nearly impassable, and the common council forbade 
the running of fire engines on the sidewalks. 

On May 7, the Council appointed John Shier city surveyor and engineer. 
On the same day, the first theater license was granted by the City Council 
for the Dean & McKinney theater, corner Superior Street and Union Lane, 
upon payment of $75 for one year. Hamlet was presented at the first per- 
formance on May 31. In the theatrical company were Billy Forrest, one of 
the country's best comedians, Dean, and his daughter, Julia Dean Hayne, 
who became well known. 

The City Council passed an ordinance on May 17 reorganizing the Fire 
Department, declaring that it "shall consist of a chief engineer, two assistant 
engineers, two fire wardens, in addition to aldermen and councilmen, and 
such fire engine men, hose men, hook and axe men as are, or may be, from 



[1836] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 149 

time to time, appointed by the city council." The chief was Samuel Cook; 
his first assistant, Sylvester Pease; and his second assistant, Erastus Smith. 
Members of the department were exempt from poll tax. Council also ordered 
the purchase of a coat for each member of the Hook and Ladder Company. 
Succeeding chiefs of the volunteer department were H. L. Noble, 1837; T. 
Lemmon, 1838, succeeded by John R. St. John; J. L. Weather ly, 1840; M. 
M. Spangler, 1842; John Outhwaite, 1843; M. M. Spangler, 1844; A. S. San- 
ford, 1845; John Gill, 1846; M. M. Spangler, 1847; S. S. Lyon, 1848; James 
Bennett, 1849; M. M. Spangler, 1850-51; and Jabez W. Fitch, 1852. 

Alexander Campbell, leader of the Disciples' movement, leaves an account 
of his journey by mail stage from Hudson to Cleveland in May: 

We spent the whole night on the road from Hudson to Bedford, a distance 
of only twelve miles; thus carrying the mail at the rapidity of one mile in 
three quarters of an hour! We had only to walk some four or five miles 
through mud and swamps and to abandon the coach some six or seven times 
to prevent upsetting and the breaking of our bones during the night watch. 
We mercifully, and sometimes barely escaped the disaster of being upset; 
and with no other detriment than mud and water and fatigue, completed 
our journey of forty miles in something less than a day. 

Upon arriving in Cleveland, Campbell delivered several lectures against 
skepticism, which resulted in a three-cornered discussion in the Presbyterian 
Church, with Irad Kelley and Dr. Samuel Underbill supporting the opposi- 
tion. At the conclusion of the controversy, which lasted for several days, the 
Herald reported: 

As is usual, both pardes claim the victory. Whatever may be the eflFect in a 
moral and religious point of view, one thing is certain, the fund of valu- 
able information upon the subjects of history, pliilosophy, astronomy, and 
indeed almost every department of natural science, which has been imparted 
in the course of this controversy, will not be lost on the community. 

When William Tax fired a gun unlawfully on May 21, he was not only 
fined $2 and costs, but his name was recorded as the first person to be ar- 
rested in the new City of Cleveland. 

L, L. Rice founded the Daily Gazette in May, and sold it to (Charles) 
Whittlesey & (Stoughton) Bliss on January i, 1837. Whittlesey & (Josiah A.) 
Harris purchased the Gazette and the Herald in the spring, and the 
combination became the Herald and Gazette. Harris became sole owner and 
editor in 1838. More than three-fourths of the Whig paper was devoted to 
advertisements, which were the chief source of local news. The name was 
changed to Herald in 1843; and two years later, the office was moved to the 
Merchants Exchange. 

The Ohio City Argus, the first newspaper published west of the river, was 
founded by T. H. Smead and Lyman W. Hall and commenced publication 
on May 26. It was printed on good-quality paper, and ran a Hterary column 



150 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1836J 

and book reviews; but it survived for only two years, and the Whigs lost 
another sympathetic instrument. 

A statement from Mayor Willey advocating the establishment of common 
schools was read to the City Council on May 31, and referred to a committee 
consisting of Messrs. Andrews, Hilliard, and Hepburn. At this meeting, the 
street commissioner was directed to provide the first ofiBcial ferry for public 
use across the Cuyahoga River. 

The charter provided for the establishment of common schools, adminis- 
tered by a board of managers, chosen by the City Council each year. On 
June 9, Council ordered that a committee employ a teacher and an assistant 
"to continue the Free School to the end of the quarter, or until a school sys- 
tem for the city shall be organized, at the expense of the city." A school 
levy was authorized on June 22 to make possible Cleveland's first public 
school, that originated in a Bible school called Bethel, "under the hill." 

Council directed the city marshal on June 20 to prosecute every person 
"retailing ardent spirits contrary to the provisions of the ordinance regulating 
licenses." 

The cornerstone of St. John's Church (2600 Church Avenue) was laid on 
July 2 by the Rt. Rev. Charles Mcllvaine, the second bishop of Ohio. Here 
the "first families" of the West Side worshiped in the white stone building 
they had built with their own hands. Of the eleven mayors of Ohio City, 
seven were communicants. The pews of the historic Episcopal church were 
occupied by President William McKinley, President Theodore Roosevelt, 
and men and women of prominence who visited Cleveland. Church Avenue 
derived its name from St. John's, the oldest religious structure in Cleveland 
in 1946. 

A gun salute fired at dawn on the Public Square announced the first 
Fourth of July in the City of Cleveland. Visitors who had spent the night in 
rigs and wagons stretched themselves and prepared for the big day of celebra- 
tion. In the morning, a parade formed at the Franklin House, led by the 
Fire Department, city officials, guests, and citizens, and marched to the 
Square, down to St. Clair, to Water and to Superior, to the stirring music 
of the visiting Eagle Circus Band. Here Revolutionary veterans joined the 
procession that moved to the Baptist Church, where exercises were conducted. 
Samuel Starkweather presided at a fine dinner that was heightened by thir- 
teen toasts and many speeches. In the afternoon, crowds went for lake rides 
on the steamer United States. 

Farmers and traveling men patronized the City Hotel, built this year on 
Seneca Street and said to be second to the Franklin House in its appoint- 
ments. Great wooden shutters attracted attention, and a good-sized livery 
stable next door was a decided advantage. In 1879, David R. Hawley pur- 
chased the house to gain hotel experience. It was well known in the Midwest, 
attracting important meetings of its day. The hotel faded about 1890. 

Settlers who had come from Massachusetts were eager to found a Unitarian 
church of their faith. Infrequent meetings held by the Rev. George W. 
Hosmer of Buffalo, later president of Antioch College, began this year and 
brought encouragement to the little group that included some of his personal 



[1836] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 151 

friends. It was 1850 before formal services were conducted in a hall on Su- 
perior Street by Robert Hassell of St. Louis, who served for five months. 
Through the influence of Charles Bradburn, the Rev. A. D. Mayo of Mas- 
sachusetts began a pastorate in 1854, the congregation now including seventy- 
five families with sixty members in the Sunday School. Here the First 
Unitarian Church had its beginning, and among the leaders were H. M. 
Chapin, W. P. Fogg, David Wasson, Rodney Gale, Dr. Azariah Everett, 
and Judge Daniel R. Tilden. 

A little hotel called Spring Cottage was opened by William R. Richardson 
on the lakeshore in Clinton Park (near East 14th). His advertisement in the 
city directory the next year extolled the luxury of "a warm bath in summer." 
Hourly coach service conveyed patrons from the city's principal points to the 
"Cottage Spring Baths ... a beautiful and pleasant retreat from heat and 
dust on the bank of the lake, scarce a mile from the city." 

On August 21, Pollock's Intelligence Office was advertising for ten or a 
dozen girls to do housework. 

The DeWitt Clinton, the newest design in canal boats, was commissioned 
in late summer. It was principally a freight vessel of 493 tons, built at Huron, 
Ohio, along the lines of the Robert Fulton, with a 150-foot deck and 27-foot 
beam. It cost $45,000. Three cabins provided fifty berths for men, thirty-three 
for ladies, and a large steerage. 

Dr. Samuel Underbill, physician and justice of the peace, lived by standards 
of his own making, embracing free-thinking, unmerciful criticism, and un- 
predictable judgment. He delved in mesmerism, phrenology, and fanciful 
subjects. In order to spread atheistic doctrines and attack those whom he 
believed deserving of exposure to the public, he began publishing The Cleve- 
land Liberalist on September 10. It later became The Bald Eagle, and while 
the weeklies were short-lived, their vicious columns left many a scar in the 
community. Underbill was a man ahead of his time. His advertisements in 
the first Cleveland directory advocated free enquiry, and announced that the 
paper is "Opposed to all monopolies — In favor of universal equal opportu- 
nities for knowledge in early life for every child; discourager of all pre- 
tensions to spiritual knowledge; teaches that virtue alone produces happiness; 
that vice always produces misery . . . that school masters ought to be better 
qualified, and then should have higher wages . . . that nobles by wealth are 
as offensive to sound democracy as nobles by birth — both are base coin; — 
and it inserts the other side of the question, when furnished in well written 
articles." Before his death. Dr. Underbill renounced atheism. 

R. L. Gazlay, principal of Cleveland's "Free School," reported to the City 
Council that 229 children had received instruction during the quarter ending 
September 20 at a maintenance cost of $131.12. 

The first Board of School Managers was appointed by the Council on 
October 5, consisdng of John W. Willey, Anson Hayden, and Daniel Wor- 
ley. In the following March, they urged a liberal outlay for schools and 
schoolhouses. 

Franklin Circle, or Franklin Place, was platted by the county surveyor in 
October, and dedicated to the public. Farmers used it as an open-air market. 



152 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [^^3^] 

In November, the Cleveland Lyceum debated the momentous subject, 
"Ought the Right of Suffrage be extended to females?" Women had not yet 
begun to assert themselves and the negative won. Public concerts were being 
presented regularly by the Sacred Music Society. 

The Young Men's Literary Association was organized in November, and 
another library and reading room were provided in the city. Charles Whittle- 
sey was the first president. By the next year, a circulating library of eight 
hundred volumes had been assembled. 

In the frenzy of the speculative era, the Buffalo-Brooklyn promoters and 
the Ohio City fathers attempted an ingenious scheme to capitalize on their 
new real-estate development. A channel for lake craft was cut from the old 
river bed to the Cuyahoga, affording a protected lake harbor, which Cleve- 
land did not have. Docks and warehouses were built on the water front, 
and the elegant Ohio City Exchange Hotel was erected at Main and Centre 
streets, affording "the finest entertainment and hospitaHty in the West." To 
complete the big-business scheme, a ship canal was constructed from a point 
on the river opposite the Ohio Canal terminus through a swamp to the old 
river bed — Sycamore Street, on paper only, with the purpose of making the 
latter the real terminus of the canal. This would afford a harbor independent 
of Cleveland. The plan had great possibilities indeed. A year later, panic 
struck. The company became bankrupt, and the elaborate city plan was 
abandoned. James S. Clark and his associates became insolvent, and their 
properties were sold by the sheriff. The fine hotel struggled for a time as the 
Massasoit House and the Exchange Hotel; but, by 1845, factories, warehouses, 
and tenements had moved into the valley. When fire wiped out the hostelry, 
it was serving as a pail factory. 

According to Cleveland's first directory, canal and lake shipping had greatly 
increased trade and industry during this year. Records of the Port of Cleve- 
land showed 117,277,580 pounds of goods estimated to be worth $2,444,708.54 
arrived by way of the canal at Cleveland; and 911 sailing vessels and 990 
steamboats, aggregating 401,800 tons, cleared; 108 vessels were foreign. For- 
warding charges to and from Cleveland during the season amounted to 
$685,000. The principal commodities shown on the year's export statement 
were 167,539 barrels of flour valued at $1,005,234.80; 464,765 bushels of wheat, 
$534,469.40; 392,281 bushels of corn, $215,764; 13,495 barrels of pork, $203,- 
425.40; 3,851 hogsheads of tobacco, $192,550; and mineral-coal shipments 
valued at $3,492.09. Imports consisted principally of gypsum, furniture, lum- 
ber, and salt. Clevelanders were not yet aware of the rich salt deposits buried 
under the city, and they paid high prices for this essential product. 

Based upon his past mercantile record, William Augustus Otis was "at 
once given rank with the foremost business men" when he arrived in Cleve- 
land this year. Born in Massachusetts in 1794, the lineal descendant of James 
Otis of Revolutionary renown, he set out for Pittsburgh in 1818 where he 
lost his savings in an unfortunate iron business. He became a tavern-keeper 
and then prospered as a merchant, shipping by waterway to the New York 
market the first flour from the Western Reserve. Otis served two years in 
the State Legislature when he moved to Cleveland, where he dealt in flour. 



Cleveland, 1833, 
from Brookhjn Hill 
lookin" east. 




BELO^v. From Bank 
and St. Clair streets 
looking east. 




Irri \f -i^";- -'^ :*"'-^*^^^f 



Cleveland, 1833, 
from Court House 
looking west. 




The Mormons, members 
of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day 
Saints, dedicated their 
temple at Kirtland, Ohio, 
in 18S6. 






A $5.00 bill issued by the Kirtland 
Safety Societi/ Bank in 1837. 



Joseph Smith, founder of the re- 
ligious sect in 1830, came to Kirt- 
land in 1831 and teas succeeded 
by Brigham Young in 1847. 



Pictures from i.eo weidenthal collection. 



[i837] 



A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 



153 



pork, and potash; but later his interest turned again to iron manufacture. 
Among those who came to Cleveland this year were men who were to 
make their mark in time to come: William Bingham, twenty, of Massachu- 
setts, who started as a salesman for George Worthington, and became one 
of the leading hardware merchants of the West; Franklin T. Backus, Yale 
graduate, who made an enviable record as lawyer and legislator; D. W. 
Cross, who gained prominence as a member of the bar and as a coal operator; 
and Moses Kelley, recently admitted to the Rochester, New York, bar, who 
came to Cleveland at the call of his Harvard classmate, Thomas Bolton, 

DAILY LINE OF OHIO CANAL PACKETS 




Between Cleveland & Portsmouth. 

DISTANCE 309 MILES-THROTIGH IIT 80 HOTJRS. 

A Packet of this Line leaves Cleveland every day at 4 o'clock P. M. and Portsmouth every day 

at 9 o'clock A. M. 

T. INGRAHAM, Office foot of Superior. street, Clecelandi ^ 

OTIS & CVRTIS, General Stage Office, do. V Agents. 

G. J. LEET, Portsmouth, ) 

NEIL, MOORE ^ CO.'S Liile of Stages leaves Cleveland daily for Columbus, via Wooster and Hebron. 

OTIS & CURTIS' Line of Stages leaves Cleveland daily for Pittsburgh, Buffalo, Detroit and Wellsville. 

Early transportation advertisement. 



newcomer two years earlier. Bolton and Kelley formed a partnership; and as 
able and successful lawyers, both served their city in the Council and in other 
official capacities. Kelley was a member of the State Senate, 1844-45. 

1837 

Cleveland banks were considered well managed; but their entire capital 
was less than $500,000, which was equal only to the needs of river business. 
Forwarding merchants had paid transportation charges of $685,000 during 
the preceding season, and their produce purchases totaled $945,000. Business- 
men had been forced to seek financial assistance outside of the city. As the 
year opened, Clevelanders petitioned the Legislature to charter a new bank 
with adequate capital to meet the needs of rapid growth. It was not until 
1845 that their hopes were realized. 

The Union Club was revived on January 2. It was strictly a business or- 



154 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY U^37] 

ganization created to detect and punish horse thieves "whose daring thefts 
have become a menace and a serious loss to the community." Horse stealing 
was considered a serious offense. Having tracked down a suspect, the vigi- 
lantes warned him to leave the neighborhood; but if they could fasten the 
crime on him, he was turned over to the authorities. The Herald expressed 
public thanks for "labor inspired by the best motives and works tempered by 
discretion." The club became inactive in April, 1838, after having done a first- 
class clean-up job. 

Jonathan Fowler opened the new Commercial Hotel at 24 Seneca Street 
this year. Shortly after he assumed management, the proprietor signed the 
pledge, and the Commercial became a temperance house. The hotel was 
razed in 1880 to make way for the Severance Building, which later housed 
the Waechter und Anzeiger. 

"The rescuing of merchandise and furniture of every description, protect- 
ing it from improper usage, and conveying it, when expedient, to places of 
safety" was the lofty purpose of the Mutual Protection Society, which was 
formed early in the year. This was the first salvage corps, and was made up 
of prominent citizens. 

Charles Whittlesey was appointed assistant geologist of Ohio, and working 
with him was Dr. Jared P. Kirtland, who was in charge of natural-history 
investigation. They conducted the first geological survey of Ohio, revealing 
rich coal and iron deposits in eastern Ohio, upon which future manufactur- 
ing greatness was built. In later years. Professor John S. Newberry, eminent 
scientist, stated that this early survey "did much to arrest useless expenditure 
of money in search for coal outside of the coal fields. ... It is scarcely less 
important to let our people know what we have not, than what we have, 
among our mineral resources." Whittlesey surveyed the Indian mounds of 
Ohio in 1840. 

"Some of the best young men of the place" met on Washington's Birthday 
to form a private military company known as the Cleveland City Guards. 
Military organization was completed on August 28, with Captain Timothy 
Ingraham in command until 1853. On the first roster of 118 men were D. W. 
Cross, Silas Rhodes, L. A. Stillman, Abner Brownell, Dudley C. Baldwin, 
T. S. Paddock, Samuel Starkweather, Harvey Rice, Henry P. Dodge, Henry 
B. Payne, Nathan Perry, and Thomas Bolton. The first Armory was located 
on the fourth floor of the Mechanics Block. Adoption of a gray, colonial- 
style uniform on June 7, 1838, prompted a change in name to the Cleveland 
Grays — or Greys. From the founding, the Grays provided trained men for 
military service in every conflict, at home and abroad, and served with dis- 
tinction on state, civic, and official occasions. Cleveland and the Grays grew 
up together. 

John Barr was president and Charles Whittlesey corresponding secretary 
of the Cleveland Lyceum, a lively organization that now had no members. 
The Cleveland Polemic Association commenced to present public debates. 

The people of Cleveland expressed confidence in their first mayor by re- 
electing him this year by a large majority. After his second term, John W. 
Willey continued his outstanding career by giving admirable service as legis- 



[1837] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 155 

lator and judge in the Court of Common Pleas, He died in 1841 at the age 
of forty-four, while serving as presiding judge of the fourteenth judicial 
district. Succeeding him as mayor were Joshua Mills, 1838-39; Nicholas Dock- 
stader, 1840; John W. Allen, 1841; Joshua Mills, 1842; Nelson Hayward, 
1843; Samuel Starkweather, 1844-45; George Hoadley, 1846; Josiah A. Harris, 
1847; Lorenzo A. Kelsey, 1848; Flavel W. Bingham, 1849; WilUam Case, 
1850-51; Abner C. Brownell, 1852-54. 

In March, Council ordered that the mayor should receive five hundred 
dollars for his services during the year, and that councilmen should be paid 
a dollar for each meeting they attended. A special committee was created to 
investigate the "expediency of lighting Superior street from the river to the 
Public Square," and to recommend the best means of paying for the installa- 
tion. A dog pound was established. 

The congregation had outgrown the pews of the Stone Church, and to 
ease the pressure, "twenty of the best families" went forth to form the Second 
Presbyterian Church on April 3. The Rev. Joseph Whiting was called as the 
first pastor. Unable to weather the panic, the earnest little flock abandoned 
its church-building plans, and members scattered or returned to the mother 
church. 

Simson Thorman, twenty-six, of Bavaria, was the first Jewish resident of 
Cleveland. He dealt in furs, traveling as far westward as St. Louis to pur- 
chase hides and furs from the Indians. He served on the City Council, and 
enjoyed an influential career. Aaron Lowentritt, Isaac Alsbacher, Michael 
Hoffman, and Solomon Sloss, all Bavarians who had fled from Teutonic 
tyranny to the New World, soon joined him. 

The Cleveland Female Seminary was incorporated on April 3, with Henry 
Sexton, Benjamin Rouse, Henry H. Dodge, A. D. Smith, and A. Wheeler 
as trustees. This was a private school for "young ladies." 

On April 3, the Cleveland Female Orphan Asylum was incorporated 
largely through the effort of Trinity Church women. Mrs. Laura Willey, 
Mrs. Martha Kendall, Mrs. Sophia K. Ford, Mrs. Jemima B. Scovill, Mrs. 
Catherine Kellogg, and Mrs. Margaret Sterling were among the trustees. 

Ohio City citizens became more and more incensed as they saw their trade 
diverted into Cleveland over the new Columbus Street Bridge. To retaliate, 
they avoided the structure, and determined to use only the old floating bridge 
at Main Street for their traffic. Cleveland Council decided to force the issue, 
and ordered removal of the eastern portion of the float structure, which the 
city owned jointly with its neighbor. An injunction intended to halt its re- 
moval came too late; the bridge was impassable. 

In April, James S. Clark's organization allotted "nearly all the part of 
Ohio City lying south and west of the Barber & Sons' allotment" and named 
it Willeyville in honor of Mayor John W. Willey of Cleveland. While this 
move helped to build Ohio City, the citizens must have resented the name 
deeply. To complete their city plan, the promoters purchased a lot on On- 
tario Street at Prospect in Cleveland (Bailey Company site) and built the 
Farmers Block, a merchandising center, to draw trade from the countryside; 
and at the north end of Columbus Street they located the Cleveland Centre 



156 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [^^37] 

House. The three-story hotel served until 1864, when it became a commer- 
cial block, and the next year it was moved out of the path of expanding 
commerce. 

City Clerk George B. Merwin reported on young Cleveland's balance sheet 
for the first year, April 15, 1836, to March 17, 1837: Total receipts "from all 
sources," 116,077.53; total expenditures, $13,297.14, which included cost of a 
new, hand fire engine, $1,083; ^^^ "gross compensation" to Council members, 
$1,139. School-fund receipts from the county treasurer and the city marshal's 
collections totaled $2,553.32, from which was paid $301.55 to "R. L. Gazlay, 
for keeping free school." 

The second Board of School Managers was appointed in April, consisting 
of Samuel Cowles, Samuel Williamson, and Philip Battell, despite the fact 
that a school system did not yet exist in Cleveland, nor did the city own a 
schoolhouse or a foot of ground on which to build one. It is estimated, how- 
ever, that eight hundred children were attending schools, of which about 
three hundred were enrolled in the Free School maintained by the city. 
Leading Clevelanders, generally men who had enjoyed a liberal education, 
served on the early school boards, among them Samuel H. Mather, Charles 
Bradburn, Madison Kelley, Truman P. Handy, R. T. Lyon, Samuel Stark- 
weather, James D. Cleveland, John Barr, Horace Benton, J. A. Thorne, Dan- 
iel P. Rhodes, and R. B. Dennis. 

Truman P. Handy was president of the Cleveland Mozart Society, organ- 
ized in April "for the promotion of musical science and the cultivation of a 
refined taste in its members, and in the community." Monthly concerts were 
given the next year. 

To provide a beneficiary fund for disabled members of the Volunteer Fire 
Department, the Fireman's Insurance Company was incorporated with the 
blessing of city officials. The charter provided many banking privileges, but 
money could not be issued. Firemen served without pay, and they found it a 
burden to purchase stock and to provide their uniforms. 

Farmers hauled their cord wood to the "wood market" at the foot of 
Water Street, where they waited in good and bad weather for purchasers in 
need of seasoned maple, hickory, oak, and ash firewood. 

A momentous advertisement of the Pioneer Fast Stage Line announced, 
"Through in 30 hours from Cleveland to Pittsburgh." The stage ran to 
Wellsville, where the trip to Pittsburgh was completed by boat. Here the 
Good Intent Fast Mail Stage Line gave preference to those passengers who 
wished to continue riding for fifty-six additional hours, more or less, to 
Philadelphia, where connections were made for New York, Baltimore, and 
Washington. Daily at four in the afternoon, the Ohio Canal packet left 
Cleveland for Portsmouth, covering the 309-mile trip in eighty hours. It also 
carried the mail. Stages left daily for Buffalo, Detroit, and Cincinnati via 
Columbus, and one of the three lines to Pittsburgh provided mail service. 

After a clean-up campaign, the northern half of the Public Square was 
fenced to preserve it against trespass. Pride in the city's front yard was be- 
ginning to assert itself. 

In May, the poor little "township poorhouse," on the Erie Street Cemetery 



[1837] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 157 

property on Clinton Street, received a kindlier name, City Hospital, but con- 
tinued as a poorhouse. The infirmary accommodated about twenty-five 
people — the poor, sick, insane, and feeble-minded — and served about two 
hundred out-patients. Local physicians received small compensation from the 
public treasury for their attendant services. The building was torn down in 
1851. 

A resolution was offered in the Cleveland City Council on June 5 provid- 
ing for the erection of markets and schoolhouses, and recommending that 
the city borrow $50,000 for the purpose. It was later adopted. 

The first fire-insurance agency in Cleveland was the firm of Carlton & Lee. 
C. C. Carlton's son-in-law changed the name to James W. Lee & Company, 
which operated until 1940, when it was absorbed by a larger agency. 

E. F. Gaylord had come to Cleveland in 1833, and his home on Ontario 
Street (Higbee store site) was converted into the Wright House this year 
by James Wright. Mark Lamb, well-known sportsman, made the place popu- 
lar under his management in 1890. A little later the "new" Wright House 
replaced the old, upon what had been the site of Bingham & Phelps store. 
In 1898 the hotel went out of business, 

Nathan Perry opened a street from St. Clair to Euclid and gave it his name. 
It is related that every morning he saddled his pony and rode from his home 
on Euclid Street to visit his daughter, Mrs. Henry B. Payne, A sharp bend 
in North Perry Street was made, so the story goes, by the Perry pony as he 
picked the easiest route, following the precedent of the famous cows whose 
wandering footpaths became the streets of Boston. On his ten-acre tract. Perry 
laid out a nursery where he grew shrubs, flowers, and greenhouse plants. 

The 25-acre farm known as Willey Gardens on Kinsman Street was sup- 
plying the markets with fine vegetables. 

The Abolitionists gained strength with the organization of the Cuyahoga 
County Anti-Slavery Society, formed at a meeting in the Stone Church on 
July 4. John A. Foote presided. J. M. Sterling, J. F. Hanks, and Solomon L. 
Severance, constituting a committee on constitution, reported that "the object 
of this society shall be the entire abolition of slavery throughout the United 
States and the elevation of our colored brethren to their proper rank as 
men." Edward Wade of Brooklyn was elected president; Samuel Freeman of 
Parma, Asa Cody of EucHd, John A. Foote of Cleveland, J. L. Tomlinson of 
Rockport, and Samuel Williamson of Willoughby, vice presidents; L. L. Rice, 
corresponding secretary; H, F. Bray ton, recording secretary; and Solomon 
L. Severance, treasurer. 

On July 7, the City Council passed an ordinance providing for the estab- 
lishment of public schools. Suitable buildings or rooms were to be leased for 
school purposes and equipped with apparatus and furniture; elementary 
schools were to be organized and instructors secured. The school term was 
defined as July 24 until November 24, commencing this year, and it was pro- 
vided that expenses should not exceed revenue. 

Postage rates varied according to the distance the mail was carried: 6^ 
cents, up to 30 miles; 10 cents, to 80 miles; i2}4 cents, to 150 miles; 18^ 
cents, to 400 miles; and 25 cents, over 400 miles. The charge for newspapers 



158 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY ['^^3?] 

was one cent within loo miles or for any distance within the state where 
printed; beyond loo miles, or out of the state, i>4 cents each. Periodicals 
and pamphlets cost one cent a sheet within a lOO-mile zone. In 1837, when the 
Sunday edition of a Boston newspaper was received in Cleveland the follow- 
ing Saturday, it was considered a great achievement. 

Daniel Webster, distinguished orator, pleaded for an "assembly" of Con- 
gress, during a fleeting visit to Cleveland on July 15 while en route to the 
West. The appearance of the great man was discussed for days afterward. 

Cleveland now had a band of its own, and it was no longer necessary to 
import musical talent for special occasions. The Cleveland City Band was a 
going concern, with eighteen members. 




The American House was built on the site of the 
cabin-headquarters used by the second surveying party 

in 1797. 



The City Guards, a private military organization, was formed with sixty- 
four members, independent of the Cleveland City Guards. It existed until 
1843. 

A professional horse race took place on Erie Street on August 7. Clara 
Fisher trotted from St. Clair to Huron Street to win in 2:47. 

The American House opened on August 14 on the south side of Superior 
Street (west of Hotel Cleveland), and filled a crying need for hotel facihties. 
The city's first large hostelry, it was built by Warham J. Warner, builder of 
famous Euclid Avenue homes. The American was furnished "in a style of 
substantial comfort and luxury," and for many years it entertained Cleve- 
land's distinguished guests. Here professional people had their headquarters, 
and entertainers gave theatrical performances in hotel rooms. It was the 
scene of colorful civic and social events. From its balcony the great and near- 
great delivered blazing oratory. 

There were several booksellers in town when Moses G. Younglove and 
Edward P. Wetmore opened a wholesale and retail book-and-stationery store 



[1837] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 159 

in the American House. The next year, Younglove bought his partner's in- 
terest and added job and news printing and pubhshing to the business. 

In 1826, Josiah Holbrook of Derby, Connecticut, initiated a system to 
promote adult education through the lyceum plan. It was a great success, 
and spread rapidly through the country. Upon the request o£ John Baldwin 
and others, an effort was made to establish a model seminary and a lyceum 
village at Berea this year, as a self-improvement medium for the populace. 
This was .Cleveland's first introduction to adult education. The experiment 
lasted five years: and left Baldwin carrying the financial burden and facing 
bankruptcy. For some years, Holbrook lived in Berea and made globes and 
supplies for schools and associations, then he moved on to new endeavors. 
This was an early attempt to introduce visual education into teaching 
methods. 

Dr. Jared P. Kirtland moved to Rockport (Lakewood) this year, where 
he practiced medicine, but was more widely known for horticultural experi- 
ments on his extensive farm, called "Whippoorwill." Here he built his his- 
toric home in 1839 in a setting of shrubs, fruit trees, and flowers. It was 
preserved through the years (14013 Detroit Avenue), together with part of 
the old garden and orchards. During the winter months. Dr. KLirtland taught 
in the Cincinnati Medical School, until 1842, when he joined the faculty of 
Willoughby University. He set a precedent in northern Ohio when he an- 
nounced in 1843 that he had restricted his medical practice to consultation. 
He became Cleveland's most celebrated scientist and a leading naturalist of 
the country. Louis Agassiz and John Audubon, famed naturalists, were his 
close friends. Nevertheless, the doctor found time to assist worthy cultural 
movements, and was familiarly known as the "Sage of Rockport." 

Commerce was expanding, and attention was turned to the lakefront 
again. The Lake Shore Company was incorporated, with authority to protect 
the lake banks from water encroachment, and permission to build wharves 
and piers as payment for its expenditures. Little was accomplished by the 
company, however, and later Charles Whittlesey was employed to drive piles 
at intervals along the shore. The railroads then continued the work for their 
own protection. 

Steam was displacing sails in the harbor, when citizens heard the whistle of 
the new passenger boat, Cleveland, as it was made ready for lake traffic in 
the fall. This was the first vessel named for the city, and the steam whistle 
was an innovation on lake craft, bells and guns having been used as signals 
prior to this time. Built at Huron for passenger service at a cost of $85,000, 
the 575-ton steamer was 139 feet long, 29 feet broad, and had one hundred 
and twenty berths for gentlemen, twelve for ladies, and ten staterooms of 
three berths each. Captain Asa E. Hart commanded. 

A school census taken in October revealed that there were 2,122 persons 
in the city between the ages of four and twenty-one. Enrollment in the public 
schools, however, showed only 840. School income for the year amounted to 
$2,830. 

Joseph Hall cleared 100 acres of virgin forest in Rockport, and the street 
that bears his name was laid out years later. In* 1874 his son, John Curtis 



160 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1837] 

Hall, built a home on a section of his father's land (16913 Detroit Avenue, 
Lakewood) . He became a banker, and married Elizabeth Rose Maile, whose 
parents had a farm overlooking Rocky River Valley. From this family, 
Maile Avenue took its name. 

Ohio City was enraged at being forced to use the Columbus Street Bridge, 
and war broke out on the West Side, on street corners and in meetings of 
protest. "Two bridges or none!" became the slogan as citizens prepared to 
fight the "Bridge War." Their City Council ruled that the new Columbus 
Street Bridge was a public nuisance and must be abated. On the night of 
October 27, the marshal with his deputies damaged the Ohio City end with a 
charge of powder. Deep ditches were dug near the approaches on either side, 
rendering the bridge useless. Nearly a thousand citizens determined to 
finish the job, armed with crowbars, axes, and weapons. They received the 
blessing of a Presbyterian clergyman, and advanced under the leadership of 
C. L. Russell, Ohio City attorney. 

News of the march to the bridge reached Cleveland, and Mayor Willey, 
backed by militia, citizens, and an old cannon, used in Fourth-of-July cele- 
brations, set out to meet the Ohio City mob. A general free-for-all ensued, 
and planks were ripped up. The field piece did no damage, because Deacon 
House, of the Ohio City forces, bravely spiked it with an old file. Upon the 
arrival of the county sheriff and the Cleveland marshal, the bloody business 
halted, but not before men were wounded on both sides, three of them 
seriously. 

On October 29, City Council ordered the marshal of Cleveland to guard 
the Columbus Street Bridge. The controversy finally reached the courts, 
where it was settled; but the damage had been done, and it .was not until 
1854 that a union of the East and the West was consummated. 

The Council approved a proposal that a city directory be published, and 
before the end of the year Julius P. MacCabe had issued a Directory — ■ 
Cleveland and Ohio City, For the Years i8^y-^8. It was pocket-size, con- 
tained one hundred and forty-four pages, and was printed by Sanford & 
Lott in Cleveland. Eleven pages were devoted to Cleveland history. Then 
followed the Cleveland city charter; historical and descriptive material re- 
lating to civic, business, and cultural institutions in the two municipalities; 
names and locations of eighty-eight streets, lanes, and alleys; alphabetical 
lists showing names and addresses of firms and individuals in Cleveland and 
in Ohio City as of August, 1837; an index to public officials; transportation 
and shipping data; a table of foreign coins and currencies and other useful 
information. Forty-two pages of advertisements prefaced the comprehensive 
directory, illustrated with crude woodcuts, many of them used several times 
in competitive space. This buyer's guide to goods and service presented an 
illuminating picture of early Cleveland — quaint shops offering macas- 
sar oil and walking canes, fur and satin beaver hats, pantaloons and suspend- 
ers, merino shawls and gauze handkerchiefs, breast pins and finger rings, 
diapers and "incorruptible teeth," liquors and seidlitz powders, perfumery 
and looking glasses, pianofortes and tombstones. A variety of business and 
professional notices was climaxed with the stupendous announcement: 



[1838] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 161 

"Carriages for hire to go to any part of the United States!" The first adver- 
tisement was that of the printers, "No. 5, Superior-Lane"; they also used 
the last page in the book to announce that they had "removed from 5 Su- 
perior-Lane, to 17 Superior-Street, three doors west of the Franklin-House." 
A full page in the city directory described the business of Cleveland's 
leading merchandising firm consisting of Peter M. Weddell, Dudley Bald- 
win, and Peter P. Weddell: 

PETER M. WEDDELL & CO. At the old stand, on the corner of Superior 
and Bank Streets ... so long and so favorably known to the public, keep 
constantly on hand a very extensive assortment of DRY GOODS, consisting 
in part of Broad Cloths, Cassimeres, Sattinets, Cotton, Linnen and Worsted 
Drillings . . . Summer Cloths . . . India Satins, worked Collars and Capes, 
dress Hk'fs and dress Shawls . . . Laces and Edgings . . . raw silk Shawls, 
Gothic furniture Prints . . . Flannels, English and American Calicoes, Bed- 
ticking . . . Sheeting and Shirting . . . Damask, Birdseye and Russia Diaper, 
Moleskins, Umbrellas, Parasols, &c. &c. . . . very choice CARPETS & 
RUGS, together with a carefully selected assortment of FAMILY GROCER- 
IES. The very best of Teas, Laguira and Old Java Coffee, Sugars, Rice, 
Raisins, Salaeratus, Mrs. Miller's Tobacco, Honey Dew and Plug Tobacco 
7 years old. Hard Soap, &c. 

"Fair and honorable dealing" was assured, backed by the statement that: 

All goods not as good as recommended, will be taken back, or ample 
remuneration will be made; that the prices of their goods are as low as at 
any other store, and many articles lower than can be found at the stores 
generally. 

Friends were invited "to make us a call, not to buy, unless they think it for 
their interest, but to inform themselves respecting prices, qualities, &c. &c." 
A fire ordinance required that "sextons of the several churches which are 
now or may hereafter be furnished with bells, shall immediately on the 
alarm of fire repair to the several churches with which they are connected 
and diligently ring the bells of said churches during 20 minutes unless the 
fire be sooner extinguished, with penalty of $2 for every omission." 



1838 

111 health distressed Leonard Case, Sr., and along in the late thirties he 
gradually turned his affairs over to his older son, William. Near the Case 
home on the Public Square (westerly half of Federal Building site) stood a 
small, wooden office building to which William built an addition. In the 
Cultural Story of an American City — Cleveland, Elbert Jay Benton gives a 
comprehensive account of the founding of an unique literary-social club in 



162 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1838] 

this humble structure. The "Arkites" had no constitution, bylaws, or formal 
organization plan, yet in their leisurely get-togethers great things were 
planned for Cleveland. 

In 1839 a letter from Leonard, Jr., then a student at Yale, to his brother 
gives the first intimation that the office was something more than a place 
of business. "Does the office continue to be the headquarters for loafers, as 
usual, or is it getting to be too notorious." A letter of William's, in 1841, 
adds a significant point — "I have a live rattlesnake to show for the amuse- 
ment of the girls, who begin to think the old office a curiosity shop." A letter 
from Elisha S. Sterling, dated September 8, 1849, in Paris, where he was 
finishing his medical studies, shows the Ark full fledged, name and all. To 
William Case: "I am glad to hear the city is going ahead, as it is the finest 
place in existence. I have no desire to live in any other, and only ask to get 
back again within the scent of the old Ark' — the greatest place, you know, 
in these diggings — and be again surrounded by the best of fellows." 

What had happened was this: The brothers had brought together a group 
of companions, with similar interests, for informal meetings in their office. 
A common interest in natural science cemented the group, though other 
forms of social diversion were included — games, reading and informal dis- 
cussion. The rooms gradually became a museum, with an odd variety of 
mounted birds, et cetera. The variety of objects suggested to some of them 
the name, the Ark, and the members became the Arkites. 

The Arkites represented a group of men who quite unconsciously started 
a great cultural movement in Cleveland, more than one in fact. The original 
group included, besides the Case brothers. Dr. Elisha S. Sterling, Stoughton 
Bliss, Colonel E. A. Scovill, George A. Stanley, Bushnell White, Captain 
B. A. Stannard, Dr. A. Maynard, D. W. Cross, Henry G. Abbey, R. K. 
Winslow, J. J. Tracy, and John Coon. These are portrayed in the painting 
hanging over the mantle in the reference room of the library of the His- 
torical Society, a painting ordered by William Case in 1858. The Ark was 
the Case brothers' club; whatever it accomplished was chiefly their achieve- 
ment. But their ideas, those of William, who loved the open spaces, and 
of Leonard, the more studious, were sown in a fertile soil. Their influence 
can be traced through a contemporary natural science museum, the Kirtland 
Society of Natural Science, The Case Hall, The Cleveland Library Associa- 
tion, Case Library and Case School. 

A convention drawing delegates from townships in the county met in 
Cleveland on January 11 "to further the cause of common school education." 
John W. Willey was elected president of the new county association. The 
encouragement of Samuel Lewis, state superintendent, and President Wil- 
liam Holmes McGuffey of Cincinnati College contributed to its success. Mc- 
GufTey's interest and his visits to Cleveland undoubtedly helped the sale of 
his readers in the future. 

Brighton, located on the Warren Young farm in Brooklyn Township, was 
incorporated as a village on March 5. The act was repealed, however, in 1839, 



[1838] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 163 

and although the community returned to the township, the territory con- 
tinued to be known as Brighton for years to come. 

Imprisonment for debt was abohshed in Ohio by act of March 19. Leverett 
Johnson of Cuyahoga County introduced the legislation. Agitation for the 
reform originated in the Fifteenth General Assembly of 1816-17, when An- 
drew Kelley of Cleveland fathered the movement that failed to pass. Whit- 
tier, the poet, carried the torch in verse. The states of the Union and foreign 
countries followed Ohio's leadership. 

The Board of School Managers made their annual report in April for the 
preceding winter term, from December i to the end of March. Eight schools 
had been sustained, employing three male and five female teachers, with an 
enrollment of 840 and an average attendance of 468. These schools were 
conducted in rented quarters. Of the eight, two were in the old Academy, 
one in the Farmers Block, one in an abandoned paint shop, and one in an 
old, grocery-store building. Expense for tuition was $868.62. "Schools have 
been wholly free and open to all within their districts legally admitted to 
their privileges," the report stated. "The boys and girls have been entirely 
separate, the former taught by male and the latter by female teachers. The 
teachers have been critically examined before being employed." Female 
teachers received $5 per week, and male teachers, I40 per calendar month. 

The city's library undertakings were suffering from hard times, and an 
effort was made in the spring to unite the Lyceum, the Cleveland Library 
Company, the Cleveland Reading Room Association, and the Young Men's 
Literary Association. It apparently failed, with the result that shortly after- 
ward the organizations became inactive, and the books of the libraries were 
distributed among members. 

Steamboat racing on the lake had provoked considerable public criticism, 
especially from a New York gentleman whose stern observations were 
printed in a local paper as a warning to the operators. His experience as a 
passenger on the Erie when it raced the "luxury liner" Buffalo from Buffalo 
to Cleveland was certainly not thriUing, and he censured such recklessness 
in risking human life. When the "brag boat" Erie burned in 1841, with a 
loss of about 175 lives, her fate was attributed not to the strain of a heated 
race, but to the bursting of demijohns of spirits of turpentine placed near 
the boilers by painters. 

Historians have found the carefully kept diary of William Case of ines- 
timable value in fitting together the piece-work pattern of early-day life in 
Cleveland. An amusing account of his canal voyage to Portsmouth, con- 
suming four days and four nights, is recorded on June 18: 

At 5 P.M. we started, and at 8 arrived at Tinker's Cree\. Shortly after leav- 
ing there the list of names was called by the Captain, so that the passengers 
should choose their berths in order. I had the good fortune to stand third 
. . . While they were undressing, the boat passed through a lock, and, 
striking with some force against the side, somewhat disturbed the equi- 
librium of those off their guard; one person in particular, who was certainly 
not in full dress, was thrown into the ladies' cabin rather unceremoniously 



164 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1838] 

by the concussion. Their cabin is only separated from the Gents by a set 
of curtains. In fact, there was a complete hubbub kept up all night by the 
passengers, some laughing, some snoring, some tellmg stories and some curs- 
ing their hard quarters — but all making some noise or other. Two or three 
times, a piercing yell came from the female dormitory when the boat 
had, unfortunately for their shoes and stockings, lying scattered about on 
the floor, shipped water by getting under the small gate while lying in 
the bottom of the lock, which ran on the cabin floor some inches deep. 
However, all passed the night safely and early in the morning several 
stepped ashore to see the town of A\ron, for the packet being detained, by 
passing through some twenty locks, allowed us time. 

The teaching of astronomy was in its infancy when Elias Loomis, pro- 
fessor of mathematics and natural philosophy at Western Reserve College 
(later Western Reserve University and Western Reserve Academy), brought 
astronomical instruments from Europe and erected an observatory on the 
campus this year. It was the third project in the country, having been pre- 
ceded by one in North Carolina, built in 1830 and destroyed some years 
later, and one at WilHams College, built in 1836. Many valuable scientific 
contributions originated in the little vine-clad building. 

A brand-new thrill came to Cleveland on July 3^ when a circus brought 
"a splendid menagerie" and a "great elephant saddled." Almost the entire 
population flocked to the grounds at the corner of Water and St. Clair streets 
to see the three-day exhibition. Soft drinks could be had after the big event 
at a Water Street drug store. Here the newest concoctions were soda-water 
and carbonated mead, with a choice of sarsaparilla, raspberry, strawberry, 
and lemon flavors. 

Cleveland was fired with patriotism on the Fourth of July, some of the 
enthusiasm having been inspired by the City Guards on holiday parade. 
Faces beamed with pride as the men in blue uniforms with gold trimmings 
showed their strength. At a banquet in the evening, D. W. Cross, one of the 
Cleveland Grays, toasted the military spirit and enterprise of the Guards. 

Steamboat mail service to the East began on July 31. Five days were re- 
quired for the trip, and although it placed "Cleveland about two days nearer 
New York ... it has become uncertain as the winds," complained a local 
paper in October. 

On August 13, an ordinance established Wall Street, to be 60 feet wide, 
about 540 feet from the lake, and to extend from Water to Erie Streets 
(north of Lakeside). Frontier Street marked the eastern boundary Hne of 
Cleveland at this time. As the city limits expanded, however, "Frontier" 
was known as the farthest street to the east, so that it once identified 
Sterling, Case, and Willson streets. 

On August 30, in accordance with the will of John Shaw, trustees of The 
Shaw Academy were elected: the Rev. Harvey Blodgett, president; H. H. 
Coit, secretary; and John Doan, treasurer. Plans were made to erect the 
academy on a 23^-acre plot of land set aside for the purpose by the pioneer 
farmer of Euclid Township (Shaw High School site, East Cleveland). The 



[1838] A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 165 

two-Story, plain frame building, surrounded by a rail fence, opened in the 
fall. It cost $623.41, and additions were to be made later to bring the 
cost to the required $2,000. English grammar, geography, and the three 
R's were taught in the primary department, and an advanced course was 
intended to prepare students to become farmers, merchants, mechanics, or 
for college. The school was open for four terms of eleven weeks each. 
Tuition in the primary school was $3 a term, and in the advanced course, 
$4; Latin and Greek cost $5. Attendance during the early years ran as high 
as eighty, drawn largely from Euclid, Cleveland, Willoughby, Ohio City, 
Mayfield, and Medina. Boarding students lived with neighborhood families. 
On the rolls were the names of Baldwin, Day, Raymond, Otis, Van Tine, 
Tilden, Crittenden, Willey, Kendall, Dockstader, and Hoadley. 

The first teacher in the female department at Shaw Academy was a Miss 
Lyman, a graduate of Emma Willard's Female Seminary at Troy, New York, 
and she came into a community prejudiced against imported teachers. Within 
a short time she introduced calisthenics into the classroom, and this produced 
wagging tongues and harsh criticism. When John Shaw's widow, familiarly 
known as "Aunt Shaw," heard the report, she marched down to the Academy 
to see for herself. What she saw was both fascinating and shocking— girls 
waving wands as they went through graceful routines. It was dancing, that's 
what it was, and she recalled the condemnation and expulsion from the 
church that she suffered thirty-one years before. Punishment would come from 
the Almighty, warned Aunt Shaw. Suddenly there was cracking overhead, and 
the new plaster ceiling began falling to the floor. Pupils fled in fear, but 
Aunt Shaw straightened herself, faced the trembling Miss Lyman, and said 
sternly, "Let that be a lesson to you, young woman." When, upon persuasion, 
the teacher abandoned the Lord's Prayer in the morning exercises, criticism 
was heaped upon her for having done so. School patrons were hard to please, 
and her career at Shaw lasted for only one winter. 

Firecrackers were first used publicly in Cleveland to celebrate Perry's 
Victory Day, September 10. 

The Mechanics Block was erected this year at the southeast corner of 
Ontario and Prospect streets. Aside from commercial interests, it served a 
variety of special purposes: first as a school and a theater; it housed the 
first medical college for a few years, and other mid-century educational 
institutions had their beginning here. This historic building continued to 
mark a busy corner down through the years, evolving in 1903 into the 
pioneer store of Richman Brothers, and it was still serving their retail trade 
in 1946. 

The Cleveland Grays appeared on parade in full dress on November 29, 
and drew high praise. Their bayonets gHttered, their military evolutions were 
exact, and their bearing in new gray uniforms was "every inch a soldier." 
As the years moved on, the Grays, distinctive in tall, black, bearskin shakos, 
took their place among the nation's finest military companies. "Pioneers" 
who were members of the Grays for twenty-five years or more, wore aprons 
and carried axes on parade. 
Governor Joseph Vance having failed to proclaim a day for Thanksgiving 



166 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1839] 

celebration in 1837 and again this year, the staunch New Englanders of 
Ohio declared December 19 as the day on which they would give thanks 
for abundant harvests and blessings. Many of the inhabitants were reluctant 
to observe spirited holiday customs of the Old World at Christmas-time, 
feeling that to do so was a desecration of the revered event. 

Entertainment during the year was novel in character, and included a 
menagerie, a ventriloquist, the Albino lady, an Irish giant, and a fancy 
glassworker's exhibition. 



1839 

The Cleveland Grays' social activity was inaugurated when they held 
their first reception and military ball on January 23 in the new American 
House. 

On March 2, Aaron Barker became postmaster of Cleveland. He was 
succeeded by Benjamin Andrews on September 6, 1842, and Timothy P. 
Spencer on April 11, 1845. 

In their April report for 1838-39, the Board of School Managers stated 
that the common English branches had been taught in all the schools, and 
that considerable progress had been made in history, the natural sciences, 
etc. Salaries had remained stable. The enrollment had reached 823, with an 
average attendance of 588; but only one-fourth of those in the city's school- 
age population were going to school. Even so, the schools were crowded, 
and the city was urged to buy land and build more buildings. Silas Belden, 
Henry Sexton, and Henry H. Dodge constituted the board. 

The earliest Jewish settlers who came to Cleveland were immigrants from 
Germany and Austro-Hungary, seeking liberty and opportunity. Twenty 
members of the Jewish community met this year in the home of Samson 
Hoflman on Seneca Street and formed the IsraeHtic Society, their first 
religious organization. Under the spiritual leadership of Isaac Hoffman 
— or Hopferman, the organizers were Simson Thorman, chairman, Simon 
Newmark, Moses Alsbacher, S. L. Coleman, Gerson Strauss, Kalman 
Roskopf, and Samson Hoffman. Upon the death of an itinerant Jewish 
peddler the next year, a burial plot was purchased in Ohio City for $100 
and Willett Street Cemetery had its beginning. In 1842, the small con- 
gregation was divided, and the seceding group of thirty members formed 
the Anshe Chesed Society with the Rev. Asher Lehman as rabbi. 

With the arrival of the Huron-built "luxury liner" Great Western on May 
9, Clevelanders thronged to see the marvel, "greater than any craft that ever 
floated on our fresh seas." She was 186 feet long, 781 tons, and had paddle 
wheels of 133^-foot radius. Her capacity for passengers and freight was larger 
than any boat on the lakes. On June 4 she warmed her Pittsburgh-made 
engine and departed for Chicago and western ports. 

As directed by Council on June 19, the southern half of the Public Square 
was fenced, after the county commissioners fulfilled their agreement to 
whitewash the Court House. 



[1839] 



A BOOM TOWN BECOMES A CITY 



167 



An ordinance providing for the licensing of dogs was passed on June 20. 

"At a grove in the eastern edge of the city" (Superior and East 9th), the 
Cleveland Grays held their first encampment, July 3-7. They were hosts for 
the first time to a visiting military company, the Buffalo Guards, and a gun 
squad known as Fay's Battery. Drilling and a hoHday parade made up the 
program of events. The Grays carried their new silk flag which had been 
presented to them by Charles M. Giddings on May 2 in a Public Square 
ceremony. Fireworks were used to usher in the glorious Fourth for the first 
time; and in the evening, "hundreds of spectators were delighted with the 
novelty and the romance" of a blazing finale. 







Northwest section of Public Square, 1839, Cleveland Grays parading. 



Nine of the Cleveland Grays formed a Gun Squad on July 6. Through 
their initiative they outfitted themselves with uniforms and secured an iron 
cannon, for which they built the carriage. They also made the caisson and 
their ammunition. The six-pounder shook the firmament on every possible 
occasion. David L. Wood was drill sergeant of the "flying artillery." In 1845, 
the squad left the Grays, recruited new members, secured two twelve-pound 
guns, and elevated Wood to the rank of captain of the new organization 
known as the Cleveland Light Artillery. "Young men of the best families" 
were in its ranks. 

The Academy was purchased by the city in July for $6,000 and added to 
the pubhc-school system. This was Cleveland's second school building. 

Pupils of Cleveland's free schools paraded from the Public Square to the 
First Baptist Church on August i for a public examination, the questions to 
be asked by teachers under whom they had not studied or by prominent 
citizens not associated with the schools. This practice continued until 1846. 

When Dr. Horace A. Ackley came to Cleveland this year, he announced 



168 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1839] 

his practice would be confined to surgery. He was the first Ohio physi- 
cian thus to speciaHze. His skill became widely known, and within a decade 
he was the outstanding surgeon in the State. In his historical account, the 
First Fifty Years of Medical Conditions in Cleveland, Dr. Frederick C. Waite 
relates that "One who used more than five minutes in amputating a leg 
above the knee was considered a bungler ... a few (surgeons) did it in two 
minutes. A student under Dr. Ackley wrote that he timed this operation by 
Dr. Ackley with a watch. The time was ninety seconds." Speed was vital in 
these early days before the use of anesthesia. Men were given large doses of 
whisky, and opium was administered to women and children to help them 
withstand the ordeal. The conscious patient was bound to a board, and strong 
assistants held him rigidly while the surgeon performed the operation. 

Although William J. Gordon was only twenty-one years old when he 
came to Cleveland this year, his unusual ability inspired confidence and en- 
couragement on the part of leading businessmen, and within a year he had 
established a grocery firm of his own. An orphan at the age of twelve, he 
left New Jersey, and in New York City he found employment as a bank 
clerk. Impressed with Cleveland while on a visit, he decided to make it his 
home. W. J. Gordon & Company, wholesale grocers, was soon the foremost 
firm in its field in Ohio. South of Levi Johnson's fine home, Gordon built a 
mansion in keeping with his influential position (1200 West 9th Street). 

There was a small Negro population, "industrious, peaceable, intelligent 
and ambitious for improvement." School facilities were provided for three 
months in the year. The Colored Men's Union Society of the lyceum type 
was organized, and questions of the day, including colonization and aboli- 
tion, were debated. A library of one hundred volumes had been accumulated. 

Cleveland's first municipal market house was built this year in the center 
of Michigan Street at Ontario. Traffic started before sunrise on market days 
— Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, and long lines of wagons loaded 
with all kinds of foods and commodities threaded their way to the busy 
shopping center. The surrounding area soon became a hay market, and 
farmers and dealers sold from their vehicles on the street. 

"Resolved, That Corporeal Punishment is a Necessity in the Training of 
Children" was the lively question debated by the Cleveland Lyceum in De- 
cember. The Rev. Levi Tucker and M. C. Younglove, believers in the spare- 
the-rod-and-spoil-the-child theory, were too much for Finlay Strong and D. 
W. Cross, their progressive opponents. 



CHAPTER 7 



Trade Trails Stretch Wide 
1840-1849 



UNDER the impetus o£ canal commerce, Cleveland had made notable 
strides since 1830, the population in 1840 showing an increase of 
more than 5.5 times. The census reported the Cleveland figure at 6,071, and 
that of Ohio City, 1,577. Cincinnati stood sixth among American cities 
with a total of 46,338, while Cleveland was forty-fifth in the nation and 
second in Ohio. 

A breakdown of the Cuyahoga County census in 1840 shows interesting 
township comparisons: Cleveland Township, 7,037; May field, 852; Orange, 
1,114; Solon, 774; Euchd, 1,774; Warrensville, 1,085; Bedford, 2,021; New- 
burgh, 1,342; Independence, 754; Brecksville, 1,124; Brooklyn, 1,409; Parma, 
965; Royalton, 1,051; Rockport, 1,151; Middleburgh, 339; Strongsville, 1,151; 
Dover, 960; Olmstead, 659. A scattered population brought the total to 26,506. 

Stage lines were operating on fairly dependable schedules, as management 
and roads improved, and the stagecoach was still the principal means of 
transportation between Cleveland and the outside world. Along limited lines 
of travel, however, it had been replaced by the canal boat. 

Marked growth and development in Ohio resulted from canal expansion. 
Farmers, mine operators, and manufacturers could now exchange products 
at a better price, not only within the State, but beyond its borders. New 
industries were being attracted, and Ohio was considered more desirable 
for settlement. Population had grown from 937,903 in 1830 to 1,519,467 a 
decade later, and real-estate values were climbing rapidly. The Pennsylvania 
& Ohio Canal, opened in 1840, provided a waterway to Pittsburgh, via 
Akron, where connection was established with a route to the Atlantic 
seaboard. 

Cleveland's wealth lay in shipping and trade. The city had grown steadily 
in importance, and most of the 250 sailing vessels on Lake Erie in 1841 
stopped at the port, their capacity varying from 50 to 350 tons. Two of the 
19 ships built in lake shipyards this year originated in Cleveland. The 
sloop-rigged, 138-ton Vandalia, with cabins on deck for passengers, was 
launched in Oswego, New York, in 1841, fitted with a screw propeller. It 
was soon learned that this long, narrow, flat-bottomed, straight-sided, 
schoonerlike hull was better suited than the sidewheeler. Two years later, 
Cleveland produced its first propeller, the Emigrant; and within ten years, 
53 propellers were sailing the lakes, all but four under 400 tons. Six thousand 
bushels of wheat or 2,000 bushels of wheat and 2,000 barrels of flour con- 

169 




Dealer id Bolting Clolbs and Ulill rurnishiiie generally 

From city directory, 1837 



CAREIAGE & WAGON «aflle iWatble toarks. 



MANUFACTORY. 



Opposite Miller's Block, 




Na. 11, 13, and 15 Vineyard Lane, 

(SE^UVjEILAKID., ©, 

From city directory, 1845 




From city directory, 1845 

V. SWA1J\, 




IMPORTER OF RUSSIA. AND HOLLAND 

AND RUSSIA BOLT ROPE. 

o€ &11 descriplions, made to order on the shortest notice. 



Advertisements for some primitive Cleveland manufacturers. 



TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 



171 



stituted the capacity o£ a 200-ton ship. The freight rate on wheat to Buffalo 
was 4 to 5 cents per bushel; flour, 16 to 18 cents per hundred pounds; pork, 
25 to 28 cents per barrel. 

Reports o£ eastern railroad ventures and the wonders of the steam age 
aroused Cleveland, and in 1845, engineers were surveying the proposed 
route between Cleveland and Cincinnati. The abandoned piles of the old 
Ohio Railroad took on importance. Believing that the railroad could increase 
business and opportunity, Cleveland voted to extend the city's credit to 
encourage rail projects. News went out that the lake city was on the way 
to greatness, and soon men of wealth and talent began to move in to share 
in the prosperity era. Within a decade, the day of railroad competition with 
lake boats, canal packets, and stagecoaches had arrived. 

Products of the soil and local manufacture found a ready market. The 
Otis iron works was a notable addition to the small but promising industrial 
district. Only $557 worth of capital was needed to provide an early-day 
manufactory with the tools, machines, and facilities used by a single worker, 
laboring seventy hours a week. Skill and strength determined his production, 
for machines performed only 6 per cent of the work. Although earnings 
were small, there was little to buy and prices were high. 

The decade of the forties witnessed the establishment of companies that 
were still in existence in 1946: Empire Plow Company, 1840; Bennett-Sharer 
Funeral Home, W. Bingham Company, and The Joseph & Feiss Company, 
1841; Cleveland-Sandusky Brewing Corporation, and George H. Herron & 
Company, 1844; Barth Stamping & Machine Works, Inc., Cleveland Agency 
of the Mutual Benefit Life Insurance Company and The Sterling & Welch 
Company, 1845; Geo. H. Olmsted & Company, 1848; Northern Ohio Plat- 
ing Company, Root & McBride Company, and White Music Company, 
Inc., 1849. 

Discovery of copper and iron in southern Michigan was followed shortly 
by the finding of iron deposits in the Marquette Range in the Michigan 
peninsula. Industrial development by Cleveland capital was based upon 
explorations by two Cleveland scientists, Charles Whittlesey and Dr. J. 
Lang Cassels. According to a prominent industrialist, "The discovery of 
the Lake Superior iron ore has contributed more to the wealth and well- 
being of this Nation than has been gained from all the gold of California 
and Alaska." 

Hard times prevailed as the decade opened, and prices were high. In 1840, 
flour was taken in lieu of New York exchange at $3.50 per barrel. Cheese 
brought 4^^ cents per pound at retail; butter, 9 cents; sugar, 7^ cents; Rio 
coffee, 7/^ to 8^ cents; eggs, 5 cents per dozen; chickens, $1 per dozen; 
oats, 37 to 40 cents per bushel; dried apples, $1 per bushel; spring steel, 6 
cents per pound; assorted nails, 6 cents; sheet iron, 6/4 to y'jA cents; blue 
shirtings, 8^ to lO/^ cents per yard; sheetings, 7 and 8 cents; prints, 
8/^ to 16 cents. A revival of business came in the summer of 1843. 

Under the leadership of Alfred Kelley, a new system of branch bank 
operation was created in Ohio in 1845 that went a long way toward bringing 
order out of economic confusion. Functioning as the State Bank of Ohio, 



172 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 

two o£ its twelve branches were organized in Cleveland, the Merchants 
Bank and the Commercial Branch Bank. In the same year, the City Bank 
(later The National City Bank of Cleveland) opened and began its steady 
march through the years. The Society for Savings began its uninterrupted 
career in 1849. Enterprising businessmen organized the forerunner of the 
Insurance Board of Cleveland in 1846; and in 1848, the Board of Trade, 
which fathered The Cleveland Chamber of Commerce, was created. 

Dynamic }. W. Gray and his brother launched the Plain Dealer in 1842, 
supporting the Democrats in the stronghold of the Whigs. Making the most 
of an incident in Cleveland, young Charles Dickens pointed an accusing 
finger at the paper, then not a year old, giving it international publicity. 
Three years later, the Plain Dealer dared to appear as an evening daily. Its 
survival emphasized the quality of its leadership, and the power of the press 
in promoting retail business through advertising and advancing community 
interests. Politics, temperance, and abolition furnished live topics of news. 
An overabundance of newspapers created keen competition that swallowed 
up most of them. Late in the decade, the lines of a miraculous invention 
called the telegraph were extended from Pittsburgh to Cleveland. Although 
feeble and far from efficient, it was considered an epochal achievement by 
news gatherers. 

Cleveland's fiftieth birthday came in 1846, and the population had passed 
the ten-thousand mark. Produce and shipping merchants, grocers, ship 
chandlers, and supply stores lined the river-front. In a bold paving experi- 
ment, broad Superior Street had been planked from the river to the Square. 
Neighboring downtown streets were rutted by the wheels of heavy wagons, 
stagecoaches, rigs, and victorias. "Hilliard & Hayes, Dry Goods and Gro- 
ceries" occupied a gable-roofed building at the junction of Superior and 
Water streets. On the south side of Superior at the head of Bank Street 
stood the Merchants Exchange, next door to the American House. At the 
northwest corner of Bank Street, the new Weddell House was well on the 
way to completion. Business blocks had been erected on either side of 
Superior, and wooden awnings extended over the sidewalk from some of 
the stores. Fences enclosed the four sections of the Public Square. Oil lamps, 
wood stoves, and well water-buckets characterized domestic living, and made 
up Cleveland's public utilities. 

Men went about their business in tall beaver hats, tailed coats, and wide 
trousers. Ladies wearing ribboned bonnets, stocks, pinched waists, billowy 
skirts, and neatly folded shawls made their way to the Exchange to shop. 
While a lady of fashion is said to have dressed simply, a complexity of 
voluminous skirts flapped around her ankles — a flannel petticoat, an under- 
petticoat, a petticoat padded to the knees, two muslin petticoats, all topped 
with a dress fitted with hoopskirts and a bustle. A purse was sometimes car- 
ried in the bustle. High-buttoned boots and heavy, durable stockings com- 
pleted the costume. 

While Euclid Street had emerged from the primitive rut, a local paper 
declared that the roadway was "awful." As far back as 1839, determined 



TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 173 

opposition to any expenditure that would increase taxes had been inaugu- 
rated by several prominent property owners. Regardless of its condition, 
Euclid Street had developed. Between the Square and Muirson Street in 
1844, there were thirty-three homes, the little Wesleyan Methodist Church 
at Hickox Alley, a school, a carpenter shop, and thirty-four vacant lots. At 
one corner of the intersection with Erie was a grove, where public gatherings 
and picnics were held. A sand pile monopolized another corner, and two 
others were marked by unfenced vacant lots. 

Streets were maintained by such labor as the citizenry provided. Every 
able man was expected to make his annual contribution, upon receiving 
the characteristic form notifying him to appear at a stated time and place 
"with a good and sufficient shovel to perform the two days labor required 
... by law." 

Erection of the first public schoolhouses met with protest from short- 
sighted taxpayers and penurious councilmen. Nevertheless, the early cham- 
pions of educational privileges established a high school, one of the first 
free public high schools west of the Alleghenies; and they worked long and 
late to lay a firm foundation upon which was built the great Cleveland 
public-school system of later years. 

Private schools for young ladies and young men were opened by learned 
professors and genteel women. Miss Fitch invited children to enter her 
famous school that "is furnished with a set of maps." Her compelling work 
with children was recognized long before the kindergarten era. Select 
schools, seminaries, and classical schools were conducted by the well-known 
Miss Thayer, Professor and Mrs. J. R. Fitzgerald, W. D. Beattie, Henry 
Childs of Yale, Miss Cleveland, and many others. R. Fry's school for boys 
competed with Principal Andrew Freese's high school, inspiring an amusing 
inquiry among the youthful, "Are you going to Freese or Fry this year?" 

The city's first medical college (later School of Medicine, Western Reserve 
University) was organized with an admirable faculty, the fourth institution 
west of the Allegheny Mountains. Physicians and surgeons of skill and 
training were coming to Cleveland, a city beset with health problems about 
which the authorities had little concern. 

During the long winter months, when waterways were frozen and roads 
were often impassable, long work hours were replaced by leisure and social 
visits, as trade came virtually to a standstill; but at the first sign of spring, 
business and the populace thawed out together. Thus cultural interests 
broadened. 

In the Cleveland Library Association, the city had a valuable asset, pro- 
viding not only a library, but a reading room, museum, and lecture series. 
A collection of five hundred books in a school library marked the beginning 
of a vast public-library system. With the founding of the Cleveland Academy 
of Natural Science (later The Cleveland Museum of Natural History), the 
wonders of the scientific world were unfolded through lectures and a mu- 
seum. Fraternal orders began to organize, adding their benevolent service 
to those of a few charitable societies. Music appreciation found encourage- 



174 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 

ment in the influence of the German singing societies and in occasional 
concerts given by visiting artists. Small theaters and lecture halls presented 
an increasing variety of entertainment and inspiration. 

Church congregations were walking through valleys of trial and tribula- 
tion as the decade opened, beset on one hand by the period of hard times, 
and on the other by strife and contention. Pyramiding controversies rose 
out of debates on slavery and temperance and the doctrine of Oberlin Per- 
fection, climaxed by Millerism. In the excitement created by the Millerites, 
many converts pledged themselves to give up the Bible and all faith, if 
their predictions regarding the Second Coming of Christ proved mistaken. 

In 1846, there were eighteen churches in Cleveland, including two Jewish 
and two Roman Catholic. New churches embodying advanced ideas were 
being built, now that prosperity had returned. Impressive Gothic structures 
were appearing, with recessed chancels or choirs, true aisles with arcades, 
and open-timber ceilings. A significant trend in church architecture was 
introduced when Grace Church mounted the tower in its new building 
on the corner instead of in the middle of the street-end. 

The log cabin had almost disappeared in Cleveland, as finer homes were 
being erected, comparable with splendid achievements elsewhere in the 
Western Reserve. Well preserved a century later were the Kirtland homes 
in Poland; the Frederick Kinsman home, Warren; the Ephraim Brown 
house. North Bloomfield; the Hudson-Lee house, built in Hudson in 1806, 
one of the oldest in the Reserve; the Baldwin-Buss home, 1825; Hosford cot- 
tage, and Seymour house, also in Hudson; the Jonathan Goldsmith and 
Dr. John H. Mathews residences, Painesville; the Mitchell-Turner house, 
Milan, 1828; the Bentley Kent house. Chagrin Falls; and the Sturgis-Kennan- 
Fulstow, Wooster-Boalt, and Kimball- Wooster-Martin houses in Norwalk. 
Classic colonnaded structures of the Greek Revival and Colonial periods, 
they were characterized by elegantly embellished doorways with sidelights 
and fanlights, and grille-work ornamentation. An interesting and valuable 
study of many of these early homes has been recorded by I. T. Frary of 
Cleveland in his volume. Early Homes of Ohio. Plain New England meet- 
ing houses on the village greens in Hudson, Tallmadge, Claridon, Atwater, 
and Twinsburg were architectural gems erected by devout pioneers, as was 
the chapel of Western Reserve College built in 1831 in Hudson. 

The location of Western Reserve towns was determined largely by water 
power, the canal influence or natural resources. Small streams were adequate 
to operate flour mills. Woolen mills, tanneries, and cheese factories were not 
uncommon. Gates Mills had a rake factory; Berea made grindstones; tools 
and stoves were manufactured in Cleveland, Akron, Cuyahoga Falls, and 
Franklin (Kent), and the latter made glass, while Akron produced pottery. 
The paper supply for Cleveland newspapers came from Ohio City and 
Cuyahoga Falls, and the West Side mill also made printing, writing, and 
wrapping paper. Shipyards were operating on almost every stream that 
entered the lake. Cleveland and Akron had steam-engine works. There 
were several iron furnaces in Youngstown, which had the first rolling mill 
utilizing coal as fuel. Furnaces were also established in Dover, Elyria, 



[1840] TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE ' 175 

Mentor, Painesville, Niles, Perry, Poland, Akron, Madison, Ashtabula, and 
Conneaut. Despite the variety and volume of Western Reserve production, 
wool and cheese were shipped in from the East; English blister steel and 
Pennsylvania iron and steel were imported, and Russian and Swedish iron 
satisfied a large part of industrial requirements. 

Artificial gas added its dim and uncertain rays to the trend of Cleveland's 
public improvements in 1849. "Our city now looks like a living place in the 
night," observed the True Democrat. "The new gas lights give everywhere 
a social air, and people move about as if there was no more trouble from 
darkness and the evils thereof." As the year was about to close, the first 
wood-burning locomotive fought its way up the River Street grade, a forward 
step in the uphill climb to bring the railroad to Cleveland. 

Cleveland had recovered from the Panic of 1837 and was enjoying the 
prosperity wave resulting from the Mexican War as the decade closed. 
Standing on the brink of the great railroad and industrial eras, it had re- 
sourceful, energetic leadership and adequate banking facilities to make the 
most of its opportunities. History-making inventions and developments 
would expand industry and create fortunes, making possible enormous 
strides in commerce, welfare, and culture. In the words of the friendly 
editor of the Pittsburgh Business Directory, "the city is one of the few places 
where we find united, great business advantages with . . . beauty of 
location." 



1840 

The Pennsylvania & Ohio Canal opened for through traffic from Akron, 
where it joined the Ohio Canal, to Beaver and Pittsburgh on the Ohio 
River, thus offering an alternate route to the Atlantic seaboard. For the first 
time, a market was afforded to Mahoning Valley and southeastern Ohio 
communities for their coal, iron, and farm produce. Philadelphia interests 
built the canal. The State of Ohio subscribed $450,000 of the million-dollar 
capital stock, which reflects a waning interest in aiding new waterway 
projects. In the early fifties, the Mahoning Railroad acquired control very 
cheaply; but tolls were excessive, canals were on the downgrade generally, 
and the right-of-way was converted into a railroad bed. 

Watson's Hall was built by J. W. Watson this year on Superior Street 
(Wilshire Block site). Silas Brainard, founder of a firm of piano dealers, 
purchased it in 1845, changing the name to Melodeon Hall. 

The Cleveland Grays Band made its first appearance on February 22. 

The heated political contest of 1839-40 was the absorbing topic in Cleveland. 
General William Henry Harrison, of "log cabin and hard cider" fame, was 
the champion of staunch supporters in the Western Reserve, a stronghold 
of the Whigs, At the height of the opposition to President Martin Van Buren, 
the local Whigs organized Tippecanoe clubs, and joined the surging ranks 
that were rallying behind the slogan, "Tippecanoe and Tyler, too." James 



176 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1840] 

A. Briggs, young Cleveland lawyer, is credited by some with having created 
the famous fighting words. 

At a meeting of Whigs in the Court House on March 7, officers of the 
Tippecanoe Club of Cleveland were elected: Frederick Whittlesey, president; 
William A. Coleman and seventeen others, vice presidents; A. W. Walworth, 
treasurer; and J. L. Weatherly, secretary. On March 9, Ohio City standard- 
bearers organized under the leadership of F. A. Burrows. 

The local clubs made plans to erect "cabins," typifying the log-cabin 
sentiment, on each side of the river as campaign headquarters. On the 
evening of March i8, east-side enthusiasts met at the American House, and, 
led by the Cleveland Grays, they marched to the Ohio City cabin (Detroit 
and West 25th) for rousing dedication ceremonies. The rough interior 
was decorated with strips of dried pumpkin and strings of dried peppers, 
and a rifle, a pouch, and powder horn hung on the wall. In one corner stood 
a split broom. In another was a barrel of cider that was drained in pledges 
to "Old Tip" and the "Union of the Whigs." 

Neighboring townsmen had been hauling logs into Cleveland as their 
contribution toward the Whig cabin that was to be the center of the Cleve- 
land political campaign. March 30 was rainy, but early in the morning the 
citizens went to work, fortified with frequent visits to the hard-cider barrel. 
In a short time, they had erected their headquarters building on Superior 
Street, adjoining the American House. Newburgh's 105-foot log was selected 
for a pole bearing a flag with the word "Liberty," and another sturdy 
timber bore a sign reading, "With Tip and Tyler we'll bust Van's biler." 
The cabin was 35 by 50 feet, large enough to hold several hundred people, 
the newspapers claimed. Flags flanked the doorway. A large stump served 
as a speaker's rostrum inside, and campaign insignia and implements hung 
on the walls. Van Buren was represented by the drawing of an eagle holding 
a writhing fox in its talons. A little, black bear paced restlessly at the end 
of a chain fastened to a crossbeam. In a corner stood a cider barrel complete 
with tin cup. Campaigners poured in from miles around on April 3 for the 
dedication that was marked by brilliant oratory and rousing songs in honor 
of the "people's candidates." The next day, local Whigs organized on a 
broader scale when they formed the Tippecanoe Club of Cuyahoga County, 
with Frederick Whittlesey, president; J. M. Hoyt, secretary, and A. W. 
Walworth, treasurer. This club continued in existence as one of the oldest 
Republican clubs in the United States, its membership including men of 
eminence in state and nation. 

In order to expand public-school facilities, the city purchased two lots, 
one on Rockwell Street (northwest corner of East 6th) and the other on 
Prospect Street. Building specifications were the same — 40 feet square, two 
stories, four rooms, and the cost was $3,500 each, including seats, fences, etc. 
Rockwell School was completed in the spring, and Prospect in the fall. 
Although 1,000 students applied for admission to the fall term, there was 
crowded room for only 900. The enrollment at the beginning of the winter 
term, December 10, was 1,041, which included Bethel School, a small school 
at Prospect and Ontario streets, and one on Chestnut Street. N. A. Gray, 



[1840] TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 177 

Elizabeth Armstrong, Abby Fitch, and Louisa Kingsbury taught at Rock- 
well; Andrew Freese, Sophia Converse, Emma Whitney, and Sarah M, 
Thayer at Prospect; and George W. Yates, Louisa Snow, and Julia Butler 
at the Academy. 

The first "salary schedule" specified $10 a week for male and $5 for female 
teachers. The school year consisted of forty-four weeks, with five and a half 
days to the week and six hours to the day. While teachers were required 
to keep their rooms in order and make the fires in the bulging wood stoves, 
attentive pupils usually assumed most of the burden. Until 1851, wood was 
used for fuel, and coal was used exclusively commencing in 1854. Cleveland's 
early teachers were earnest and hard-working; and in their organized meet- 
ings, which began in 1842, notable educational progress originated. 

Primitive furniture was used in these early schools. Long, pine benches 
of cheap construction seated the pupils as they faced the teacher. There was 
a certain luxury in the smooth, splinterless seats, even if they had no backs. 



Prospect Street School built in 1840; 
Rockwell Street School of the same 
architecture was built earlier in the year. 




Seating expense per scholar amounted to about 50 cents. A little later, arm 
chairs were introduced for the primary children. The first two-seated desks 
were used in 1845, made from pine at a cost of from $1.50 to $1.75 each. They 
were supplanted by the three-legged desk, back-rest improvements, and 
better-grade construction. 

A variety of choice greenhouse plants was offered for sale in April by 
Alexander Sked on Ontario between St. Clair and Lake streets. Shrubs, 
bulbs, and seeds for farm and garden were advertised by several dealers. 

The "morus multicaulis bubble" — the craze for raising mulberry trees — 
had been spreading since 1837 from the Middle West eastward to the coast, 
because of promised profits in silk manufacture. Late in 1839, the bubble 
burst in New Jersey, and it is said that the high cost of labor contributed to 
the end of the boom. In Cleveland, however, growers held a mass meeting 
on April 28, this year, to draft a petition to Congress favoring a duty on 
foreign silk to increase their opportunities. For several years, they persisted 
in promoting the production of silk, despite the claim that the movement 
had originated to benefit a few speculative individuals. Painesville, which 
was to become a great rayon-producing center in the next century, was the 
last to acknowledge that the little silkworm's industry was a disappointment. 



178 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1840] 

Although Jarvis F. Hanks offered to teach music in the pubHc schools 
for a pittance, the Board of School Managers refused his proposal. Teaching 
of music would be illegal, they declared. One member preferred that dancing 
be taught. Opposition was stubborn, and music was denied the school 
children of Cleveland. 

At a meeting in the First Presbyterian Church, a group of its members 
organized the First Congregational Church "for the purpose of providing 
another place of public worship." T. C. Severance, an incorporator of the 
mother church, was a leader in the new venture. The wooden house of 
worship erected just west of the Stone Church (Frankfort and West 3rd), 
dedicated in 1841, witnessed stormy scenes in the congregation's short career. 
Its pastor, the Rev. Charles Fitch of New England, entertained most of the 
isms of the time, and some of Dr. Aiken's members, who had become dis- 
satisfied with his conservative position on the slavery question, joined the 
neighboring separatists. Second Adventism, Perfectionism, and tempestuous 
agitations retarded growth and hastened bankruptcy in 1844. The edifice was 
sold to the Second Presbyterian congregation for 13,671, and a number of 
the members returned to the First Church fold. 

Temperance and liquor control had become highly controversial subjects 
in Council, as the record indicates. The matter of licenses had been in the 
legislative mill for about a year with only parliamentary debate to show for 
the trouble. An interesting and amusing sequence of compromises had 
resulted: first, an "ordinance for the suppression of dram shops"; followed 
by an "ordinance for the suppression or the sale of ardent spirits in less 
quantity than one quart"; futile attempts to strike out "one quart" and 
substitute "one pint," "fifteen gallons," and "a pound of bread." Reform was 
finally crystallized on May 6, with the passing of "an ordinance to regulate 
taverns, and to prohibit the sale of ardent spirits or other intoxicating liquors 
by a less quantity than one quart." 

The four sections of the Public Square were separately enclosed with 
fences in the spring, and the southern half was seeded. Council ordered the 
street supervisor "to procure some suitable person to sink the public wells, 
so that they will contain at least three and one-half feet of water," the cost 
to be held to $35. 

William Bergin built the Cataract House above the Mill Creek Falls — or 
cataract — in Newburgh (near 8820 Broadway). When it burned in 1850, 
the town raised money to rebuild. Among succeeding owners was A. H. 
Spencer, a schoolteacher, who bought it in 1866 and called it the Spencer 
House. He advertised, "amazing meals at 25 cents, clean and wholesome 
food! Christopher Born is one of the best cooks in northern Ohio." It 
eventually reverted to its original name. 

Not far from the Cataract House in the forties was the Eagle House, at 
Miles Avenue and Broadway, with a "spring-floor" ballroom on the top 
floor that was a sensational achievement. Hotel stages gathered up dating 
couples who were eager to put spring in "pigeon-wings." Whisky, hot water, 
and maple sirup combined to stir the spirits, and nut cakes fried in bear 
grease were a special treat. 



[1840] TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 179 

Erie Street Cemetery was replatted, and a record of lots and burials was 
begun. No register had been kept prior to this time. 

Mould's Saloon was a grog shop extraordinary, claiming to be the "head- 
quarters of those who love the delicacies of the season, with its strawberries 
and raspberries in full perfection, its ice creams and sodas which take the 
place of mint juleps and cobblers, its great variety of pastry, confectionery 
and fruit." 

Lake County was created by the Legislature out of Geauga and Cuyahoga 
counties, and Willoughby Township no longer existed. Summit County 
also came into being this year. 

The Rev. Peter McLaughlin became resident pastor of the Catholic 
Parish, and after a hard struggle the church of "Our Lady of the Lake" 
became a reality. It was erected at Columbus and Girard streets, midway 



St. Mary's on the Flats. 




between Cleveland and Ohio City, at a cost of $3,000. Although mass was 
said in it for the first time in October, 1839, it was not dedicated until 
June 7, this year. St. Mary's on the Flats, as it was familiarly known, served 
as the first diocesan cathedral for more than a decade. The last service was 
held in 1886, and two years later the pioneer church was razed. 

The hero of Tippecanoe, General William Henry Harrison, made a short 
visit to Cleveland on June 13, stopping at the Franklin House in Ohio City. 
He was met at the dock by the Cleveland Grays, and, refusing a carriage, 
he marched with the company to the American House. Here he made an 
"extended speech" from the balcony to several thousand cheering admirers. 
This was the first presidential contest in which the candidates made 
speeches. 

Open-air market facilities on the West Side were provided by Josiah 
Barber and Richard Lord, who dedicated a parcel of land for a public 
square at the corner of Pearl and Lorain streets. It became known as Market 
Square, and a wooden market house was erected in 1868. 

August 25 was a great day for the Whigs in Cleveland. Tom Corwin, 
"wagon boy," their champion for governor, was slated to engage in an 



180 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [l^4o] 

oratorical boost for the party with Thomas Ewing, "salt boiler," and Francis 
Granger of New York. Four miles west of the city, he was met by an escort 
on horseback and in wagons, the Tippecanoe Club, and the Cleveland Grays 
Band. Cannon boom and flag-waving heralded his approach, and for more 
than two hours Corwin engaged in a speech from the American House 
balcony to the crowd assembled in vacant lots. Reporting on the rally's 
great success, the Herald stated, "not one intoxicated person seen" during 
the entire day. 

When Christopher Jackson built his tavern on the road to Pittsburgh 
(Moreland Hills Village) this year, it was a popular stopping point for 
stagecoach travelers on their long overland journey. Modern transportation 
reduced the income, and the inn became a country school and later a 
dwelling. It was still standing in 1946, a monument to the fine architecture 
of the early Western Reserve. 

William A. Otis opened an iron works and began making castings. 
From this industrial venture, Cleveland's pioneer ironmaster forged ahead, 
making the name of Otis synonymous with progress and improvement. 

On the banks of Big Creek (under the Brooklyn-Brighton Bridge, 3979 
Pearl Road), John Tompkins built a slaughter house. In 1946, his grandson, 
John A. Tompkins, was handling five hundred head of livestock a week in 
the original building. 

When Oilman Folsom contracted to dig a channel from the old river 
bed to the lake for $28,000, he was paid in Ohio City bonds, and his men 
were to receive 75 cents a day. A strike for higher wages resulted, and 
strikers stoned "scabs" who were willing to work for that amount. 

Whigs of the county were jubilant as their candidates, Thomas Corwin for 
governor and William Henry Harrison for President, were swept into 
office. On November 19, they closed their feverish campaign of bold attacks, 
barbecues, songs, and demonstrations with a spirited victory celebration 
in Cleveland. 

The federal census credited Cuyahoga County with a population of 26,506. 
Industry had taken a foothold, in spite of the ruinous effects of the panic. 
Two cast-iron furnaces, capitalized at $130,000, were producing 200 tons, 
consuming 1,310 tons of fuel, and employing 102 workers. The output of 
stone products annually was $18,822, with 28 men employed and a $2,000 
capital investment. The production of pot or pearl ashes for the year was 
113 tons. Manufactured machinery was valued at $43,600; hardware and 
cutlery, $25,000; refined metals, $31,500. The brick and Hme industry 
manufactured products valued at $8,540 with 26 employees and $12,500 
capital. Four woolen mills showed an annual production of $14,400, 18 
men employed and capital of $12,400. Thirteen tanneries employed 21 men, 
and tanned 845 sides of sole leather and 3,680 sides of uppers; capital, $6,800. 
Soap manufacture totaled 113,000 pounds, and tallow candles, 82,000, with 
10 workers and $4,000 capital. Two distilleries produced 80,000 gallons of 
whisky, and the output of i brewery was 50,000 gallons of beer. Six flour mills 
were operating, 15 grist-mills, 70 sawmills and i oil mill, with a combined 
payroll of 104 men and output valued at $183,875. Common laborers received 



[1841] ' TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 181 

70 cents a day. As county industry centered largely in Cleveland and Ohio 
City, this report gives a comprehensive picture of the city's development 
up to this time. 



1841 

The city had become the gateway to freedom for runaway slaves who 
sought safety in Canada from their masters. Under the law, the slaves when 
arrested in Cleveland were to be turned over to their owners who took them 
back to bondage. An incident that occurred this year reflects Cleveland's 
attitude toward the great national issue. Three slaves, who were said to have 
escaped from New Orleans, were kidnaped by their alleged owners in 
Buffalo and brought to Cleveland, where they were jailed under the federal 
law. John A. Foote and Edward Wade, leading Abolitionists, were refused 
permission to visit them. Thomas Bolton, who was not an Abolitionist, was 
granted an interview and determined to defend them. Courageously he faced 
stern opposition and public opinion, and against vicious threats secured 
their discharge. Henceforth, Cleveland was less frequented by kidnapers. 

The City Council created the office of acting school manager in March 
and elected Charles Bradburn, George Willey, Charles Stetson, and Madison 
Kelley to the Board of School Managers. In his zeal and devotion to educa- 
tion, Bradburn, successful merchant, gave one-fourth of his time to the 
schools for many years. 

George Willey was born in Boston in 1821, the son of a prominent ship- 
ping merchant. After his father's death, he came to Cleveland, to live with 
his uncle, Judge John W. Willey, who sent him to Jefferson College at 
Washington, Pennsylvania, where he was graduated. He studied law in his 
uncle's office, was admitted to the bar in 1842, and formed a law partnership 
in 1843 with John E. Gary. Willey was intensely interested in the progress 
of the public schools, and gave so much time to their pioneer struggles 
that his law partner protested. He successfully organized teaching systems 
and instruction plans that were adopted throughout the country. Cleveland's 
excellent public-school system is traceable to the efforts and energies of this 
wise and thorough leader. Most of Willey's legal work consisted of admiralty 
cases and patent law, and he made important contributions to maritime law. 
President Grant appointed him United States attorney for the northern 
district of Ohio. Recognized as an excellent orator, he became the city's 
favorite home-town lecturer, taking part in initiating cultural movements. 

As a result of the economic depression, the state appropriation for the 
schools was reduced, and bitter opposition to public education had been 
aroused. Schools were crowded, but the city fathers laid aside proposals 
for expansion. Male teachers' salaries were cut to I32.50 per month, and 
female teachers had to be satisfied with $4.40 a week. In order to open 
two additional primary schools the next year, the school year was shortened 
from ten to nine months to provide the money. 



182 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY ' [1841] 

Council fixed the annual salaries of city officials: mayor, $100; marshal, 
I300; clerk, $400; street supervisor, $400; treasurer, $200; clerk o£ the market, 
fioo. 

As the population multiplied, voting privileges were abused; and in 1838, 
election betting was prohibited legally. "To preserve the purity of elections," 
an act passed on March 20, this year, required electors to be twenty-one 
years of age, residents of Ohio for one year, and of the county, thirty 
days. Fraudulent voting and bribery were made prison offenses. 

Early in the year, Sanford & Company, booksellers, opened the first com- 
mercial circulating library, containing five hundred volumes. Rentals were 
based upon the size of the volume. 

Young William Bingham had spent his first five years in Cleveland clerk- 
ing in George Worthington's hardware store. He had watched the oxcarts 
and Conestoga wagons moving westward, and listened to talk about rail- 
roads cutting in on the canal trade. He saw big schooners being built in the 
shipyards. Envisioning a great building era, he paid $12,933.24 for Clark & 
Murfey's hardware stock on April i, and opened his store on Superior Street 
on the site of Abram Hickox' pioneer blacksmith shop. H. C. Blossom was 
Bingham's first clerk and first partner. Here W. Bingham & Company did 
a big business in buggy whips, curry combs, and anvils; it serviced canal 
boats, sold hardware to lake men, cant hooks and peavies to lumbermen, 
spikes to railroad builders, lunch pails and shovels to ore miners, wire and 
nails to builders of telegraph lines and factories. Bingham hardware and 
appliances went into the famous homes on Euclid Avenue. 

William Henry Harrison, ninth President of the United States, had been in 
office only a month when he died of pneumonia on April 4. Upon hearing 
the news of his death, Cleveland was plunged into deep mourning. Memorial 
exercises were held in the Court House on April 9. The Herald appeared 
with mourning border. Vice President John Tyler became the nation's tenth 
President. 

Antislavery dissension and panic thwarted the building plans of the little 
First Methodist Episcopal Church congregation; but after five years' labor, 
their $3,000 sanctuary was dedicated in April at the corner of St. Clair and 
Wood streets. This was the first Methodist church in the original bound- 
aries of Cleveland, and from it missions and churches had their start. The 
Rev. D. C. Wright, the first settled pastor, was engaged in i860. In 1865, 
a site was purchased at Euclid and Erie streets for a new church. Protest 
against the high price of $9,150 was justified by the committee in the light 
of 1827 real-estate figures, when a little less than two acres on the corner 
had sold for $64. A chapel built on Erie Street served until 1874, when a 
spacious $140,000 building of Sandusky limestone, with a buttressed tower 
and tall, cathedral windows of Munich glass, was dedicated. Gradually busi- 
ness encroached, and, when the property was purchased by the Cleveland 
Trust Company at the end of the century, the church realized about 
$500,000. 

The styHsh new omnibus, built by David Dean, Cleveland coach maker, 
for the Mansion House, was the city's "novelty" of May 2. 



[1841] TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 183 

A portion of Orange Township was annexed to Geauga County, and a 
strip of Russell, in Geauga, was joined to Cuyahoga County. Two years 
later, the tract was restored to Orange. 

The Ladies Fair, given by the ladies of the Episcopal Church on June 22, 
attracted attention, for the Herald had thrown out a broad hint that " a gen- 
eral attendance of bachelors was expected." 

This year's circus featured a number of elephants, accomplished ladies, 
and a band. 

A national movement was under way to make Independence Day the 
occasion for temperance demonstrations. Total Abstinence Society meetings 
were held, and fifteen hundred persons paraded wearing temperance-pledge 
badges. The Herald concurred editorially, stating that "The Spirit of '76 
needs no stimulus from the intoxicating grape, for it was born when grape- 
shot rattled." 

Politics, abolition, and the feminine influence inspired the launching of six 
newspapers this year, with weighty and enterprising titles: The Daily 
Morning News, The Daily Morning Mercury, The Cleveland Gatherer, 
Palladium of Liberty, The Eagle-Eyed News Catcher, and the Mothers and 
Young Ladies' Guide. Four of them discontinued before the year's end, 
and the others fell by the wayside shortly thereafter. In their brief span, 
however, the editors had helped to guide the destiny of the community, 
leaving a written record of inestimable value. 

With the opening of The Cleveland News Room in the Franklin Build- 
ing on September 8, out-of-town newspapers could now be purchased at the 
"news depot." 

Public announcement of Daguerre's new photographic invention had 
been made in 1839, and on September 9, this year. Dr. Theodatus Garlick 
made the first daguerreotype in Cleveland in the Franklin Building. 

Koch, Kauflman & Loeb opened a general store in Meadville, Pennsyl- 
vania, in September, Four years later, the business was moved to Cleveland 
under the name of Koch & Loeb. The firm entered the wholesale apparel 
field; and summer clothing, such as linen dusters and trousers. Alpaca coats, 
and white vests were popular items. The ready-made-clothing era had not 
dawned, and cloth was purchased from the mills and cut on the premises. It 
was then sent to small contract shops to assemble — to coat-and-overcoat shops 
owned largely by Bohemians; trouser shops operated mostly by Germans, 
and vest shops by Hungarians and Germans. Koch & Loeb were located first 
at 82 Superior Street, but moved shortly to the Custom House Block at Mer- 
win and Superior. Loeb remained in the firm only a brief time. The name 
became Koch, Goldsmith, Joseph & Company in 1873. On September 28, 
1877, John Hay, son-in-law and representative of Amasa Stone, builder, 
signed the agreement for construction of a building on St. Clair Street 
for the company. Koch retired in 1889, and about 1897, a small inside shop 
was started as a manufacturing experiment, the foundation for the great 
factory erected at 2149 West 53rd Street in 1920. The pioneering estabUsh- 
ment became The Joseph & Feiss Company in 1907, one of the largest 
clothing concerns in the country. Felix S. Mayer joined the firm in 1929 and 



184 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1842] 

later became its president, succeeding Paul L. Feiss, who became chairman 
of the board. 

Clumsy hulls, carrying sixty to eighty tons burden, drawn by horse and 
mule power, were steadily building canal traffic. The principal products 
received by canal this year were wheat, 1,564,421 bushels; coal, 478,370 
bushels, used in local manufactories; lard, 961,161 pounds; wool, 107,805 
pounds; flour, 441,425 barrels; pork, 39,200 barrels, and a steady supply of 
Kentucky whisky. Lumber, fish, 59,773 barrels of New York salt, and 15,164,- 
747 pounds of merchandise cleared the Cleveland port for the interior. 
Passenger arrivals in Cleveland totaled 19,492, and canal tolls as of 1840 
had reached $86,851.89. 

Interest in Freemasonry was revived, and Concord Lodge was reborn when 
Cleveland City Lodge No. 15 was organized with sixteen charter members 
on September 28 at a meeting in John Bennett's Coffee House in the Erie 
Building on the west side of Water Street, just north of Superior. Clifford 
Belden was the first master, and a charter was granted on October 19, 
1842. The hall in the Farmers Block, rented from General H. H. Dodge, a 
Mason, for $50 a year, served as a meeting place until 1843, when a hall in the 
Merchants Exchange was leased for ten years at $100 per year. Leading men 
of the day were members of the order. 

In a stone schoolhouse on the Euclid Road at Doan's Corners, between 
Republic and Doan streets, Jarvis F. Hanks, Horace Ford, and Horatio C. 
Ford started a school. After a continuous existence of more than a half 
century, the building became the nursery of the Euclid Avenue Congrega- 
tional Church. 

James Nicholson, James Newman, Mars Wagar, and a few followers of the 
Swedenborgian faith organized the Church of the New Jerusalem in Rock- 
port, under the leadership of the Rev. McCarr of Cincinnati. Land was do- 
nated by the Wagar family (at Detroit and Andrews avenues) for the first 
church, erected about 1848, in the district that later became Lakewood. When 
the Church of the Redeemer, as it was also known, celebrated its centennial, 
the original structure, sheathed in modern siding, was serving proudly 
beside the ivy-clad brick building of more recent years. The church, a non- 
denominational institution, operated under a system of guest ministers, with 
no resident minister. 

Monroe Street Cemetery was opened on November 12 on the west side 
of Monroe Street (and West 30th). 



1842 

The Advertiser was in financial straits when it was acquired for $1,050 in 
December, 1841, by the Gray brothers, Admiral Nelson, thirty-eight, and 
Joseph William, twenty-eight-year-old schoolteacher and lawyer. The old 
masthead never appeared again. Instead, a new weekly was introduced on 




Truman P. Handy 



Henrij B. Payne 



Dr. Jared P. Kirtland 




J. W. Gray 


^^'m^m . 


W$0( 





DwnfeZ P. R/iocZes 



John W. Allen 




William J. Gordon Dr. John S. Newberry James A. Garfield 



[1842] TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 185 

January 7, this year, from the plant above the Post Office on Superior 
Street, under the partnership of A. N. and J. W. Gray, business manager and 
editor, respectively. The Plain Dealer was born of "democracy and modesty" 
and "devoted to Politics, Agriculture, Commerce, the Mechanic Arts, 
Foreign and Domestic Intelligence." Only two columns of the initial edi- 
tion of the four-page journal contained news items, the latest date of which 
was December 29. Presidential messages, speeches, Congressional proceed- 
ings, European developments, and political events dominated the space. 
Commencing its march through the years, the Plain Dealer was to be pitied, 
launched as it was in a day of numerous short-lived, unprofitable, journalistic 
ventures; but to its saving credit was the dauntless courage and driving 
power of its editor, who laid a sturdy foundation. In its early days, it was 
to serve as "The Democratic voice in the wilderness of Whiggery," ac- 
cording to Archer H. Shaw, chief editorial writer of the paper for many 
years. J. W. purchased his brother's interest in 1843, and A. N. began a career 
related to railroad-building, when he became known as "Iron Gray." 
Nicholas A., a third brother, was associated with the newspaper in editorial 
capacities. During the Civil War, he left the Democratic Party, shocking 
his political travelers. 

Clevelanders were suffering from "hard times," influenced by chaotic 
financial and economic conditions. A complicated money situation and the 
doubtful value of notes in circulation obstructed commerce and trade. For 
many, bankruptcy was imminent. To add to their troubles, there had been 
no real winter; rainfall had been heavy, and the mails were irregular. 
On February 10, an editor observed, "This has been a blue day, the bluest 
Cleveland ever saw." Soon afterward, the charter of the city's only bank 
expired, and Cleveland was without banking facilities until 1845. Exchange 
brokers and insurance companies were the only fiscal agencies in operation. 

Upon observations taken as a result of a devastating storm that swept 
northern Ohio in February, Professor Elias Loomis of Western Reserve 
College based the calculations for weather maps completed in May, 1843. 
These were reduced to a single map that became the basis for the type 
of map used by the United States Weather Bureau. 

At the request of Jeptha G. and David Nickerson, John Henry of the 
Disciples denomination held a meeting in Ohio City that resulted in the 
organization of Franklin Circle Church of Christ with twenty-nine mem- 
bers on February 20. They worshiped in a small building (on Vermont 
Avenue near West 28th), and the following year services were held in 
Cleveland in Apollo Hall and Empire Hall. The congregation returned 
to the West Side in 1846, and in 1848 they erected "God's barn." Sailors and 
those associated with the shipping business made up a large part of the 
membership, and at one time there were seven ship captains on the roster. 
One name stands out in the distinguished ministry of the church, that of 
James A. Garfield, who served from 1856 to 1858 and became President of 
the United States. Six pastors later became college presidents. A. R. Teach- 
out, Cleveland businessman and philanthropist, was superintendent of the 



186 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1842] 

Sunday School for twenty-five years. Jessie Brown Pounds, writer of Beauti- 
ful Isle of Somewhere and The Way of the Cross Leads Home, was a 
member of the church. Construction of the historic brick edifice on FrankHn 
Circle began in 1874, and the dedication took place on May 13, 1883. 

The widow of Samuel Cowles sold her home on Euclid Street (Taylor 
store site), with a frontage of 150 feet, running through to Prospect, for 
$7,000. In 1915, the property was valued at $6,000 per foot front. 

"To visit the sick, relieve the distressed, bury the dead, and educate the 
orphan, to improve and elevate the character of man" was the charitable 
purpose of the Odd Fellows, organized this year as Cleveland Lodge No. 13 
with II members. Meetings were held in Odd Fellows Hall on the Public 
Square. The oldest lodge in northern Ohio, its membership in the late 
seventies had reached 179. Erie Lodge, founded in 1844, met in the Odd 
Fellows Block at Pearl and Church streets, where it was joined by Phoenix 
Lodge, dating from 1854. The Odd Fellows gradually gained in numbers, 
Cataract Lodge being organized in 1855; Allemania, Anchor, and University, 
1867; Donau, 1871; Banner, 1874; Mayflower, 1879; North Wing Encamp- 
ment, 1862; and Harmonia Encampment, 1872. 

Mrs. Benjamin Rouse was the guiding influence in founding the Martha 
Washington and Dorcas Society, devoted to care of needy children, the 
aged, and the sick. From this early effort came the Cleveland Protestant 
Orphan Asylum. 

Cleveland had attracted a number of skilled physicians, but none equaled 
Dr. John Delamater, a newcomer this year. He had been a professor in eight 
medical colleges, and was recognized not only as "the best medical teacher 
in the United States," but he ranked among the finest physicians. 

Disciples in Newburgh reorganized their church on April 21, and with 
twenty old and fifteen new members, the Miles Avenue Church of Christ 
began an influential career. John Hopkinson and Theodore Stafford were 
elected as elders, and David L. Wightman and John Healy, deacons. Until 
1864, supply pastors officiated, among them James A. Garfield. Although 
he was not ordained — the Disciples believed in lay-ministry, he exercised 
the prerogatives of a minister by officiating at marriages, conducting funerals, 
and administering the ordinances of the church. Garfield was the only 
"minister" and the only Disciple who became President of the United 
States. A house of worship was erected early in the next decade. Member- 
ship in the pioneer church at 9200 Miles Avenue was 1,195 ^^^ 1946? and the 
Rev. Ray M. Wolford was minister. 

Charles Dickens, famous English novelist not yet thirty, reached the city 
with his wife by steamer from Sandusky, before midnight, April 25. With 
a companion, he made an early tour around the city, carefully avoiding 
contact with the citizens, because of his indignation over a "whip England" 
article that he had read in the infant Plain Dealer, neglecting to note that it 
was reprinted from another paper. When curious citizens crowded on the 
boat at the River Street dock, Dickens was "so incensed" at this invasion 
of his privacy that he refused to receive Mayor Joshua A. Mills. He departed 



[1842] TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 187 

at nine in the morning to continue his American tour. Returning to Eng- 
land, Dickens made the Cleveland paper a target of international publicity 
that shrewd Editor Gray utilized to good advantage. 

Dust in summer and mud after a rain characterized broad Superior 
Street, Cleveland's main thoroughfare. The big event of the year consisted 
of the planking of Superior, the first attempt at paving within the city 
limits. Heavy planks were laid crosswise on the street, from the Square to the 
river; and while smooth traveling was assured when the timbers were new, 
the going became worse as they loosened. When high water invaded River 
Street, the paving moved out with the flood. The plank road, however, was 
a great achievement, and now Superior "became passable at all seasons of 
the year." 

For days at a time, Cleveland skies were darkened as millions of 
passenger pigeons soared overhead. The roar of their wings "sounded at the 
distance of miles like the heavy surges of Erie beating an iron-bound coast," 
it was observed. One shot could bring down many birds, and street peddlers 
sold them for food at less than a cent apiece. 

Rufus Dunham built a more pretentious Dunham Tavern this year, a 
two-story frame building, and a big barn. Stout hewn timbers, fastened 
together with wooden pins and hand-wrought spikes, went into the build- 
ings that were still standing in 1946 at 6709 Euclid Avenue. A lead bathtub 
created almost as much comment as the water tank, filled from an outside 
cistern by a force pump. Bedrooms were connected with the office by a call 
system, consisting of wires that tinkled bells. Here travelers who came by 
team or stage found lodging before going on to Cleveland. In the tap-room, 
gentlemen mingled with frontiersmen in exchanges on politics and progress, 
while ladies sipped port wine and frosted milk in the big center room. 
Trappers stored their furs in the stone smokehouse near the kitchen door, 
and drivers slept in the barn when the inn was filled. From time to time, 
dry goods and other articles were sold at the tavern, around which the 
community and local politics revolved. In 1853, the place was deeded to 
Ben and John Welch for |6,ooo. As stage travel was outmoded by the 
railroad, Dunham Tavern ceased to serve the public, and became a private 
home. It changed hands a number of times until 1886, when it was pur- 
chased by Dr. James A. Stephens, serving as the family residence until 
1930, when the owner died. 

"Novelty unparalleled! The only living Giraffe in the United States," 
announced the Herald of July i. "The Giraffe will make a tall bow to just 
as many thousand visitors as choose to try to 'come the Giraffe' over him." 
On July 6, it was noted that the menagerie and circus was held over, 
as so many persons had not been able to see "the only living specimens of 
the giraffe, camel or leopard in the U. S." 

Martin Van Buren was the first ex-President to visit Cleveland. He 
stopped in the city on his return from the West on July 12. A committee 
had joined him at the boat in Detroit, and as it neared the Cleveland 
harbor, a gun salute was fired from the hill near the lighthouse. Amid the 



188 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1842] 

cheers of the townsmen, the Cleveland Grays escorted Van Buren on parade 
from the Superior Street docks to the Square and back to the American 
House. From the balcony, he spoke of the importance of the canals in 
advancing transportation, and complimented the city on its greatness. Fire- 
works were set off as he departed for Buffalo by steamer. 

Express service came to Cleveland when the first shipment of fruit was 
received this year. After sampling a luscious watermelon, presented to 
Josiah A. Harris of the Herald by the Cleveland agent of Hawley and 
Company's Express, the editor published an acknowledgment of thanks 
on July 13, stating that it had been "but eight days" since the melon was 
picked from the vine in Charleston, South Carolina. In May, fresh seafood 
was coming from the Atlantic, and the newspaper announced, "The Yankees 
are paying us off for our eggs in live lobsters." The express company 
offered to "forward at low rates with the utmost speed and safety, choice 
goods, specie, bank notes, important papers, valuable packages, etc." 

Jacob Wansor was offering "bathing tubs" for sale, "with fixture attached 
for heating water in a few minutes." They were made in his factory, and 
were considered a great luxury. 

For a month, John Baldwin had prayed in a grove on his farm for 
guidance out of the financial entanglement in which he became involved in 
the late thirties, while trying to promote education in the Berea com- 
munity. The answer came the day he discovered sandstone, or Berea grit, 
in his riverbed. Hacking out a crude grindstone, he realized its great 
possibilities — every farm and household would need one to keep tools and 
utensils keen-edged. By devising a lathe, he turned out the first lathe- 
made grindstone, thereby increasing production, and "it was not long before 
my money was coming in at the rate of twenty dollars a day," related 
the pioneer. Baldwin leased his lands to operators, and from the fortune in 
stone under his large tract, a business of world proportions developed, pro- 
viding broad philanthropies. John Wallace is credited with being the first 
actual quarry operator in the Berea district. Soon deposits of Berea grit 
were found elsewhere in Cuyahoga, Lorain, and Erie counties, and the 
making of grindstones became an important industry. 

B. S. Decker became the proprietor of Doan's Tavern (Fenway Hall 
site), advertising it as a "Temperance House." The historic inn led a check- 
ered career under various landlords, as the Croton House and as the 
Wright House, when story-telling James Wright purchased and remodeled 
it in 1859. Many social affairs were held here. Its popularity increased 
when the East Cleveland horsecar line was extended to Doan's Corners and 
the hotel became the end of the road. Wright sold the property to John J. 
Benton for $35,000 in 1871. 

As the year closed, the newspapers announced that their carriers would 
"pay their respects to those they have served in all weathers during the 
past year. They anticipate a substantial response to their 'Happy New 
Year!'" 



[843] TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 189 



1843 

Samuel Mather, Jr., was the only stockholder in the pioneering Connecticut 
Land Company whose descendants Were to be o£ tremendous influence in 
the city's future. Samuel Livingston Mather, his son, came to Cleveland 
this year to represent his father and care for his Western Reserve holdings. 
He found lodging at the Franklin House; and in the Central Building, at 
Water and Superior streets, he began practicing law. 

Fire took a toll on River Street on January 2, when it burned the ware- 
house of Standart, Griffith & Company, the S. Cleary & Company grocery 
store, and the block-and-spar shops of William Nott & Company. The 
steamers Cleveland and Neu/ England, ice-locked near the dock, were 
damaged. 

A public bathing establishment, "large and commodious and fitted up in 
a style not surpassed west of New York," was advertised by J. L. Watson 
and F. White on January 25. In the rear of Watson's barber shop, "cold, 
warm, tepid, Russian or shower baths" could be had, and ladies were 
served exclusively on Friday afternoons. 

William McKinley was born at Niles, Ohio, January 29, the son of a poor 
iron founder. He became the twenty-fourth President of the United States. 

On March 29, mechanics and workmen protested against payment "in 
orders and store pay" in return for their labors. They claimed that since 
"money is the circulating medium of this country, it alone is the proper pay 
for the services of every class of the community." Wages during the hard 
times were low, but workers made no complaint. The Plain Dealer reported 
that a workmen's parade and a large mass meeting in the Square on April 5 
produced results that were "partially successful." 

German Lutheran families withdrew from the Schifllein Christi congrega- 
tion and formed Zion Church of the Evangelical Lutheran faith, with about 
sixty members, under the leadership of the Rev. David Schuh. Meetings 
were conducted in Concert Hall on Superior Street. To preserve the religion 
of the fatherland and to educate their children, the Lutherans launched 
their first school in Cleveland in 1848, providing instruction from the first 
to eighth grades. A house of worship was dedicated this yeai on York 
Street between Bond and Wood. Dr. Henry C. Schwan, called as pastor 
in 1851, beloved and wise, was a leader in early-day denominational advance. 
A larger edifice on Erie Street at Bolivar served until 1903, when a new 
church was occupied at SterHng and Prospect, during the ministry of the 
Rev, C. M. Zorn. The Rev. Clarence Schuknecht came to the church in 1929, 
and became pastor in 1938 of Zion Lutheran Church, the oldest Lutheran 
congregation in the city. 

Colored people of the city asked for a separate school for their children 
in April. Acting upon the report of the judiciary committee, the City Council 
voted against the petition. Nevertheless, a school for Negroes was made 
possible late in the year. A system for selecting public-school teachers was 



190 Cleveland: the making of a city [1^43] 

introduced, that provided for "thorough examination in spelHng and the 
rudiments of the English language as contained in Webster's spelling book," 
and, further, that instructors "must be good readers both in prose and poetry, 
evince a thorough knowledge both in rules and practices of arithmetic, and 
furnish satisfactory evidence of good character." 

William Miller, Massachusetts farmer, mathematician, religious enthusiast, 
and founder of the Second Adventists, known as the Millerites, had been 
spreading his belief that Christ's second coming was at hand. Fifty or more 
Cleveland people, fired with Miller's zeal, secured the Rev. Charles Fitch 
to lead their worship services in the Congregational Church (corner of 
Frankfort and West 3rd). The pastor edited and published The Second 
Adventist, a journal with comforting comments for believers and stern 
warnings for scoffers. In his drive for subscription he was handicapped at 
the start by the very method he vigorously advanced, for he preached that at 
any moment all worldly things might be swept away. Serial articles were 
out of the question. Nevertheless, the dauntless Fitch continued to circulate 
his paper, promising to issue the next edition if "the Lord does not appear 
before the day of publication." The falling of meteors in various parts of the 
country caused consternation; and in preparation for the Day of Judgment, 
the followers hurriedly built a temple of brick, round and with a circular 
window or skylight on top, on Wood Street near Rockwell. On the night 
of April 12, the appointed time, the faithful assembled in a large number 
arrayed in white robes, awaiting the rolling aside of the window overhead 
and their journey heavenward. The hour struck — nothing happened. A 
second date was set in 1844, but the wicked old world continued to move 
on its trusty axis. The Millerites disbanded in time, and the tabernacle was 
later razed. 

German Protestant families in the Brighton community were organized 
into St. Luke's Church, of the Evangelical denomination, in the spring, by 
the Rev. C. Allard. A small schoolhouse, purchased for f8o and moved to 
the corner of Broadview and Schaaf roads, served as the first house of 
worship. A decade later, about half of the membership moved to Brighton 
Village, where they built a building on a site that remained the location 
of St. Luke's Evangelical Church (Pearl Road and Memphis Avenue) 
through the years. The Rev. Oscar H. Zwilling was pastor of the historic 
and influential church in 1946. 

The first Cleveland-built steam propeller, the Emigrant, was launched 
for Pease & Allen in the shipyard of Captain George W. Jones on April 22. 
The 275-ton vessel cost $15,000, and was fitted with a seventy-horsepower 
engine built by the Cuyahoga Steam Furnace Company. This ship was the 
forerunner of the giant ore carriers. 

There had been considerable controversy on the matter of traffic over a 
bridge connecting Cleveland with Ohio City. A traffic count on May 6 
indicated that from morning to evening, 4,030 persons and 925 teams, wagons, 
and carriages made the crossing. 

Members of the Disciples Church in Euclid, organized in 1830, met in a 
tent near the crossing of Doan Brook and Euclid Street on July 4. In 



[1843] TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 191 

attendance were the Revs. Jonas Hartzel, Matthew S. Clapp, William Hay- 
den, and Dr. J. P. Robison. There were twenty-eight conversions, and on 
October 7, a new congregation was organized (later Euclid Avenue Christian 
Church), W. P. Hudson and Theodore Stafford being the first officers. 
Meetings were held in John Gardner's farmhouse (731 Ansel Road) near 
Doan Street, and later in the stone schoolhouse at the northwest corner of 
Euclid and Doan. In 1848, the first house of worship was erected on the 
north side of EucHd, between Doan and Republic streets. The Rev. E. H. 
Hawley, who came to the church in 1864, was the first resident minister. 
In 1867, a Gothic sanctuary was dedicated on Streator Street, and it served 
until 1905. During the ministry of the Rev. Jabez Hall, 1872-89, the church 
and city were brought into closer relationship through his cultural and civic 
interests. Dr. Joseph Z. Tyler's pastorate, 1892-99, was m.arked by tireless 
devotion to young people, to church expansion, and to world brotherhood. 
The Rev, Jacob H. Goldner, who began his fruitful service to the church 
in 1900, was to enjoy one of the longest Protestant pastorates in Cleveland. 

Willoughby University's future was wiped out by the panic, failure of the 
railroad project, slow population growth in the area, and dissension in its 
official family. Drs. Delamater, Kirtland, Cassels, and Ackley resigned, and 
Dr. Starling, who owned a controlling interest, voted to move to Columbus, 
where he founded the StarUng Medical College, which became part of Ohio 
State University. 

At this time, thirty-eight medical colleges were operating in the United 
States, and only four west of the Alleghenies. As Cleveland had no medical 
school, the four physicians proposed that Western Reserve College in Hud- 
son, Ohio, organize a training school in the city. Accordingly, the trustees 
voted on August 4 that six physicians of the Western Reserve constitute "a 
Committee of Examination to present to this Board the names of suitable 
candidates for the degree of M.D.": Drs. Delamater and Kirtland; Dr. 
Samuel St. John, professor of chemistry and allied subjects in Western Re- 
serve College; Drs. Erastus Gushing and David Long of Cleveland; and 
Dr. George G. Baker of Norwalk. Although there was little time for adver- 
tising and recruiting students, sixty-seven enrolled for the first sixteen-week 
session. The first lecture was given by Dr. Kirtland in the Stone Church on 
November i. A week later, classes opened in the Mechanics Block. This be- 
ginning was heartening to the new faculty that included Dean Cassels and 
Drs. Delamater, Kirtland, and Worcester. AppUcation for amendment of 
the college charter, permitting establishment of a medical department in 
Cleveland, was opposed by a faction in Willoughby, and it was not until 
February 23, 1844, that legislation was passed. 

The trustees "erected" the Medical Department of Western Reserve College 
(later School of Medicine of Western Reserve University) on March 20, 1844, 
and conferred the degree of Doctor of Medicine on eighteen men recom- 
mended by the committee on examination. 

Management and finance of the Cleveland Medical College, as the new 
school of medicine was popularly known, were in the hands of a board of 
agency, headed by wealthy Leonard Case, Sr. Members were Peter M. 



192 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1^43] 

Weddell, John W. Allen, Samuel Starkweather, Zalmon Fitch, J. M. Woolsey, 
Henry B. Payne, Thomas Bolton, W. T. Warner, William A. Otis, James 
M. Hoyt, and Madison Miller, eminent citizens who were anxious to assist 
in raising the cultural and educational standards of Cleveland. Financial 
support came from tuition fees which were divided equally among the 
professors and lecturers, "it being understood that all apparatus necessary 
for illustrating the various departments of instruction shall be furnished by 
the professors and lecturers filling the same." The faculty appointed on 
March 20, 1844, consisted of Dr. John Delamater in charge and also professor 
of midwifery and diseases of women and children; Drs. Jared P. Kirtland, 
theory and practice of medicine; Horace A. Ackley, surgery; John Lang 
Cassels, materia medica; Noah Worcester, physical diagnosis and skin 
diseases; Samuel St. John, chemistry; and Jacob J. Delamater, son of John 
Delamater, lecturer on physiology. They were distinguished medical men 
and some of the best teachers in the country. Under Dr. Delamater's leader- 
ship, an enviable reputation was soon established; and as other institutions 
fell by the wayside. Reserve gained strength and became the oldest medical 
school operating continuously west of the Allegheny Mountains. 

The Herald reported in September that 150 buildings had been built in 
Cleveland during the preceding two years. George Worthington and Isaac 
Taylor had erected a row of brick dwellings on St. Clair Street "with iron 
railings, cut stone steps and neat courts." Captain Levi Johnson's fine stone 
mansion had been built at the corner of Water and Lake streets, where it 
stood until 1909. The old Mansion House was replaced by the Atwater 
Block on Superior Street and Vineyard Lane, the leading business center of 
the city. A music hall on the third floor provided "double the capacity of 
any in the city." 

The First United Presbyterian Church of Greater Cleveland had its 
beginning in the Northfield Associate Presbyterian Church, organized in 
October with twenty-three charter members, most of them of Scotch ancestry. 
The Rev. J. W. Logue was their first pastor. A frame church building, 
erected and equipped at a cost of $2,000 at the southwest corner of Michigan 
and Seneca streets, was paid for before it opened. It was replaced by an 
impressive brick structure, costing $7,000, on Erie Street near Prospect. The 
congregation grew, and in 1891 it moved eastward to a new home on East 
Prospect Street at Giddings. 

Tailor-made overcoats could be bought in October for from $4 to $5.50; 
frock or dress coats, $3 to $5; pants or vests, $1 to $1.25. "Cast-off clothes 
taken in pay" made it easier to outfit the family for winter. 

In the fall, property owners were urged to plant fruit and ornamental 
trees. Cleveland's fine trees would carry her fame far and wide. 

John Quincy Adams' hurried visit to the city on November 11 was 
announced by handbills. A large audience braved a severe storm to hear 
him speak in a downtown church, where he was introduced by Sherlock 
J. Andrews. Adams was enthusiastic over the development of commerce 
and transportation. He departed on a long, tiresome journey to Cincinnati,, 
where he laid the cornerstone of the Astronomical Observatory. 



[1844] TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 193 

A Presbyterian church was organized on November 30 at Doan's Corners, 
the Rev. S. C. Aiken presiding. It was the outgrowth of a Sunday School 
started in 1828 by Mrs. Sally Mather Hale, and the roll of nineteen charter 
members included the names of Ford, Cozad, Walters, Cowles, Bowles, 
Baldwin, Clark, Coakley, and Hanks. Although eighteen were Congrega- 
tionalists, one of the sisters declared that "she could not belong to any other 
than a Presbyterian church," and her preference prevailed in declaring 
church government. Cyrus Ford, Jarvis F. Hanks, and Samuel W. Baldwin 
were chosen as elders. Horace Ford, one of the organizers, was a leader 
for more than a half century, and choir director for many years. The little 
congregation met where it could find room, and not until 1845 did it have 
a settled minister in the Rev. Anthony McReynolds. Membership had reached 
sixty-two in 1847, when incorporation as the First Presbyterian Church of 
East Cleveland (later Euclid Avenue Congregational Church) was effected. 
Eager to have a home of their own, members shouldered a burden of $3,300 
to erect a plain, two-story, brick structure, 40 by 60 feet, at the corner of 
Euclid and Doan streets. It was a real struggle for the faithful, some of 
whom worked out subscriptions at the rate of 50 cents a day; but dedication 
was celebrated, September 29, 1849. 

The first Episcopal parish east of the river, outside of Cleveland and within 
the Cuyahoga County limits, was formed on December 11, when prominent 
families organized St. Paul's Church of the township of Euclid. Among 
those who signed the charter were members of the Adams, Strong, Doan, 
Crocker, Jaster, and Condit families. The first services were held in Shaw 
Academy in January, and John Doan, E. W. Slade, and Rodney Strong 
were elected vestrymen. Doan was licensed as the first lay reader in 1845. 
Construction of a modest sanctuary, started in 1846, was not completed until 
i860 (at Allendale and Collamer Street). Seats were free. Lay readers served 
until 1853, when the church had a rector in the Rev. Thomas Corlett. The 
meeting house was enlarged to meet the needs of the growing congregation; 
and during the ministry of the Rev. Howard M. Ingham, plans were made 
for a new structure, completed in 1896 to replace the old. The identity of the 
church changed to conform to that of the community, and as St. Paul's 
Episcopal Church of East Cleveland, 15904 Hazel Road, it played an im- 
portant part in the transition from a rural to a residential district. The 
pastorate of the Rev. Gerald Campbell Clarke, 1928-46, witnessed inspiring 
progress. Upon his death, the Rev. Francis B. Sayre, Jr., became pastor. 



1844 

Opening of the new engine house, built for Phoenix No. 4 on Water Street, 
was the occasion of a lively ceremony on January 2. In the evening, the 
engine was drawn through the streets by torchlight to the accompaniment of 
band and cannon. A banquet at the Mansion House wound up the day. 

An advertisement in the Herald on January 3 announced bear's oil for 



194 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1844] 

the hair, Rio coflfee at 9 cents a pound, cooking butter at 5, and beef cattle, 
$1.50 to $2.00 per 100 pounds. The merits of lard oil over sperm oil for 
lamps were argued. 

N. E. Crittenden, the leading jeweler, purchased the property at the 
northeast corner of Ontario and Rockwell on the Public Square (Society for 
Savings site) at sheriff's sale for $6,000. 

R. B. Dennis founded the Ohio American, a Liberty Party weekly, this 
year in Ohio City. In the plant, young Edwin Cowles, grandson of the 
pioneering pastor of the Western Reserve, the Rev. Giles H. Cowles, was 
making his first acquaintance with printer's ink, and he took over the 
management the next year in association with L. L. Rice, editor. M. W. 
Miller became the publisher in 1846. The True Democrat, a daily, was 
founded at Olmstead Falls in 1846 to further the antislavery-Whig interests. 
In 1848, the two papers joined forces in Cleveland under the name of the 
latter, and made a brave effort to further the reform influence. 

Cleveland was thrilled upon learning that Samuel F. B. Morse had 
successfully sent the first telegraph message on May 24 over an experimental 
line between Baltimore and Washington. The newspapers received many 
inquiries as to how the miracle was performed, one of which was as follows : 
"I notice we are to have the telegraph soon and would like to know how 
they work the words along the wire. Do they twitch it?" The Herald's 
answer was short and crisp: "They do not! They holler through it!" 

A local census listed 106 colored persons in Cleveland. A cross-section 
of twenty heads of families, who were worth on an average $2,750, reflects 
their thrift and industry, as reported by Harry E. Davis in The Negro in 
Cleveland. 

With renewed spirit, the Second Presbyterian Church of Cleveland was 
organized on June 12 under a charter granted in 1837. Of the fifty-eight 
charter members, fifty-three had been associated with the overcrowded First 
Presbyterian Church, some of them pillars of the mother church, including 
Mr. and Mrs. T. P. Handy, Samuel H. and Emily W. Mather, Mrs. Martha 
Converse, Mrs. Mary H. Severance, Thomas N. Bond, Jarvis Leonard, Mrs. 
Francis E. Leonard, Erastus Freeman, S. I. Hamlen, Dr. and Mrs. David 
Long, and John L. Severance. The First Congregational house of worship 
on Rockwell Street was purchased for $3,671; and the Rev. Sherman B. 
Canfield, an Ohio City minister of dramatic power, was engaged. In 1852, 
an ornate, brown, sandstone edifice with brick sidewalls was erected on the 
south side of Superior, east of the Square (Crocker Block site), seating 
850 people, the largest capacity in the city. A slender, 195-foot steeple reached 
skyward, and the $6,000 organ was the pride of the congregation (later 
Church of the Covenant). 

It was announced on June 13 that there were 2,177 tf^^s "in Public Square 
and upon the edge of the sidewalks" within the city limits of the Forest City, 
not including those in graveyards. 

Firemen were often jeered and molested by citizens and bystanders. 
This led to feuds which sometimes broke out in open warfare. Accordingly, 



[1844] TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 195 

Council passed an ordinance requiring the marshal and every constable to 
attend all fires to preserve the peace. Citizens were required to obey orders 
and assist in fire-fighting, under penalty of a I5 fine and imprisonment. 
Refusal to help draw an engine meant a I5 fine. 

A five-day session of the Western Convention of Presbyterian and Congre- 
gational Ministers opened at the First Presbyterian Church on June 20. 
Bad roads reduced the attendance to about three hundred, but eleven 
states were represented. There was an appeal for church unity. A resolution 
proposed condemnation of slavery, and another opposed dancing as inj urious 
to religion. 

The famous Empire, a 260-foot passenger vessel, the first steamboat over 
a thousand tons and the largest in the United States, was built in Cleveland 
this year. It was a 1,200-ton side-wheeler, elaborately furnished, with a dining 
cabin on the upper deck, where service was directed by a chef. The Empire 




The Empire, 1,200 ton side-wheeler, built in Cleve- 
land, was the largest steamboat in the country. 

was the first lake boat equipped with fire engines. Staterooms and cabins 
were of the latest decoration, and Leland's Band entertained as the newest 
attraction in seafaring travel. Buffalo was now only twelve hours and forty- 
four minutes away from Cleveland at a fare of I5, which Clevelanders con- 
sidered excessive. 

The band organized by Jack Leland was the pride of Cleveland for many 
years. Heading processions and parades was the handsome band wagon, 
built in the city, and purchased by Barnum some years later for his circus. 

Robert Sanderson purchased the old Astor House from Joel Scranton, 
and moved it piece by piece from its original location on the west bank of the 
river to Hanover and Vermont streets on the West Side. Sanderson wrote 
that he found it "Full of hairs, from bottom to top," relics of fur-trading 
with the Indians, This was the oldest house in Cleveland, and the new 
owner used it first as a carpenter shop and then as a dwelling. 

Clevelanders scoffed at the newest lakefront improvement in the form 
of a pier built by John G. Stockley — or Stockly — at the foot of Bank Street. 
When completed, however, it withstood punishment of the fiercest gales, 
and steamboats docked continually. 

Cleveland's most famous Indian died on September 3, and funeral services 
were held at the Second Presbyterian Church. Joc-O-Sot, or Walking Bear, 
aged thirty-four, is said to have been a Sauk chief in the Black Hawk War. 



196 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1845] 

He had come to Cleveland in the thirties, accompanying Dr. Horace A. 
Ackley on fishing and hunting trips. When the game season ended, the chief 
joined Dan Marble, a theatrical promoter, in what is believed to have been 
an effort to earn money with which to assist his tribe. They toured the 
country and went abroad. Joc-O-Sot was a sensation in England, and was 
presented to young Queen Victoria, who had a full-length portrait made 
of him. An old bullet wound in his lung afflicted him; he fell ill and 
returned to the States, bent on spending his last days at his tribal home. 
By the time he reached Cleveland, he could go no farther, and he died 
near Stockley's pier, attended by his old friend. Dr. Ackley. He was buried 
in Erie Street Cemetery, where friends erected a tombstone and planted 
corn on his grave. 

Fire destroyed the Franklin House, but Philo Scovill rebuilt it and called 
it the New Franklin House. The handsome, five-story, brick hostelry boasted 
a hall and reading room with "tessellated marble floors," seventy-one bed- 
rooms, an attic cistern that furnished "soft water for washing," and "inside 
window blinds, a great improvement over outside shutters." In 1852, the 
famous hotel had been reduced to a boarding house, and Scovill had retired. 
In 1855, the house was closed and converted into stores. It was relieved of 
obscurity in 1938, when it was torn down to make way for the Terminal 
development. 

A library of five hundred volumes was purchased for Prospect Street School 
this year from the proceeds of a fair held by the pupils. Horace Mann, the 
famous eastern educator, selected the books that made up the first collection 
established in the pubHc schools. 

There were a number of musical events during the year : the Handel 
Society of Western Reserve College made an annual journey from Hudson. 
Touring musicians presented a Concert Extraordinary. Others who appeared 
were Madame Cinti Damoreau of the Opera Comique of Paris, Covert and 
Dodge, and the Misses Macomber of Boston. The Swiss Bell Ringers were 
regular favorites. During the year, the Cleveland Brass Band and the 
Quartette Club were formed. The city was advertised by the newspapers 
as one of the principal music centers of the West. 



1845 

The Brier Hill coal mines were opened near Youngstown this year by 
David Tod, Daniel P. Rhodes, and C. H. Andrews. Their output of fifty tons 
per week was brought to Cleveland by canal, where it found a market among 
the lake steamers. 

To bring order out of the loose era of wildcat banking and easy charter- 
granting, the State Bank of Ohio was incorporated by the Legislature on 
February 24. It was largely the product of the wisdom of Senator Alfred 
Kelley. Under the comprehensive Ohio Bank Act, a Board of Control 



[1845] TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 197 

functioned in Columbus, and branch banks were located in twelve districts. 
Members of the board were chosen from the branch banks, and they super- 
vised operation of the system and provided the branches with state currency. 
The act also governed the chartering of independent banks, banking opera- 
tions, and the issuing of paper money. The new system prevailed until the 
Civil War period, when the National Bank Act took from the States some 
of their power. 

Cleveland had reached a point where the natural water supply was con- 
sidered inadequate and inefficient. With the installation of the Cleveland 
Centre Water Works, a major improvement was undertaken. Spring water 
from Willeyville hill, west of the river, was captured in a well-type receptacle 
of timber and brick, and piped to a 13,800-gallon reservoir. More pipes 
carried it for five hundred feet down the river bank to a larger pipe that 
lay sheltered in a timber frame on the river bottom, and delivered it to 
Cleveland Centre on the other side — an amazing capacity of 1,600 barrels 
every twenty-four hours. 

Enrollment in the schools of Cleveland, as reported by School Manager 
Charles Bradburn in March, was 1,300 public-school students, 400 in private 
schools, and 800 children between the ages of four and eighteen not attending 
any school. As he had done in his annual report of 1844, Bradburn urged the 
founding of a high school; but although Council again turned a deaf ear, his 
deep interest in educational advancement never wavered. Teachers' salaries 
were restored to their former status this year. Kinsman School was built. 

An experiment was tried in Prospect Street School, when the two senior 
sections were united, and "for the first time . . . senior classes of both boys 
and girls were organized." General behavior improved, and why not? 

"Facilities for a thorough and practical course of instruction in every 
department of female education" were offered when E. Hosmer and his 
wife opened the Young Ladies' Institute about this time on Superior Street 
(near NBC Building site). Latin, algebra, geometry, composition, and music 
were taught, and five teachers were employed. 

The Fireman's Insurance Company having been liquidated under the 
Ohio Bank Act, its officers, Reuben Sheldon, president, and Theodoric C. 
Severance, secretary, organized the City Bank of Cleveland (later The 
National City Bank of Cleveland) . Its twenty-year charter was dated May 17, 
the first obtained under the provisions governing independent banks in Ohio, 
Sheldon was the first president, and Severance, cashier. On the board of 
directors were Elisha Taylor, dry-goods merchant; Moses Kelley, lawyer; 
and several Cleveland merchants. Capital stock of $50,000 had increased to 
$150,000 by 1850. 

The opening of the new City Bank on July i, in the old Fireman's quarters, 
marked a turning point in Cleveland commerce and fortune. Its officers were 
solid, dependable citizens, and good businessmen. Attendance at weekly 
meetings was enforced according to a bylaw, with a 50-cent fine for absence 
and 25 cents for a fifteen-minute tardiness. George Mygatt, a Warren and 
Painesville banker, became president in 1846, and was succeeded in 1850 



198 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1845] 

by Dr. Lemuel Wick of the Youngstown Wicks. In September, 1848, the 
bank moved to 21 Superior Street near Water Street, the business center of 
the city. The annual payroll included the cashier's salary, $1,200 maxi- 
mum; teller and bookkeeper, $1,000; president, $200 annually, in quarterly 
payments. 

The Plain Dealer became an evening daily, and moved to the Merchants 
Exchange Building on Bank Street. For the first time, a city ordinance 
designated a newspaper, the Plain Dealer, to do the municipal printing. 

Ground was broken in May at the southeast corner of St. Clair and Erie 
streets for the first medical building in Cleveland — a brick, four-and-a-half- 
story structure costing $20,000. The location was determined by proximity 
to the established site of the proposed United States Marine Hospital. Classes 




Cleveland Medical College, 
St. Clair and Erie streets. 



began on November 4 in the new home of the Medical Department of 
Western Reserve College, familiarly known as the Cleveland Medical College. 
The faculty was a notable addition to the community, some of them taking 
part in cultural activities, giving lectures and contributing to an illuminating 
and informative newspaper column relating to causes and treatment of 
physical ailments. An early graduate of both the Hudson and Cleveland 
schools was John S. Newberry of Cuyahoga Falls, who practiced medicine 
in Cleveland until 1855, when his remarkable scientific career commenced. 
Benjamin FrankHn Goodrich, pioneer of the Akron rubber industry, was 
a student in the medical school. Later expanding into two buildings, the 
school remained in this location until 1924. 

The Young Men's Literary Association was revived, emphasis being placed 
on library rather than literary features. Its first president was William Case. 

Envisioning the future of the Catholic Parish and the need for a church 
to the east, the Rev. Peter McLaughlin purchased from Thomas May four 
lots for $4,000 fronting on Superior and Erie streets. Some of his parishioners 
were so disturbed because he had bought land out "in the country" that he 
was obliged to resign a few years later. He was succeeded by the Rev, Maurice 
Howard. 



[1845] 



TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 



199 



The Canal Bank of Cleveland was organized as an independent bank 
with E. F. Gaylord, president; S. H. Mann, cashier; and John L. Severance, 
teller. Capital was $200,000. It opened in the Merchants Exchange and 
served canal shippers, principally. 

Erection of the New England Hotel, a crescent-shaped, five-story hostelry, 
was begun by G. M. Atwater at the corner of Superior and Merwin streets, 
and completed in 1847. A rival of the city's best hotels, it had accommodations 
for two hundred guests and was favored by commercial men. Captain 
Lorenzo A. Kelsey operated it for several years. Political orators put its 
balcony to good use. The hotel was destroyed in the great fire of 1854. 

Two branches of the nev/ State Bank of Ohio were allotted to Cleveland. 
The first, the Merchants Bank, opened on June 25 in the Atwater Block and 
was headed by P. M. Weddell. After a long career of service, it evolved into 




Lower Superior Street, 1846 (Drawn by Henry Howe). 

the Mercantile National Bank. Leading businessmen served as president — ■ 
Sherlock J. Andrews, T. M. Kelley, and Truman P. Handy. The second 
branch, the Commercial Branch Bank, also opened in the Atwater Block 
in January, 1846, with William A. Otis, president. Under the leadership of 
Handy, Dan P. Eells, Charles A. Otis, Sr., Joseph Colwell, and W. G. Mather, 
it ultimately became the National Commercial Bank after the turn of the 
century. 

Under the ministrations of the Rev. Richard Bury, who had served as 
rector of- Trinity Church since 1839, there had been such remarkable growth 
that Grace Church was organized on July 9, this year, in the parlor of the 
rectory. A brick house of worship was dedicated in 1848 at the corner of 
Erie and Huron streets, and the Rev. Alexander Varian was the first rector. 
Money to build the church was donated on condition that the seats should 
remain forever free. Known as the "People's Church," it was the first "free" 
church in Ohio. Prominent leaders were Dr. Horace A. Ackley, Moses 
Kelley, Thomas Bolton, and George F. Marshall. The Rev. E. W. Worthing- 
ton, rector from 1887 until his death in 1906, was revered by his congregation. 

Copper and iron had been discovered in commercial quantities along 



200 Cleveland: the making of a city [1845] 

the south shore of Lake Superior. Charles Whittlesey and a Detroit party 
spent two months in the field while the scientist made valuable observations 
in his search for copper deposits. Without knowing it, he passed over a 
region that he later found to contain enough iron ore for the needs of 
many decades. 

The first iron mine in the Lake Superior region was opened on the 
property of the Jackson Mining Company in the Marquette Range (near 
Negaunee), organized by Michigan men on July 23. Six decades later, the 
properties merged with The Cleveland-Clififs Iron Company, making the 
history of the Cleveland company and the development of the iron-ore 
ranges in northern Michigan a single document. 

A news item of July 24 announced a Temperance Play in Apollo Hall. 
"Each member of the company is a champion of temperance . . . Their 
manner of exhibiting to the people the way to make and become drunkards 
is lifelike, condensing into one evening the scenes of a lifetime." Spirited 
temperance plays were growing in popularity. Clevelanders found it hard 
to resist this powerful and sensational drama, and the theater business was 
greatly stimulated. Stars of the age trod the boards of the Apollo in melo- 
drama and sentimental comedy : "Eliza Logan and her father, the Davenport 
girls and their father, Christie Webb, A. A. Adams, Forrest, the elder 
Booth, starred it right in that little old smoky hall." There were laughs 
aplenty when favorite comedians came to town: Dan Marble with his 
Yankee characters, and Barney WiUiams and George Holland, two fun- 
makers. 

In August, Moses C. Younglove, job printer, brought the first steam 
printing press to Cleveland and set it up in the Herald office in the 
Merchants Exchange. The Plain Dealer contracted for a share in it. It was 
probably the second power press west of the Alleghenies. 

Now that John Baldwin's quarries in Berea assured him of financial 
success, he determxined to keep his covenant with God. At a session of the 
North Ohio Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Marion, Ohio, 
August 13, his offer to give considerable land and a building for a denomina- 
tional institution of learning in Berea was accepted. Current expenses for the 
first year were also assured through his generosity. A charter for Baldwin 
Institute (later Baldwin-Wallace College) was granted during the year, 
and on April 9, 1846, the preparatory school opened with one hundred 
students in a male and female department. Rich and poor were admitted with 
no racial distinction. Work opportunities were found in clearing the wood- 
lands, in the Baldwin stone quarry, and in local industry, such employment 
being regarded as excellent for students' total training. Holden Dwight, the 
first president, died during the opening year and was succeeded by Alfred 
Holbrook, acting president, and the Rev. Lorenzo Warner. 

It was announced on August 16 that J. H. Crittendon had built Empire 
Hall, a spacious, public auditorium seating six hundred people, at Superior 
and Bank streets. The sixteen-and-a-half-foot ceiling was an innovation, 
as improved ventilation was badly needed. 

Daguerreotypes were being made at 129 Superior Street at a cost of "from 



[1845] TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 201 

$1.50 to $2.00 each." The business-building advertisement continued: "Ladies 
and gentlemen will please call and examine specimens, and after sitting for 
portraits if not pleased as to art and life, will be at perfect liberty to leave 
them. Time required in 'setting,' five to sixty seconds." 

Lutheran missionaries, sent to America to gather together scattered 
adherents to the faith in the Middle West, joined the Ohio Synod. In a 
short time, however, they determined to leave it unless certain practices 
which they disapproved were abandoned. Their efforts failed, and at Concert 
Hall in Cleveland, meeting place of Zion Church, it was decided to send a 
delegation composed of Dr. William Sihler and the Rev. John Adam Ernst 
to St. Louis to confer with Lutheran pastors about the founding of a new 
synod. This led to subsequent meetings and founding of the Evangelical 
Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and other states, April 26, 1847, in 
Chicago. Among the twenty-two Lutheran pastors representing four 
thousand parishioners, were Cleveland leaders in the denomination: Rev. 
Frederick C. D. Wynekeen, pastor of Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church 
for many years; Dr. Henry C. Schwan, pastor of Zion Church and later 
elected synod president; Rev. John Adam Ernst and Rev. Frederick W. 
Husman, who served the South Euclid Church. A century later, the synod 
had grown to more than forty-seven hundred congregations with one and 
a half million adherents, one of the oldest and largest of the thirty-two 
Lutheran districts in the country. 

An advertisement in the Herald on October 14 indicated that some citizens 
took their politics rather seriously. Sam Austin had offered for sale a 
thousand-acre tract known as "Ann Stevens' land" in Mayfield; and he 
purchased space to say that the "proposed sale, owing to Polk's election, 
dry weather and other calamities, is postponed until the same time next fall." 

Cleveland had the only labor-saving machine in the West that could 
knead, cut, and stamp crackers ready for the oven. It reduced the price two 
cents per pound. 

W. S. and T. S. Beckwith opened a dry-goods store on Superior Street this 
year. In 1850, Frederick A. Sterling found employment with the firm. W. S. 
Beckwith retired in 1861, and George P. Welch became associated with the 
enterprise in 1866. The pioneer carpet and interior-decoration house moved 
to Euclid Avenue in 1874, taking over the Central Rink on the south side of 
the Square. The firm of Beckwith, Sterling & Company became Sterling, 
Welch & Company in 1889. With incorporation in 1902, F. A. Sterling 
became president and George P. Welch, first vice president. 

Thirteen devout Methodists assembled in a building at St. Clair and 
Water streets on November 23 to hear the first sermon preached by their 
minister, the Rev. E. H. Bure. This mission was the beginning of the First 
German Methodist Church. After several moves, a sanctuary was built on 
Erie Street and later exchanged for the Baptist Church at Scovill and 
Sterling, rebuilt and dedicated in 1894. A decade later, the congregation 
moved eastward again, as the community changed and the population drifted 
to the suburbs. In 1926, during the pastorate of Dr. Albert W. Marting, a 
beautiful structure was erected in Cleveland Heights, at Winsford and 



202 Cleveland: the making of a city [1846] 

Caledonia roads, for the church family which through years of transition 
came to be known as the Church of the Cross, one of the large Methodist 
churches in Greater Cleveland. The Rev. Earl R. Henderson became pastor 
in 1945. 

Although the Cleveland Academy of Natural Science (later The Cleveland 
Museum of Natural History) had its origin within the friendly walls of the 
Ark on the Public Square, it remained for Dr. Jared P. Kirtland to make 
the first move toward organization. On November 24, the first meeting was 
held in the college, and officers were elected: Dr. Kirtland, president; 
Sherlock J. Andrews, first vice president; Charles W. Heard, second vice 
president; William D. Beattie, third vice president; William Case, Hamilton 
L. Smith, Henry C. Kingsley, Rufus K. Winslow, Charles Whittlesey, and 
Drs. Samuel St. John, J. L. Cassels, and Kirtland, curators. A room in the 
college was provided for a museum, and furnishings and equipment were 
secured through a thousand-dollar subscription campaign and festival headed 
by Samuel Livingston Mather, newcomer to Cleveland. The medical men 
then transferred to the academy their scientific collections. Lectures were 
given during the winter months. Prominent members of the medical pro- 
fession who were members of the academy were Charles A. Terry, Jehu 
Brainard, Erastus Cushing, C. D. Brayton, Jacob J. Delamater, John S. 
Newberry, Horace A. Ackley, EHsha Sterling, Thomas G. Cleveland, and 
Theodatus D. Garlick. The latter was a scientist of note, who introduced 
fish culture into the United States. This was Cleveland's first scientific 
organization. 

Signor Antonini, Italian opera tenor, and Ole Bull, Norwegian violinist, 
gave the outstanding musical performances of the year. 

1846 

Andrew Freese had come to Cleveland from the East in 1840 and began 
teaching in the Prospect Street School. His rare ability was soon recognized 
by the school managers, and appointment as high-school principal was made 
wisely. As a boy, Andrew Freese was poor, with few advantages, and it 
was through kindness and sincerity that he became the close friend of the 
underprivileged as well as students of means. He encouraged in his pupils an 
appreciation of good books, regularity and dependability, the importance 
of writing correctly and speaking with ease. On the first high-school roster 
were the names of boys who would achieve honor and distinction. 

"Johnny," who lived down by the canal, was an example of Andrew 
Freese's searching and sympathetic interest. The boy came to school wearing 
wooden shoes. The schoolmaster soon found that he had brains, and to 
make it possible for him to attend, the principal bought his books. Soon 
Andrew Freese was going down to Johnny's miserable old house, and once 
he spent the night. The wind whistled through holes in the wall by his bed, 
but Johnny's mother covered them with a shawl, and gave thanks for their 



[1846] TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 203 

kind friend. Her boy was John P. Jackson, later of San Francisco, railroad 
president. In every walk of life, from the great to the lowly, from Cleveland 
to Hong-Kong, a legion of men and women remembered Andrew Freese, 
not only for his exceptional ability as an educator, but as "one who loves 
his fellow-men!" 

Oil lamps were destined for a final trimming with the organization of the 
Cleveland Gas Light & Coke Company on February 6. While this new 
wonder was a sign of metropolitan ambition, little progress was made until 
late in the decade, when Moses G. Younglove assumed control. 

Edward Hessenmueller launched the Germania, the first German news- 
paper in Cleveland. It continued until 1853. Hessenmueller, who came to 
Cuyahoga County in 1836 and moved to Cleveland in 1840, was the leading 
citizen of the large German population, and a prominent figure in Democratic 
politics and in civic movements. 

The persistent efforts of a handful of citizens found practical interest on 
the part of Cleveland's new mayor, George Hoadley, who in his inaugural 
address in the spring recommended that a high school be established — an 
"academic department," the pupils "to be taken from our common schools 
according to merit. This would present a powerful stimulus to study and 
good conduct," he observed. "The poorest child, if possessed of talents and 
application, might aspire to the highest station in the republic. From such 
schools we might hope to issue the future Franklins of our land." On March 
25, the Board of School Managers "voted to establish a high school as soon 
as practicable and appointed Andrew Freese, teacher, at $500 per year." 
Council then authorized the necessary funds. 

The report for the school year 1845-46 showed thirteen schools with an 
enrollment of fifteen hundred pupils, four male, and thirteen female teachers. 
Average daily attendance, however, was only 936, and this marked shortcom- 
ing was considered detrimental to efficient and effective teaching. "Some 
parents as well as the children," the school managers pointed out, "seem to 
think that what costs nothing is worth nothing." To remedy the situation, 
attendance laws were passed. 

A woolen mill was in operation at Doan's Corners; and about a mile to 
the north, I. N. Pillsbury had set up a steam carding machine in his estab- 
lishment to speed wool processing in dry weather. Improved manufacturing 
methods were constantly being sought. 

The St. Andrews Society was organized. May 5, a benevolent institution 
"to assist Scottish immigrants who lack in worldly gear." The first officers 
were George Whitelaw, president; Alexander Mcintosh and John McMillen, 
vice presidents; Robert Ford, David Mcintosh, James Robertson, William 
Bryce, and Alexander Paton, managers; Rev. S. C. Aiken, chaplain; Dr. J. L. 
Cassels, physician; James Proudfoot, the painter-poet, treasurer; James Dods, 
secretary. Many of the sturdy Scotch newcomers became pillars of the 
Presbyterian denomination, and they gave liberally of their skills and 
abilities to industry and the professions. 

President James Knox Polk signed the bill declaring war with Mexico on 
May 13. Company H, 15th United States Infantry, was raised jointly by 



204 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1846] 

Cleveland and Cincinnati. It served on Mexican soil, taking part in major 
engagements, and a number of deaths resulted. In August, 1848, it was 
mustered out of service. Leading Cleveland newspapers were divided in their 
attitude toward war measures, the Herald identifying itself with anti-war 
policies, and the Plain Dealer urging greater enlistments and all-out support 
of the administration. The papers had great difficulty in securing news from 
the war zone, not being able to afford correspondents. Consequently, dis- 
patches were often as much as three-weeks old when received in Cleveland. 

A union of the Israelitic and Anshe Chesed societies resulted in the 
formation of the Israelitic Anshe Chesed Society (later Euclid Avenue 
Temple) on May 15 in the Farmers Block, with sixty-two members. The 
first president was Frederick Goldsmith. This marked the beginning of the 
oldest Jewish congregation in Cleveland. The spirit of the times is reflected 
in a transaction in which Leonard Case, non-Jewish Cleveland philanthropist, 
presented to the new congregation a lot on Ohio Street in exchange for one 
on Eagle Street. Here the first synagogue, built at a cost of $1,500, was 
dedicated on August 7. In the basement, children were enrolled in English, 
German, and Hebrew departments. The character of Cleveland Jewry was 
molded by rabbis of the congregation. Rabbi Gustavus M. Cohen, who filled 
the pulpit from 1861 until 1873, when he became rabbi emeritus, exerted an 
influence far beyond Cleveland. Beloved in the community was the Rev. 
Dr. Michaelis Machol, who ministered from 1876 until 1907, when he was 
made rabbi emeritus. He pioneered in promoting interfaith understanding. 

The Board of School Managers engaged Silas L. Bingham as director of 
music in the public schools. Teaching children to sing as they were being 
taught to read had been widely discussed, and with much opposition. It 
was known that music had been introduced successfully into the Boston 
schools, and Lowell Mason of that city was invited to demonstrate publicly 
its practicability in Cleveland. Having instructed the schoolteachers briefly, 
and leaving a course of procedure with them, he returned home; but it 
was soon evident that a competent teacher must be employed to take charge. 
Bingham taught for a few months as an experiment, and was followed by 
J. H. Clark. Jarvis F. Hanks became instructor in the high school. In 1852, 
Bingham was re-employed, serving until 1858. Financial depression in 
business curtailed school expenses, and while special teachers of music and 
drawing were the first to be dismissed, the importance of these subjects had 
been fully established. 

Agitation of mechanics for a ten-hour day and wages in cash had spread 
from Massillon to Cleveland, and on June i an announcement stated that 
"a fraternal order for mechanics protection will meet Thursday next to elect 
a delegate to represent the order at Buffalo." It was not until March 13, 1848, 
that "the mechanics combined for the mutual protection of their rights." 

"One of the finest nurseries of apple trees in this vicinity was from seed 
saved by me and my brother, Timothy, Jr.," wrote Seth Doan. Fine orchards 
in Euclid and neighboring townships have their origin in seed preserved 
from a basket of apples purchased by Timothy in Detroit for two dollars. 

The Cleveland Board of Underwriters was organized on June 22, with 



[1846] TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 205 

Joseph L, Weatherly, president; C. C. Carlton, vice president; H. F. Bray ton, 
treasurer; and George May, secretary. Business was conducted from 
Weatherly's office for two years, when desk space was provided in the new 
Board of Trade rooms. In 1846, the only risk against which insurance was 
written was that of fire. The alliance of Cleveland agents was a recognition 
not only of the importance of insurance, but of the necessity for reasonable 
regulation of the business. Voluntary organizations like the one in Cleveland 
laid the groundwork for the Ohio Insurance Department, founded in 1870. 
Identity of the board changed from time to time, and, in 1926, the corporate 
name became Insurance Board of Cleveland, the oldest trade organization 
in the city. It served to interpret the public's insurance needs to member 
companies, to safeguard the best interests of policyholders, to improve the 
business of insurance, and to promote civic and community activities, with 
emphasis upon fire-and-accident prevention and improvements in building 
construction. At the one-hundredth annual meeting in 1946, John L. Meyer 
was re-elected president; George W. Phypers was re-elected vice president; 
and S. J. Horton, executive secretary and treasurer, was named for his 
twenty-seventh term. 

Basement rooms were rented in a church on Prospect Street (between 
East 8th and East 9th), and on July 13 a high school for boys (later Central 
High School) was opened with thirty-four students. Andrew Freese was 
principal, and it was one of the earliest free public high schools west of the 
Alleghenies. Although the rooms were miserably damp and dark, and the 
facilities generally inadequate, the attendance was eighty-three before the 
end of the year. 

Numerous plunderings by horse thieves roused the citizens to action; and 
at a meeting in the Court House on August 29, the vigilantes organized a 
band that became the Cuyahoga County Anti-Horse Stealing Club, headed 
by Ahimaaz Sherwin. Money was raised "to be used in recovery of any horses 
that may be stolen from those present." The first trotting and pacing track 
was built this year along Woodland between Perry and Brownell streets. 

Dr. J. Lang Cassels, mineralogist and medical-college professor, was sent 
by Cleveland men to explore the Lake Superior region for evidence of 
copper and silver. Learning of newly found iron deposits in the Marquette 
Range, he located a claim, calUng it "Cleveland Mountain" (later Ishpeming) 
for his Cleveland backers. Dr. Cassels was one of the first to study Lake 
Superior iron ore, and the industry was founded upon his assays. He also 
made one of the earliest recorded studies on the theory of water pollution 
as the cause of typhoid fever. 

Traffic had grown to such proportions that a new bridge was needed at 
Columbus Street in the "Flats"; but the memory of the bridge war a decade 
earlier prevented co-operation between Cleveland and Ohio City. However, 
the bridge had to be built, and the County built it. In 1870 an iron bridge 
replaced the old structure. Columbus Street was one of the leading 
thoroughfares. 

Forty-five adherents to the faith met in the American House on October 26 
and organized St. Paul's Episcopal Parish, twenty-nine of them pledging 



206 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1847] 

$937 toward the first-year's support of the church. Benjamin Andrews, Moses 
Kelley, OHver A. Brooks, George A. Benedict, Thomas Bolton, E. T. SterHng, 
D. W. Cross, and George A. Tisdale were among the founders. The Rev. 
Gideon B. Perry was called as the first rector, and services were held in a 
public hall until 1848, when a frame church was erected on the southwest 
corner of Sheriff and Euclid Street. Many complained it was "so far east." 
Before the building was completed, it burned. The entire city helped to 
raise funds for the handsome Gothic brick structure with a tall spire that 
opened in 1851. It had one of the finest organs in Cleveland. In 1858, it was 
consecrated, free of debt. 

Elijah Feet's Business Directory of the City of Cleveland for i8^6-y 
afforded a glimpse of the young community of 10,135 inhabitants and 1,814 
families. Four banks flourished with a combined capital of about $750,000, 
and there were nineteen "Principal Hotels and Boarding Houses." The city's 
wealth lay in its trade and navigation. Eighty-five vessels with a total tonnage 
of 13,493 ^°^^ were owned in Cleveland; 638 seamen were employed. Statistics 
for 1845 showed exports to Canada valued at $274,375; imports, $10,581.86. 
Coastwise exports, $4,128,102.75; imports, $5,137,347.84. Vessel arrivals totaled 
2,136; 14,895 passengers landed from Buffalo. Five vessels were built, with a 
total of 2,181 tons. Five stages ran daily, connecting with Pittsburgh, 
Columbus, Cincinnati, Detroit, and Buffalo. There were thirteen year-round 
public schools; seventeen teachers instructed the 1,500 children enrolled. 
Men teachers received $10 per week, and women, $4 to $5. Ten private schools 
enrolled 500 pupils. Peet's classified lists showed 18 clergymen, 47 attorneys, 
31 physicians and surgeons, 28 dry-goods merchants, 87 grocers, 10 wholesale 
grocers, 5 hardware merchants, 7 druggists, 4 jewelers, 16 boot, shoe, and 
leather stores, 19 drapers and tailors, 14 dressmakers, 5 tailoresses, 4 saddle- 
and-harness makers, 5 carriage and wagon makers, and 8 cabinet makers. 
There were 4 confectioners, 6 bakers, and 4 breweries. This is a resume of 
Cleveland's second city directory, published with the generous financial help 
of the City Council, amounting to $30. 



1847 

Higher education came within the reach of young women when prominent 
Lake County citizens planned the Willoughby Female Seminary at Wil- 
loughby, Ohio. Mary Lyon, founder of the Mt. Holyoke (Massachusetts) 
Female Seminary in 1837, interested herself in the project and helped to 
select the faculty for the new school that opened this year. A destructive 
fire in 1856 checked its progress, but devoted founders contributed to its 
rebuilding in Painesville, Ohio. It reopened as Lake Erie Female Seminary 
(later Lake Erie College) with Lydia Sessions of the Mt. Holyoke faculty 
as principal. 

The use of letheon, or ether, as a general anesthetic was first demonstrated 
publicly in Boston in October, 1846. Three months later, in mid-January 



[1847] TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 207 

this year, Dr. Horace A. Ackley amputated a leg under full anesthesia with 
letheon, in the Medical Department of Western Reserve College in Cleveland. 
On January 30, Dr. Benjamin Strickland's advertisement announced that he 
and a fellow surgeon-dentist would use the new anesthetic in extracting teeth. 

Thomas Alva Edison, genius of electrical invention, was born at Milan, 
Ohio, on February 11. The humble birthplace remained standing a century 
later. 

Charles Bradburn, George Willey, and earnest school managers who had 
fostered the high-school project were about to see it threatened with collapse. 
Taxpayers were divided as to the necessity for high-school education, many 
favoring common schools only. A fighting opposition led by Henry B. 
Payne, Harvey Rice, and John Erwin, attacked the legality of the school 
and the necessity for it, and Payne demanded that it be discontinued until 
every child should have received a thorough common-school education. The 
"High School Question" enlivened debates, consumed considerable news- 
paper space, and was a sure-fire, mass-meeting attraction for pros and cons. 
Bradburn, T. P. Handy, Samuel Starkweather, and William Day constituted 
the Board of School Managers that recommended that the Council continue 
the new system as the only way in which the public schools "can be made 
in truth what they are in name, common schools — common to all; good 
enough for the rich, and cheap enough for the poor — such schools as will 
meet the wants of all classes in the community." Council took no action, 
but permitted the school to continue until the following winter, when legis- 
lative enactment "authorized and required" the City Council to establish and 
maintain a high-school department, and levy a special tax for the purchase of 
land and the erection of school buildings. East St. Clair School, a grade 
school, was built this year. 

In the spring, a class for girls was opened in the high school, and Catherine 
Jennings of Oberlin College was engaged as the first woman teacher at an 
annual salary of $250. Fourteen girls were admitted. Attendance was irregular, 
probably because of home duties, and on April 19 Principal Freese evidenced 
doubt as to the wisdom of the new policy. 

The Most Rev. John Baptist Purcell, bishop of Cincinnati, petitioned the 
Holy See for a division of the Diocese of Cincinnati, as the rapid growth 
of the State now required two bishops. On April 23 of this year, the Diocese 
of Cleveland was created, embracing about one-third of the State, north of a 
line drawn at 40° 40'. The Rev. Amadeus Rappe, the "missionary of the 
Maumee," was consecrated as bishop at Cincinnati on October 10. A few 
days later, he took up his duties in Cleveland as the first bishop, serving a 
Catholic population estimated at ten thousand. He lived for some months in 
a rented house near the Haymarket (east end of Lorain-Carnegie Bridge). 

The first Superior Court was created to relieve pressure in the Common 
Pleas Court. Sherlock J. Andrews presided during its five years of existence; 
it was discontinued with the revision of the judiciary system under the new 
state constitution. 

Peter Martin Weddell, one of the best-known and most successful men in 
the Western Reserve, died on May 7, aged fifty-nine. A builder of business, 



208 



CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 



[1847] 

banks, and railroads, he had accumulated wealth, and he provided generously 
in his will for foreign missions and benevolent societies. In his lifetime, he 
had aided many young men, and a number of Clevelanders owed their 
advancement to his generous interest. In the midst of heavily timbered land 
on Euclid Street (east of East 30th, extending from Payne to Central), he 
had built his country home, Oakland Cottage, and cleared a farm. 

June 25 marked a great occasion in Cleveland, the opening of the Weddell 
House. Two years before, Peter M. Weddell tore down the store that had 
made him wealthy and laid the cornerstone of the "Astor House of the 
Lakes," the four-story, sandstone-and-brick hotel on the northwest corner 
of Superior and Bank streets, built by George P. Smith. Weddell purchased 
"sumptuous" furniture and furnishings in the East, and Tiffany made the 




Weddell House, most famous of Cleveland's early hotels 
and scene of many of the city's important gatherings. 

tableware. While Jerry Coon, the first tenant, had opened his jewelry store 
on the Superior side a year or so before, the hotel was not entirely completed 
until this time. The inaugural was marred, however, by the death of the 
pioneer merchant in May, and his son, Horace P., completed the task, A. S. 
Barnum became the new landlord. The crowning feature of the Weddell 
House was an octagonal cupola and promenade, affording citizens an ex- 
tensive view of the city. Presidents and statesmen spoke from its balcony. 
Soldiers and poets of wealth and fame were its guests. The ballroom was the 
scene of colorful social gatherings and civic celebrations, and business insti- 
tutions made the hotel their headquarters. A philosophical inscription in 
the dining room read: 

Man's life is like a winter's day; 
Some only breakfast and away; 
Others to dinner stay and are full fed; 
The oldest but sups and goes to bed. 
Long is his life who lingers out the day, 
Who goes soonest has the least to pay. 



[1847] TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 209 

Visitors came from a distance to enjoy bountiful meals, finding common 
warmth and cheer before the big fireplace. 

The First Universalist Church of North Olmsted originated in the 
church society organized in 1834 by the Rev. Harlow P. Sage. Early members 
represented the principal families of Olmstead Township — the Ames, Beebes, 
Blakes, Carpenters, Coes, Fitches, Glutzbaughs, Hands, Henrys, Hunting- 
tons, Hurds, Kennedys, Rices, Sterns, Thompsons, Tuttles, and Underbills. 
Through earnest effort and sacrifice, Universalists, Methodists, and Pres- 
byterians erected a union New England meeting-house this year in the 
village (near Butternut Ridge, at Lorain and Porter roads). Wooden pegs 
held hand-hewn logs together, and stone foundation blocks were hand- 
finished. Land on which the building stood was finally deeded to trustees 
of the First Church in 1880. A sunken stone porch and columns in the 
front were removed in 1881, and Sunday School rooms were added. Coe's 
Memorial Hall, a parish house erected in 1928 by Asher M. Coe, was a 
monument to his devotion to church and community. In the 1930s, the 
Historic American Buildings Survey of the Department of the Interior rec- 
ommended that the landmark be preserved for its exceptional historic and 
architectural interest. Church trustees conveyed title to the Ohio Universalist 
Convention in 1943. In 1946, the Rev. Heber R. Robinson, pastor, was 
directing plans for re-dedication of the venerable house of worship, one 
of the oldest churches in the Western Reserve. 

Patrick Smith, twenty, purchased his first dredge and began to remove 
mud and sand from the shallow channel of the crooked Cuyahoga on a 
wholesale basis. The dredge was crude, operated by horsepower, and slow 
progress was made. Working the river was possible for only about half 
the year. Five years later. Smith purchased his first steam dredge. Business 
of "Patrick Smith, Dredging and Contracting" expanded steadily, and six 
years later the equipment included four pile drivers and four dredges. 

Heman B. Ely, who supervised the building of the telegraph line of the 
Lake Erie Telegraph Company, received authorization of the City Council 
in the summer to extend its Pittsburgh line through Cleveland. On August 
30, the Cleveland office opened in the Weddell House; and on January 19, 
1848, the line was in operation from Buffalo to Detroit and from Cleveland 
to Pittsburgh. Jeptha H. Wade was instrumental in the construction. The 
"Lake Line" became a part of the basis of the future capital of the Western 
Union Telegraph Company. 

The superintendent, clerk, and operator of the telegraph in Cleveland 
was Charles Edward Wheeler, twenty-four. In a letter he stated: "I can tell 
you a telegraph man is quite a celebrated character. People stop and point 
him out. The worst part of it is that when I try to explain the principle, 
folks do not understand me. Most people have an idea a man has to be 
especially fitted by nature to enter the profession." Wheeler's equipment 
was a wire, a transmitter on a kitchen table, and a short, wooden shelf for 
patrons. 

Jeptha H. Wade, portrait painter, whose future and fortune were to be 
linked closely with Cleveland, had become interested in the Morse telegraph 



210 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1848] 

and undertook to build a line from Detroit to Jackson, Michigan, center of 
the newly discovered iron-ore operations. Having completed it this year, he 
installed an instrument and inaugurated the first telegraphic service in that 
region. 

It was reported on September i that "compliments" had been sent to 
Cincinnati via the new magnetic telegraph, a "most astonishing achievement 
of the human intellect." The method of communication was a great boon 
to the newspapers. 

As early as 1822, the Methodists of Rockport had met to worship in log 
cabins, with William Jordan on Lorain Street, or in the homes of the Gid- 
dings, Mastick, Stearns, Spencer, Wright, Peas, Dean, and Higley families. 
This year, they erected a log-studded sanctuary west of the mouth of Rocky 
River (3300 Wooster Road). The first minister was the Rev. O. Sheldon. 
Through decade after decade the sturdy meeting house served a changing 
community that became Rocky River, but it retained its early-day identity, 
Rockport Methodist Church. The centennial celebration centered in plans to 
preserve the original pegged-log building as the wing of a new colonial-type 
church, to be erected under the leadership of the Rev. Howard Jay Wiant. 

The township of East Cleveland was organized this year, embracing "all 
of the one-hundred-acre lots of the original surveyed township No. 7, north of 
the Newburgh line." In 1850 Judge Jacob Collamer was appointed postmaster 
for the district. The office not only took his name, Collamer Post Office, 
but the community continued, unofficially, to be identified as Collamer. 

James Kingsbury, "among the last of the brave pioneers," died at his 
Newburgh home on December 12, aged eighty. A friendly counsellor and 
able leader, he served in the Ohio Legislature and held a high place in 
developing Cleveland and the Western Reserve. 



1848 

Cleveland was the center of a far-flung agricultural district when Thomas 
Brown founded the Ohio Farmer, "a family paper, devoted to agriculture, 
science, literature, social improvement, &c." Upon its predictions and wise 
counsel were based much of the farmer's planting and harvesting until the 
coming of the scientific age. Through its columns, farm families kept pace 
with new products, processes, and developments. The weekly had a number 
of owners and sufifered hard times; but it survived and grew in circulation 
as a strong influence in rural life. Men who gained prominence in agriculture 
were identified with the paper. Walter H. Lloyd was its editor from 1923 
to 1942; and L. L. Rummell, later dean of the College of Agriculture of 
Ohio State University and director of the Wooster Experiment Station, was 
a staff member for two decades. Ray T. Kelsey succeeded Lloyd as editor. 

Five stages departed from the Franklin House every morning at eight 
o'clock "at the blast of the bugle and the crack of the driver's whip": to 
Buffalo, Pittsburgh via Beaver, Cincinnati via Columbus, Detroit via Toledo 



[1848] TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 211 

and Warren via Parkman. There was keen competition between the 
Pioneer Fast Line, the Pittsburgh Phoenix, and the MaiL 

The Cleveland, Painesville & Ashtabula Railroad (later New York Cen- 
tral), incorporated in February, was the first step in forging the connecting 
link in a Chicago-to-Buflfalo through route. Heman B. Ely was president, 
and Abel Kimball, treasurer. Although the City of Cleveland pledged its 
credit for a loan of |ioo,ooo to aid the project, financing was difficult, and 
problems were surmounted through the executive genius of Alfred Kelley 
and William Case. Frederick Harbach, Amasa Stone, and Stillman Witt 
were employed to build the road in 1850, and, finally, in 1852, a locomotive 
traveled the entire length. 

In order to achieve its literary ambitions, the Young Men's Literary 
Association was incorporated in February as the Cleveland Library Associa- 
tion with two hundred shares of stock at $10 each. The parent organization 
turned over its library, and for a few years offered an annual series of 
lectures. The library (later Case Library), a reading room, a museum, and a 
lecture series were maintained. Headquarters were in the Seneca Block 
(Superior and West 3rd), then in the Herald Building, and, in 1856, at 
221 Superior Street. Leaders in the new intellectual movement were Wil- 
liam Case and Charles Whittlesey. 

Five trustees of St. John's African Methodist Episcopal Church purchased 
a lot on Bolivar Street, east of Erie, on February 14, for $300, three of them 
signing the deed with "X" marks. The Rev. S. T. Jones was the earliest 
resident pastor of record. Financial strength and membership grew slowly, 
and in 1878 a "commodious" church and parsonage were erected on Erie 
Street, north of Central. 

"Laboring females" began airing their grievances, claiming that men were 
employed to do one kind of work, and that their ten-hour day produced 
wages of $1.25 to $1.75. On the other hand, women performed many tasks, 
their day was one-fourth longer, and they earned 75 cents to $1.50 a week, 
including board and lodging. The scale was too low, they protested. 

The need for commercial education was recognized in the founding of 
Union College, the first of the Bryant & Stratton business-college chain, at 
the corner of Superior and Seneca streets. Piatt R. Spencer of Geneva, Ohio, 
was soon employed as a writing teacher, and his Spencerian system of pen- 
manship was taught in the nation's schools for many years. In 1887, Messrs. 
Spencer, Felton, and Loomis purchased the school, changing the name to 
Spencerian Business College (later Spencerian College). Henry T. Loomis, 
text-book publisher, became the head in 1895. 

The Theatre Comique, built by G. Overacher on the south side of Frank- 
fort Street, west of Bank, prospered until competition of the Academy of 
Music in 1853 proved disastrous. It then became a variety house, operated by 
Adolph Montpellier until he retired. In this theater, Clara Morris, famous 
actress, made her debut. 

The Water Street Theater was built this year by John S. Potter, offering a 
choice of seats in the spacious pit, two tiers of boxes, and four private boxes. 
Fire destroyed the theater in 1850. 



212 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1848] 

Opposition to growing interest in the theater was expressed by some of 
the newspapers of the day, one editor declaring that theatrical nuisances 
should be driven from the city and the theater turned into a house of 
worship. The Herald and the Plain Dealer, however, favored the trend in 
entertainment and encouraged it. 

Music and culture gained momentum with the founding of the Frohsinn 
by German music-lovers. In their beer halls and singing societies, where old- 
world customs were preserved, these newcomers to Cleveland enjoyed 
fellowship and found seclusion from severity of New England traditions. 

Early-day artists found it difficult to make a living. Nevertheless, occa- 
sionally there is evidence of worthy achievement. According to a New 
York newspaper, "Allen Smith, Jr., a Cleveland portrait painter, has been 
awarded one of the Art Union prizes, the subject of his painting, the Young 
Mechanic." S. Heine had painted the Public Square in 1839; and Joseph 
Gregory and Julius Gollman were contemporary portrait painters. 

While the existence of the first high school was assured, smoldering 
opposition flared at the spring election. A small plurality defeated Charles 
Bradburn in the race for mayor; and although the friends of the high 
school succeeded in electing their candidates to the Council, the old mem- 
bers had dropped Bradburn, the "father of the Cleveland schools," from the 
Board of School Managers. 

Until 1852, Andi'ew Freese and Catherine Jennings struggled to keep the 
high school operating on an annual budget of $900 allowed them by the 
penny-pinching Council; and of that, I750 constituted their salaries. To 
provide needed apparatus and supplies, the boys earned the money by 
surveying, giving lectures, doing odd jobs, and editing a monthly paper, 
which they sold. They built a small brick laboratory. Seeing that the boys 
"could help themselves," Leonard Case, Sr., took a personal interest. On 
one occasion he wrote a letter "To the Boys in the Basement," enclosing 
a worthy donation with his regrets "that he could not attend their lectures 
in chemistry, being 'too lame to get up there.' " 

The amazing performances of diminutive "General" Tom Thumb in May 
were remembered for many a day. He was then twenty-eight inches high 
and weighed fifteen pounds. Small boys trailed him as he paraded the 
streets daily with his tiny horses and miniature equipage, the gift of 
Queen Victoria. 

Cleveland merchants met at the Weddell House on July 7 in the evening 
to establish the Board of Trade (later The Cleveland Chamber of Com- 
merce). Grain-shipping interests from Cleveland to the eastern markets had 
become so important that there was need of handling business transactions 
with greater speed and efficiency. William Milford presided, and S. S. Coe 
was appointed secretary. The purpose of the meeting having been stated, 
on motion of Joseph L. Weatherly it was "Resolved: that the merchants 
of this city now organize themselves into an association, to be called the 
Board of Trade of the City of Cleveland." The first officers were Joseph 
L. Weatherly, president; William F. Allen, Jr., vice president; Charles W, 
Coe, secretary; Richard T. Lyon, treasurer. Prominent members included 



[1848] TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 213 

Richard Hilliard, L. M. Hubby, Philo Chamberlain, Charles Hickox, Thomas 
Walton, S. S. Stone, R. K. Winslow, W. F. Otis, and Sheldon Pease. At 
first the board confined its work to the furnishing of daily market reports. 
The Board of Trade was the second commercial organization of its kind 
in Ohio and one of the earliest in the nation. It was the first to promote 
Cleveland's commerce and welfare. S. F. Lester was elected president in 
1864, and Philo Chamberlain in 1865. Succeeding secretaries were H. B. 
Tuttle, 1854; C. W. Coe, i860; H. B. Tuttle, 1862; Arthur H. Quinn, 1864; 
and J. C. Sage, 1865. 

Wick, Otis & Brownell opened a private banking business on the corner 
of St. Clair and Bank streets. In the partnership were Henry Wick, Jr., Hugh 
B. Wick, W. A. Otis, W. F. Otis, and A. C. Brownell. The interests 
changed hands until 1857, when Wick owned the firm. Henry Wick & 
Company played a large part in the building of Cleveland until 1891, when 
the Wick Banking & Trust Company was organized, with Henry Wick, 
president; Dudley Baldwin, vice president; and D. B. Wick, treasurer and 
cashier. The City Trust Company took over the business in 1901, and 
operated for only a year. 

David B. Dunham of Bedford leased the Cleveland Temperance House 
(Hotel Cleveland site), that had been badly damaged by fire in 1845. On 
the site he built a four-story brick hotel, opening it in style on July 18 as the 
Dunham House. It was enlarged in 1850, and W. S. Streator and H. Doolittle 
acquired interests. 

According to the diary of James A. Garfield, the seventeen-year-old lad 
spent two exciting months working for his cousin aboard a Pennsylvania 
& Ohio canal boat during the summer. Leaving Cleveland on August 16 
with a 52-ton load of copper ore, they unloaded at Pittsburgh on the 
twenty-eighth. On the return trip, they took aboard 60 tons of coal at 
Youngstown on the thirtieth, unloading at Cleveland on September 2. 
Young Garfield's trip was enlivened by his falling overboard fourteen times 
and narrowly escaping drowning, for he could not swim. He was employed 
to make the locks ready, see that the boat went through, trim the lamps, 
and serve as general handy-man, at $14 a month. During the two months, 
Garfield records, "we transported 240 tons of stone coal and forty tons of 
iron to Cleveland and 52 tons of copper ore, 150 barrels of salt, 10 thousand 
laths, and 1,000 feet of lumber from Cleveland to different places along the 
canal." A round trip to Pittsburgh took almost a month. Aside from pro- 
viding an interesting account of the early experience of a notable American, 
the record affords illuminating insight into pioneering trade that was to 
give two growing industrial cities their foundations for greatness. 

Lots on Bond Street, at the corner of St. Clair, were purchased this year 
by Bishop Amadeus Rappe. On them he built several frame houses and a 
large brick residence. In September he opened St. Mary's Seminary in a 
building that had been a stable at the rear of his home. Father Louis 
DeGoesbriand was the first superior, and ten theological students were en- 
rolled. In 1850 Spring Cottage on Lake Street was purchased, affording 
more suitable quarters. An enlarged building, between Lake Street and 



214 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1848] 

Hamilton, was ready for the occupancy of St. Mary's College in Sep- 
tember, i860. 

On the lots purchased by Father McLaughlin for the Catholic Church 
at Superior and Erie streets, Bishop Rappe erected a temporary church 
and school. It was the Church of the Nativity, used on weekdays for 
classes, the first parochial school in Cleveland. 

Earnest missionary efforts of Friedrich Kaufholz, a foundry foreman, 
brought together a little prayer group, known as the Congregation of 
Brethren, that raised a small house of worship on Tracy Street. The first 
chapel on the West Side in which services in the German language were 
conducted, it was dedicated on September 17. Upon the leader's death in 
1859, the Rev. H. J. Ruetenik, traveling missionary, was engaged as 
pastor of the independent church, which united with the Reformed Ger- 
man denomination as the First Reformed Church. It flourished, and a new 
building was dedicated at Penn and Carroll streets in 1863. In the later 
sixties, the Second Church on the East Side was organized, due partly to Rev. 
Ruetenik's activities. As members were living in the South Side, forty 
of them were dismissed to form the nucleus of Fourth Church in 1872, 
which continued to serve in 1946 from its location at Woodbridge and 
West 32nd Street. Fifth Church, an offspring in 1876, was ministering from 
Hague Avenue at West 67th Street seven decades later. English services 
were introduced in the First Church in 1901 by the Rev. F. W. Leich. The 
Rev. John Sommerlatte became pastor in 1920, and he inspired plans for 
an impressive church home at Warren Road and Alger Avenue, Lake- 
wood. In 1946, his vision and enthusiasm continued to guide the historic 
First Evangelical and Reformed Church, as it was now known. 

Linda T. Guilford, trained at the Mt. Holyoke Female Seminary, arrived 
by boat from Buffalo in October, and two days later opened the Young 
Ladies Seminary in the Temperance Pavilion, formerly the Farmers Block. 
The new principal was fired with a keen interest in higher education for 
women; and with her exceptional background, young women were given 
opportunities almost equal with those of nearby colleges. The seminary 
soon moved to its own building (Osborn Building site), and the Pavilion 
went out of business in 1850. 

Near soft-water springs in a wooded glen ( Wallingford Court and East 
51st) Dr. Thomas T. Seelye opened his famous Cleveland Water Cure 
establishment on October 9. The three-story brick sanitarium, nestled in a 
natural setting, developed with lovely landscaping, curving walks, and 
drives, was the finest in the West. Medical men frowned disapprovingly 
upon the pioneer hydropathic venture that was designed to serve a large 
number of patients. After a successful career, the doctor went to Florida in 
1885, and the resort was razed. 

Shaw Academy in Euclid Township (later Shaw High School) had 
suffered from competition of Cleveland free schools and an unfortunate 
succession of principals, and it had been virtually abandoned to destructive 
children and thievery when Joseph B. Meriam, twenty-one, and newly gradu- 
ated from Western Reserve College, agreed to assume charge. The Rev. 



[1849] TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 215 

William Beecher, president of the board of trustees and brother of Henry 
Ward Beecher, had promised to put the building in repair; but when 
Meriam arrived by stage from Hudson on October 20, nothing had been 
done because there was no money. Pride dictated that he invest his last few 
dollars in materials, and he spent the weekend making repairs with the 
assurance that he could have the building as a private school. Rev. Beecher's 
complimentary announcement to his Presbyterian congregation produced 
three of his own children, three from the Ezekiel Adams home, and Kate 
Luster for enrollment as students on Monday morning. Pupils helped with 
the reconstruction, and at the end of the term forty names were on the 
roll. 

The Catholic population of Cleveland had reached four thousand, and 
Bishop Rappe saw the need for a second church. On the corner lot at Superior 
and Erie Streets, the cornerstone of St. John's Cathedral was laid on 
October 29. 

Moses G. Younglove and John Hoyt built a paper mill in Cleveland that 
was the first west of the mountains to employ steam power. The Cleveland 
mill and others were united later as the Cleveland Paper Company, the 
first of that name, of which Younglove was president until 1867, when he 
sold his interest most profitably. 

The homeopathic profession was enjoying wide acceptance, and this year 
the Cuyahoga County Homeopathic Society was organized. On its roster of 
presidents were the names of prominent Clevelanders : Drs. S. R. Beck- 
with, T. P. Wilson, George H. Blair, Hamilton F. Biggar, H. B. VanNorman, 
G. J. Jones, J. H. Stevens, David H. Beckwith, F. H. Barr, and A. L. Waltz. 

An item in the Plain Dealer on November 9 announced a "plan to close 
all stores at eight o'clock instead of ten" in order that the citizens "might 
devote a portion of their time to mental improvement and the study of 
branches holding a near relation to their employment." During the winter 
months, when business was slow, waterways were closed, and evenings 
were long, lecture courses provided a profitable and inspiring way to pass 
the time. 

More than half of Cleveland's population, estimated at 13,696, was of 
American birth, according to this year's city directory, which gave the first 
nationality analysis: United States, 8,451; Germany, 2,587; Ireland, 1,024; 
England, 1,007; Scotland, 176; Isle of Man, 148; Canada, 145; France, 66; 
Wales, 62. Poland, Prussia, Holland, and several other countries were repre- 
sented by less than 10 each. 



1849 

Subjects taught in the schools included the alphabet, reading, spelling, 
intellectual arithmetic, geography, natural history, music, penmanship, gram- 
mar, and composition. The high-school course had, in addition, "intellectual 
algebra," physiology, chemistry, natural philosophy, bookkeeping, and geom- 



216 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1^49] 

etry. The "useful and beautiful art" of drawing was introduced this year. 
This was the blackboard era, when entire classes marched up to the wide, 
long boards to display their knowledge in exercises and drills. Uniformity 
in school rules, texts, and study courses was attempted unsuccessfully. 

Bishop Rappe consecrated St. Joseph's Cemetery on January 22. It was the 
first Catholic burying ground, and it comprised fifteen acres on Woodland 
Avenue (and East 79th). 

Seabury Ford of Geauga County, who practiced extensively in the Cleve- 
land courts, was elected governor of Ohio. 

In a comprehensive "lead" article appearing March 10, the True Democrat 
complimented the city on the "good taste and neatness exhibited in the 
building of dwelling houses, and the proper adornment of grounds. Euclid 
Street is becoming one of the most beautiful avenues in the whole land." The 
massive stone house recently built by Henry B. Payne at the northeast corner 
of Euclid- and North Perry streets was cited as an outstanding example of 
enduring architecture and elegance. In this fine, gabled residence with its 
stone-railed portico, railroads were planned. Civil War reconstruction was 
thought through, and political strategy was developed. A century of Cleveland 
growth and progress passed in review before the house was razed in 
the early 1940s. The Payne home was designed by Charles W. Heard, 
son-in-law of Jonathan Goldsmith, well-known Painesville architect. The 
homes of Charles M. Giddings and Sherlock J. Andrews were also his work. 

When Charles Francis Brush was born on a farm in Euclid Township on 
March 17, a new source of illumination called gas had just been developed. 
As one of the world's foremost scientists, he was destined not only to im- 
prove gas lighting, but to outmode it through his inventive genius. 

The success and benefits of the New England savings banks had captured 
the interest of Samuel H. Mather and Charles J. Woolson, who enlisted the 
practical support of leading businessmen in securing an institution for 
Cleveland. On March 22 the Society for Savings in the City of Cleveland 
was incorporated by act of the Legislature, thus creating a co-operative 
society, in the broadest sense — "a benevolent institution, without capital, 
managed by trustees without salary, in the interest of depositors only, to 
whom profits are paid, or for whose benefit they are accumulated and re- 
served." It is interesting to note the absence of the word "bank" in early 
savings-bank charters, their function as benevolent and not money-making 
institutions being interpreted as "Institutions for Savings," "Societies for 
Savings," and "Savings Fund Societies." 

The incorporators of the Society for Savings were Nathan Brainard, James 
H. Bingham, James A. Briggs, Henry W. Clark, Ralph Cowles, John A. Foot, 
James Gardner, John H. Gorham, Lewis Handerson, Josiah A. Harris, 
Morgan L. Hewitt, Joseph Lyman, Samuel H. Mather, William A. Otis, 
Alexander Seymour, Daniel A. Shepard, and Charles J. Woolson. On June 
18 the Society was organized and the first officers were elected: John W. 
Allen, president; Reuben Hitchcock, Dudley Baldwin, and F. W. Bingham, 
vice presidents; J. F. Taintor, treasurer; and S. H. Mather, secretary. The 




Solon L. Severance 



Charles Whittlesey 



Amasa Stone 




William B. Castle 



Linda T. Guilford 



William Case 



;-v^^ '•' ■-""^ ■ ™^ 




John H. McBride 



Charles A. Otis, Sr. 



Andrew Freese 




Clara Morris, leo weidenthal col- 
lection. 





Joseph S. Haworth. leg wEroENXHAL 

COLLECTION. 



The Academy of Music, 
Cleveland's earhj theater, 
at West 6th Street be- 
tween Superior and St. 
Clair avenues. 




Effie Ellsler 



John A. Ellsler 



[1849] TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 217 

trustees' names represented a who's- who of Cleveland business. A room 20 
feet square in the rear of the Merchants Bank was occupied by the Society, 
an insurance company, and Mather for his private business. The Society 
paid $75 of the $400 yearly rental. Business hours were fixed at first to 
accommodate the treasurer, who also served as teller in the Merchants Bank. 
A $25-savings deposit received from Mrs. D. E. Bond on August 2 was the 
first transaction. At the end of the year, the books showed seventy-three 
depositors with deposits totaling $35,012.69. 

The City Mills Store opened this year at the southwest corner of Superior 
and Seneca streets, later moving to the southeast corner of Frankfort and 
Bank, where it became Morgan, Root & Company, the principals being E. P. 
Morgan and Ralph R. Root. Leander and John H. McBride later purchased 
the Morgan interest, changing the name to Root & McBride Brothers. In 
1884, the pioneer wholesale dry-goods firm moved to a traditional location 
on Bank Street (1250 West 6th), It incorporated in 1895 as The Root & 
McBride Company, with Leander McBride, president; John H. McBride, 
vice president and treasurer; Fred P. Root, vice president; and Herbert 
McBride, secretary. The institution became one of the leading wholesale dry- 
goods firms in the Middle West. Malcolm L. McBride became president in 
1929 serving until his death in 1941 when Frederick W. Barnes succeeded 
him and H. Verne Reed became vice president and treasurer. 

When Daniel M. Haskell became postmaster on April 11, he moved the 
Post Office to the Herald Building on Bank Street. 

In May, music lovers enjoyed "a new fashioned entertainment ... no less 
than an Operatic Soiree," when La Sonnambula and The Daughter of the 
Regiment were presented by the Manvers Operatic Company, in full cos- 
tume, in Watson's Hall. 

The cholera plague that was sweeping the Midwest alarmed Cleveland, 
and precautions were instituted by the Board of Health, consisting of A. 
Seymour, William Case, and John Gill. In May, a tax was levied to establish 
and maintain a poorhouse and hospital. Increased cemetery facilities were 
being planned by the newly incorporated Brooklyn Cemetery Association, 
and the North Brooklyn Cemetery was opened (on Scranton Avenue be- 
tween Wade and Seymour) . 

The headline attraction of this year's circus, staged at the foot of Bank 
Street, was the calliope or "Appollonicon," "the most stupendous musical 
project of the age . . . more powerful than a band of 50 musicians, and 
drawn by 40 horses in procession." The Herald advertisement announcing 
the two-day event that opened June 18, also featured the Carlo Troupe of 
equestrians, headed by one of the leading trick clowns of Europe, and "grand 
Heroic and Patriotic Spectacles" of Revolutionary War days. Admission 
was 25 cents. 

George Worthington and associates formed the Cleveland Iron Company 
to manufacture bar iron. The bulk of the output was sold through Worth- 
ington's hardware store. 

Shiloh Baptist Church, the earliest Negro church in the denomination, 



218 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1849] 

originated as a mission established by the First Baptist Church. Its first 
pastor, the Rev. W. P. Brown, was called in 1851. The congregation grew 
slowly, and a house was purchased on Ohio Street near Perry as a sanctuary. 
In 1863 the First Church helped to acquire a house on Sterling Avenue that 
served as a meeting place for thirty years. Three Negro churches originated 
in Shiloh — Antioch, 1893; Mt. Hermon, 1903; and Messiah, 1927. 

The Cuyahoga County Agricultural Society was revived this year. Fairs 
were held on the Kinsman Street grounds and later in Newburgh and 
Chagrin Falls. 

The Plain Dealer introduced a column of news from foreign countries 
this year. 

Cholera attacked the city, and on June 26 the first case was reported in 
Cleveland. A temporary hospital was provided by the Board of Health on 
the upper floor of the Cleveland Centre Block on the "Flats." Summarizing 
lengthy newspaper accounts devoted to the plague, 130 deaths were re- 
ported: II American-born, 49 who came from Ireland, 44 from Germany, 
14 from England, 4 from Wales, 2 each from Scotland and Holland, i each 
from Norway, France, and the Isle of Man, and i unknown. On September 
21, the Plain Dealer editor observed, with perhaps an ulterior motive, that 
in Cincinnati the death toll in one day had exceeded this number. 

A number of states sent delegates to a convention in Cleveland, held on 
July 13, celebrating the anniversary of the passage of the Ordinance of 1787, 
excluding slavery from the Northwest Territory. Judge Eli Tappan presided 
over the sessions, and ardent enemies of slavery rallied to the "big tent on 
the common." 

Henry Clay, accompanied by his son, stopped in Cleveland on July 28 
on his way to Newport for his health. They arrived from Sandusky on the 
steamer Saratoga and were welcomed by a gun salute and an informal recep- 
tion on the boat. After a carriage tour of the city, the statesman visited the 
Weddell House, then resumed his journey by boat to Buffalo. 

"Gold in California!" The get-rich-quick fever stirred the nation, and 
for more than a year the newspapers printed columns about the strike and 
the rush westward. The largest delegation of Clevelanders left on the brig 
Eure\a, built in '47 on the Black River (Lorain) by W. A. Adair & Com- 
pany, Cleveland forwarding and commission merchants. Local passengers 
paid the $300 fare in advance, provided their own beds, bedding, and sup- 
plies, limited to one barrel-back (trunk) and ten barrels of bulk freight. 
Among the twenty Cleveland passengers were John P. Jones, who won 
wealth and distinction after a severe struggle, George Hickox, and Dr. A. S. 
Baldwin, trip physician. The Eure\a, reported at 375 tons, was the first 
Great Lakes ship to make the trip to San Francisco. Captain WilHam Mon- 
roe piloted "the finest vessel to sail for California," leaving on September 
26. The Eure\a was sturdy and weathered three weeks of storms in rounding 
the Horn. On June 19, 1850, according to the Frisco marine report, the 
prospectors reached port with fifty-nine passengers, seven females, aboard. 
Adair, the vessel's owner, had arrived by a quicker route, and had already 
"busted, blowed up and gone to the devil." On the return trip, the Eureka 



[1849] TRADE TRAILS STRETCH WIDE 219 

departed on October 26 tor Panama; but she encountered misfortune at 
sea, and after many hardships reached a port in Mexico on January 6, 1851. 
The passengers deserted, and the ship was sold to satisfy passengers' ac- 
counts. Fortune-seekers suffered severe privations in travel by wagon, and 
a local editor reported that "Hundreds perish by the way, and thousands 
fall there . . . Over the new made graves the tide sweeps on." "Gold, gold — 
it is a humbug," he bemoaned. Nugget watch charms and fabulous stories 
were the reward of many disappointed adventurers who gave up and finally 
drifted eastward. 

Clevelanders cheered the first locomotive, a wood-burning iroii horse, 
as it coughed and labored up the River Street grade on November 3, pulling 
a work train of wooden flat cars on the Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati 
Railroad from St. Clair to Superior Street. The engine was built in Ohio 
City at the Cuyahoga Steam Furnace plant. Speed had been set at four or 
five miles an hour within the city limits, which would permit time for a 
team of horses to get out of the way. For three years, work trains hauled 
supplies from the docks for the road. 

Comfort in travel improved somewhat with the era of the plank road. 
An eight-foot, planked highway was completed in November between Cleve- 
land and Chagrin Falls, the cost being estimated at $20,000. The turnpike 
portion of the road, graveled and ditched, measured 40 feet wide. Toll 
of 2 cents a mile was charged for a two-horse, loaded wagon, and i cent if 
unloaded. An additional horse cost one-half cent a mile more, and a man 
on horseback could travel for i cent. An elaborate schedule covered tolls 
for animals, carriages, and the many forms of travel. Cleveland and New- 
burgh were now only thirty minutes apart. A plank road to Willoughby 
was soon followed by roads to Twinsburg, Rockport, and Wooster. Another 
road was built for five miles toward Elyria, and a section on Lorain Street 
had been begun. Planked roads ended at city limits, and horses and wagons 
"wallowed in the mud" through unpaved streets as they toiled into Cleve- 
land. A bus line was running every hour between Cleveland and Ohio City, 
fare 6/^, cents and "no credit." 

The Michigan Central Railway extended its transportation to Lake Erie, 
operating the Mayflower, a 1,300-ton propeller, between Detroit, Cleveland, 
and Buffalo, with accommodations for eight hundred passengers along with 
freight. Soon the line was operating the best boats on the lake. 

A little group of Czechs arrived in Cleveland, including Willi Hesky and 
his sister. Bernard Weidenthal came from Bohemia with his widowed 
mother, Mrs. Rebecca Neumann Weidenthal, and her children, Charlotte, 
Fannie, and Leopold; and Joseph Loewy and his daughter, Dorothea. Weid- 
enthal purchased a residence on Woodland Avenue to which he took his 
bride, Dorothea Loewy. Hesky went west in early manhood, and his sister 
married a farmer near Sandusky. 

According to the advertisements, the fireplace was on the way out, and 
the cooking stove was featured as a great new blessing to the meal-maker. 

A gas-manufacturing plant had been built and pipes were laid to provide 
street lighting for Cleveland. One by one the smoky lamps were removed 



220 Cleveland: the making of a city [1849] 

and the first street lights were installed, brightening Superior Street from 
the river to Erie, the Public Square, and Water, Merwin, and Bank streets. 
On December 8, the lights were turned on, and citizens gathered under the 
lamp posts to enjoy the novelty. 

The glory of the stars and moon 

And comets, too, may pass; 
Then let 'em go — however soon. 

For Cleveland's burning gas! 



CHAPTER 8 



Rails and Red Gold 

185-0-185-9 



THE DECADE opened upon an era of great economic prosperity, 
fostered by the influence of the Mexican War and territorial expan- 
sion. Long wagon trains were threading their way over mountain and plain 
to the new Far West, seeking homesteads and California gold. Arriving in 
Cleveland on their westward way, many of them who came overland or by 
waterway chose to stay, believing that the flourishing lake city offered im- 
mediate opportunity. 

Industrious Germans and Irish continued to stream into Cleveland, ex- 
panding their clannish communities, holding fast to traditions even to the 
second generation. The Germans established a "turnverein" in 1850, and 
two years later a newspaper. Several Czech families, passing through on 
their way to the Milwaukee district in 1850, stopped to rest in Cleveland 
and decided to stay. They became the nucleus of an energetic, peace-loving 
colony, richly endowed with the culture of their homeland. The Czechs 
settled first in the vicinity of Hill, Cross, and Commercial streets; but, as 
soon as they were assured of a livelihood, they began to move to the coun- 
try, their natural environment. In 1852, Hungarian immigration began with 
the arrival of David and Morris Black and their families. They were thrifty 
and religious, and near Woodland and Willson avenues they laid out a 
market garden, later turning to the making of ladies' cloaks and garments, an 
industry that was identified with the steadily growing Hungarian settle- 
ments for many years. A small Negro population of 224 was reported by 
the census. 

Agriculture, the stagecoach, and the Ohio Canal had given many vil- 
lages a healthy start, and for several decades their future was more promis- 
ing than that of Cleveland. In the race for pre-eminence, however, the 
city's strategic position on lake and canal had given it the lead in the Western 
Reserve with a population of 17,034, almost thirty times the 1820 figure. 
Within its political boundaries lay an area of 5.381 square miles. Akron, a 
milling center to the south, had sprung up with the canal in 1825 and was 
leading inland towns outside Cuyahoga County with a total of 3,266, 
followed by Norwalk, 3,159; Painesville, 3,128; Madison, 2,986; Warren, 
2,957; Youngstown, 2,802; Milan, 2,697; Ravenna, 2,240; Poland, 2,126; 
Franklin Mills (Kent), 1,749; ^^^ Elyria, 1,482. Sandusky, with 5,088 led the 
small but ambitious lake ports — Conneaut, Ashtabula, Sandusky, Toledo, and 
Black River (Lorain), the latter traiHng with 659. Larger cities were awake 



222 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 

to Cleveland's growth, and Detroit, 21,019, and Milwaukee, 20,061, sensed 
the threat o£ supremacy; but flourishing Chicago, 29,963, and Cincinnati, 
115,435, were entirely content with substantial gains. 

The census reported 48,099 persons in Cuyahoga County, and revealed 
that urban population was gaining over rural. Township figures within the 
county showed Bedford, 1,853; Brecksville, 1,116; Brooklyn — Ohio City, 
6,375; Chagrin Falls, 1,250; Dover, 1,102; East Cleveland, 2,313; Euclid, 
1,447; Independence, 1,485; Mayfield, 1,117; Middleburgh (Berea and Brook 
Park), 1,490; Newburgh, 1,542; Olmstead, 1,216; Orange, 1,063; Parma, 
1,329; Royalton, 1,253; Solon, 1,034; Strongsville, 1,199; and Warrensville, 
1,410. 

"Cleveland is the most desirable town in the 'Great West' to live inT 
This profound statement was the more significant, appearing as it did in 
the Cincinnati Gazette. Commenting on his visit to the Forest City, the 
neighborly editor declared, "The town is clean, tasteful, elegant and health- 
ful; for vegetables, fruit and flowers it is preeminent — for groves, parks, 
ornamental trees and shrubs, it is hardly surpassed by New Haven. . . . 
Her public and private schools are excellent; her medical college superior 
to any in the West, and the prevailing character of her society is educational, 
moral and religious. It is, therefore, 'just the spot' for the man of moderate 
income, to live and educate his family." 

Railroad-building had been paramount in the news since 1849. After 
fifteen years of desperate struggle on the part of promoters, rails of iron 
joined Columbus and Cincinnati with Cleveland, making the latter the 
terminus of several great systems. In 1851, the wood-fired, brass-trimmed 
Cleveland locomotive, built in Ohio City, made her initial run from Colum- 
bus into the little frame depot on the Superior Street hill, representing a 
victory over public antagonism, financial misfortune, and extreme con- 
struction difficulties. 

The "magical" influence of the railroad is expressed in glowing terms in 
the city directory of 1853. It stated: 

We have no longer an annual hybernation, but reckon time by the same 
almanac which serves as a guide to other civilized communities. The travel 
through our city has become immense; the old lumbering stage-coaches 
have been so entirely driven from our thoroughfares, that they are already 
looked upon as objects of curiosity. Our numerous and excellent hotels 
are constantly filled to over-flowing, and scarce one of all these arriving 
and departing crowds, that does not bear irrepressible testimony to the 
business and beauty of our city. 

By 1852, three sturdy little trains were operating daily each way on the 
4-foot-i 0-inch gauge road between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. Com- 
pletion of railway lines to Cincinnati and Pittsburgh had boosted the lake 
city's population from 21,140 in 1851 to 25,670 a year later. Industry had 
made a great forward stride; the Cuyahoga Steam Furnace Company in 



RAILS AND RED GOLD 



223 



Ohio City was building locomotives, and Otis & Ford were producing £org- 
ings and axles. 

Alfred Kelley retired as president of the Cleveland, Columbus & Cin- 
cinnati Railroad in 1853 and was succeeded by Henry B. Payne. Ohio and 
Indiana roads that were enduring financial struggles survived through 
Payne's aid of money and credit. While his policy was criticized, the re- 
vitaHzed Hnes encouraged communities and increased land values. Eventu- 
ally, some of them came into their benefactor's fold. 

While builders of the Cleveland & Pittsburgh railroad were not aware of 
the possibilities of trade in iron ore, they estimated that the line would 
move about a thousand tons of coal per day, a figure that was soon surpassed. 
In the early fifties, word went out that a trainload of coal was to be hauled 
into Cleveland. Four or five hundred people traveled out to the railroad 
shop (East 38th and Hamilton), where they joined the few company em- 
ployees in cheering the first coal train — ten flat cars loaded with one hun- 
dred tons. The next morning, the papers predicted that Cleveland was 
"destined to become the Newcastle of America!" Superintendent John 
Durand of the road ventured the hope "that by three months they would 
be able to run in this amount of coal daily." 

The Pennsylvania and Baltimore & Ohio railroads had reached the Ohio 
River in 1853. Ten small roads between Albany and Buffalo were con- 
solidated the same year into the New York Central Railroad, capitalized 
at the staggering sum of twenty-three million dollars. Rails thus welded 
the East and the West. 

Vague charters permitted building only to state lines, making necessary 
the granting of charters in various states in order to make interstate con- 
nections. Believing that the monster belching smoke and sparks would 
ruin their lands, farmers and property owners placed obstructions on the 
tracks to hinder operations. Haled into court, railroad companies found no 
sympathy at first in the juries. 

The railroads were binding waterways and valleys of the North together. 
Along the lakeshore, little lines were being united in the late fifties, but safe, 
"through" service was retarded by the narrow-gauge policy in Ohio as 
against standard-gauge in Indiana and New York. Changing cars was 
burdensome for travelers and unpopular. It was difficult to maintain sched- 
ules, particularly in bad weather. Cars often jumped the tracks, and trains 
were delayed by stray animals, fallen trees, and obstructions. Night travel- 
ing was hazardous, and accidents due to washouts and threats that lurked 
in the darkness often brought disaster before hand brakes could be applied. 
As the roads slowly ironed out their problems, competition grew and petty 
rate wars broke out, increasing in volume until they threatened to destroy 
some of the roads. 

Despite many hardships, the railroad developed rapidly, stimulating 
manufacturing and revolutionizing transportation and communication. 
Days of romantic stagecoach travel were numbered. The blast of the driver's 
horn that woke the early wilderness was replaced by the discordant whistle 



224 



CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 



of the furnace-feeding engineer. As the trails of commerce shifted and the 
move to the cities increased, stage towns on state roads and turnpikes began 
to decay, taverns suffered, and vi'eary stagecoaches were consigned to 
obscure mail routes between railroad towns and distant villages. Stages con- 
tinued to operate regularly for some time between Cleveland and near-by 
points. 

Canal water and power had increased the wealth and population of Ohio. 
Real estate in thirty-seven canal counties had risen in value from $25,000,000 
in 1826 to $350,000,000 in 1859. The future greatness of Cleveland, Akron, 
Dayton, Columbus, Toledo, and Cincinnati had been established when these 
cities became canal terminals for freight shipments of mine, farm, and fac- 
tory products. These were grim days for canal operators, however. Passenger 
traffic had succumbed to railroad competition, and canal tolls in 1859 were 
dwindling at an alarming rate. 

The side wheel steamer was at the height of its popularity in 1850, and 
Cleveland was the home of more than eighty schooners and three steam- 
boats. Sixteen steamships were operating between Buffalo and Chicago. 
Handsome cabins, splendid meals, and occasional band music drew capacity 
crowds of four or five hundred passengers. The leading passenger line on 
Lake Erie was operated by the Michigan Central Railway between Detroit, 
Cleveland, and Buffaloo It merged locomotives and steamboats in lake- 
traffic business, operating a fleet of fine boats until its profitable traffic was 
cut off in 1858 by the Great Western Railroad, when it introduced rail trans- 
portation in Canada between Buffalo and Detroit. The Detroit & Cleveland 
Steam Navigation Company, founded as the decade opened, proved a strik- 
ing financial success, and it was to play a leading role in the prosperity of 
the two flourishing cities it served. Although passenger traffic was showing 
a decided preference for the railroad, freight traffic in the rapidly growing 
industrial and agricultural lake region increased the need for lake vessels. 
Shipbuilding was a major industry in Cleveland, and, in 1858, freighters 
built in local yards opened trade routes to Europe. 

In order that lake tonnage could be moved to railroad trains at Cleveland, 
six piers occupied by rail lines were built into the lake, east of the Cuyahoga 
River. Terminal operations centered here until with considerable persuasion 
the Government dislodged them when a larger harbor was required. 

As the fifties opened, Cleveland businessmen had formulated plans to 
develop the new mineral country in the Lake Superior region of upper 
Michigan. Soon the dramatic industrial era opened, born of the vision and 
energy of the city's men of iron. Steam and sail plied the inland seas when 
the Sault Ste. Marie Canal opened in 1855, shifting trade to the lower lakes, 
and bringing vast natural resources within reach of Cleveland and the 
East. Iron ore and coal became inseparable. Boats delivering iron ore to 
the docks sailed away with cargoes of coal; and railroads, fired with the 
new fuel, exchanged their burden of coal for iron ore. 

Industrial expansion was reflected in the Cleveland Directory of 1858, 
which showed that two paper mills, white-lead and copper-smelting works, 
furniture and melodeon manufactories, and a stove works were also making 



RAILS AND RED GOLD 



225 



iron products. Of the 650 workers in the iron industry, 125 were producing 
147 T-rails daily in the Cleveland Rolling Mill. Nevertheless, dissatisfied 
newspaper editors called attention to the progress o£ manufacturers in 
Youngstown, Pittsburgh, and other centers, and criticized Cleveland's lead- 
ers for depending upon outside supply and delaying the launching of fur- 
naces in the city. 

Pioneering attempts to refine coal oil, using cannel coal, were under 
way in 1859 when oil was discovered at Titusville, Pennsylvania, and young 
John D. Rockefeller was starting out in the produce and commission busi- 
ness. Primitive demands for tools, building materials, and necessities still 
engaged the large part of industry. 

After two decades of feuding, Cleveland and Ohio City buried their 
differences in friendly alliance in 1854. To Mayor William B, Castle of the 
smaller city went the honor as first chief executive of the united City of 
Cleveland. Further strengthening the ties between East and West, a bridge 
was built at Main Street, another at the foot of Seneca Street, and the Center 
Street Bridge was rebuilt. The new water-works system, a municipal im- 
provement long overdue, went into operation in 1856, bringing water from 
Lake Erie for pubUc use. As pumps filled the city mains, the long and useful 
career of the well on the Public Square came to an end. 

Modest homes around the Square gradually yielded as business began to 
move eastward from Superior Street. In 1852, the famous fifteen-year "fence 
war" was declared by residents against invading commerce. Two three- 
story, commercial blocks were erected on the northwest side in 1853, and 
five brick stores on the south side at a cost of twenty-five thousand dollars. 
A four-story, brick block at the corner of Euclid and the Square cost ten 
thousand dollars. A federal building rose on the site of the Leonard Case 
homestead at the northeast corner of Superior; and, late in the decade, 
construction of a new Court House began on Rockwell Street west of the 
Stone Church as the result of a move to keep the Public Square free of 
buildings and obstructions. In 1855, the First Presbyterian Church of Cleve- 
land dedicated the Stone Church on the traditional site at the northwest 
corner of Ontario and the Square. It was the oldest building in the city's 
center in the 1940s, standing substantially as erected, except for outside 
modifications following a fire in 1884. 

Residences filled Euclid Street, although not closely, and there was not 
a shop or store on it in 1850, according to recollections of James F. Ryder, 
veteran photographer. "I gave myself the pleasure many times of loitering 
past those beautiful homes and admiring them to my heart's content," he 
recalled. "I thanked the proprietors ... for the pleasure they gave me ... I 
could hug myself with the thought that while I could enjoy as much as the 
other fellow, he had to pay the taxes. It was but a short distance east from 
the Public Square — perhaps two miles — where rail fences in zig-zag pattern 
bordered the highway and a toll-gate barred the passage of teams, demand- 
ing tribute for road repairs." 

Street and sidewalk improvements were initiated, and some of the prin- 
cipal streets were elevated to the status of "avenue." "Lake EucHd" at Erie 



226 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 

Street was drained, and a grading program smoothed out some of the 
mudholes. Street lamps burned until midnight in downtown Cleveland, 
excepting on moonlight nights, when moonshine was considered adequate. 

Appearance o£ the horsecar on Cleveland streets was a step in the direction 
of improved traffic facilities in the growing city, realized after considerable 
public and official debate. A network of omnibus lines radiated from the 
downtown district, conveyances leaving twice a day for East Cleveland, three 
times daily for the West Side, and four times a day for Kinsman, Euclid, 
and Prospect streets. 

Cleveland's retail stores centered on Superior Street west of the Square in 
1850. Twenty were selling dry goods; 6, hardware; 8, drugs; 5, books. Five 
merchant tailors were located here, 4 of the city's 6 jewelers, 21 of its 25 
clothing stores, 6 hat-and-cap stores, 21 selling boots and leather, 21 of the 
22 shoe stores, and 2 vending crockery. Twenty-two of the 58 groceries were 
located on Superior, and four in the "uptown" district, extending from 
Ontario eastward to Erie Street. Wholesale trade flourished around Water, 
River, and Merwin streets, where there were 14 wholesale grocery houses, 
5 ship chandlers, and 33 forwarding and commission houses. The residential 
section was moving eastward. Market gardeners, butchers, and hucksters 
filled the streets as well as the Michigan Street market house. Unfriendly 
competition resulted in efforts to reach a solution later in the decade in a 
market a short distance to the south at Broadway, but this plan met with 
antagonism. 

Rents were lowered as the prosperity era leveled out. Houses within a 
half and three-quarters of a mile of the business center that rented for I450 
per year dropped to $200 and $150 in 1854. 

There were three daily newspapers and two weeklies in Cleveland in 
1850. J. W. Gray of the Plain Dealer wielded great political power in the 
camp of the Democrats. Joseph A. Harris of the Herald was following the 
Whigs into the Republican fold, where Edwin Cowles had established 
the Leader. The city, a breeding ground of politics, produced prominent 
figures in party factions of the day. 

New dailies, weeklies, and periodicals sprang up now and then, some 
with intriguing titles — Dodge's Literary Museum; The Harpoon, champion 
of temperance; Scott's Soup Bowl; and The Spiritual Universe. That their 
lives were short may be attributed to the confusing times or to ambitious 
printers or reporters who aspired to shape the public mind from the exalted 
editor's chair. 

This was a high-pressure era insofar as newspaper editors were concerned. 
Speed in news transmission that had been increased by the "magnetic" 
telegraph was given further impetus by the steam railroad, which carried 
the mail. Well-established papers flourished as they hustled to cover the 
many controversial topics of the day — slavery, morality, temperance, equal 
rights, religion, atheism, and politics. A cultural awakening in Cleveland 
was reflected in increased space; and city improvements, markets, and com- 
mercial news were claiming more attention. Charles Farrar Brown's circle 



RAILS AND RED GOLD 



227 



of readers widened as his fantastic stories in the Plain Dealer, signed Artemus 
Ward, stretched his imagination. 

The power of advertising was demonstrated in continuously expanding 
newspaper columns. L. F. & S. Burgess called attention to Herring's fire- 
and burglar-proof safe, with a superior "patent powder proof lock." Their 
competitor. Pierce & Company, representing the World's Safe Company, 
claimed that "Lillie's chilled iron safe" gave the best protection. The Pierce 
company had diverse interests as bankers, printers, and pubhshers of the 
Ban\ Note Recorder, and were also agents for the "French pocket magnify- 
ing glass for detecting bogus money." Hutchinson & Palmer, druggists, had 
added "fine paints, glassware, groceries and wine, brandy and other liquors 
for medicinal purposes" to their hne. W. H. Burnham advertised a shaving 
and hair-dressing saloon, the cleaning and repairing of clothing, and the 
loaning of money; while Francis Bernitz featured butter, cheese, fish, stone- 
ware, and nails. 

Cleveland's first university was launched as the new system of liberal 
education was gaining favor at Brown, the University of Virginia, and a 
new institution, Rochester University. It gave the student freedom to follow 
his chosen courses to completion, and endeavored to offer opportunities in 
engineering, agriculture, and the arts that were not afforded in the rigidly 
defined curricula of established schools, particularly in church institutions, 
such as Oberlin, Western Reserve, Baldwin, and Hiram. While Cleveland 
University was established as non-sectarian, it avoided charges then current 
against state universities, by maintaining denominational ties through its 
faculty. Education was- carried to the community through public lectures, 
and the newspapers gave generous support. Yet the school failed, despite 
the best leadership. Although the records have disappeared, it is reasonable 
to believe that when the university encountered financial extremes, land 
holders who speculated on its success declined or were unable to help. The 
principle of liberal education, however, had been born to succeed. 

Seminaries and private schools had cause to fear the public schools, which 
now offered free instruction, excepting in communities where parochial 
schools existed. That the importance of free education was not appreciated 
is reflected in Superintendent Andrew Freese's report that 25 per cent of 
public-school students were absent daily. Citizens who believed firmly in 
education, however, met all manner of odds in encouraging its advance, and 
the decade witnessed not only two high schools in Cleveland, but two 
evening schools as well. Private institutions disappeared one by one, leaving 
only those incorporated and well supported by local interests. 

Now that Cleveland had two medical schools, a university, homeopathic 
institution, Catholic cathedral, academy of natural science, natural-history 
museum, library, and literary and music organizations, it offered oppor- 
tunities that identified it as an awakened cultural center. Gaslight, plank 
roads, railroads, well-established banks, two-score church organizations, ex- 
ceptional commercial advantages, and industry with great promise attracted 
wealth and population. 



228 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 

William Case, elected mayor in 1850-51, was the first Cleveland-born 
citizen to attain this high position. He and his fellow "Arkites" and prom- 
inent business and professional men with broad vision shaped the foundation 
stones of sturdy cultural development. 

Paved and lighted streets and the air of prosperity encouraged interest in 
year-round cultural activities. Organizations combed the country to invite 
the brightest names on the lecture platform to come to Cleveland; and local 
enthusiasm produced return engagements despite harsh criticism directed at 
several national figures by the press. Josiah Quincy, Henry Ward Beecher, 
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Horace Greeley, Edward Everett, Grace Green- 
wood, Horace Mann, Bayard Taylor, and James G. Dana were among those 
who discussed the burning questions of the day and brought illuminating 
wisdom and uplift to the city. Fakirs and exponents of phrenology and the 
stars were attracting smaller audiences as the popularity of lectures increased. 
Astronomy, animal life, and practical subjects were taken to the people by 
Cleveland's scientific and medical fraternity, which ranked with the best in 
the country. 

Theaters shared in the flush of good times. Increased population and 
easy spending inspired the building of the Academy of Music, the finest 
playhouse of its day. The coming of John A. Ellsler touched off the spark 
that encouraged genuine interest in the theater. In Shakespearean and pop- 
ular drama, he brought to Cleveland the leading names on the stage; and 
in his famous stock company, stars were born. 

Although traveling was burdensome, Ole Bull, Adelina Patti, and other 
celebrities, discovering responsive audiences in the Midwest, made a 
practice of return engagements. The appearance of Jenny Lind was one of 
the most momentous in Cleveland's music history, for here public apprecia- 
tion really began. Interest in sacred music had been inspired in churches. 
The spirit of German singing societies, as expressed in the brilliant Saenger- 
fest, brought fame to Cleveland. Music teachers were gathering small classes 
together and giving occasional concerts. 

Jarvis F. Hanks, pioneer artist, and five professional painters, including 
Allen Smith, Jr., and Julius Gollman, made up the art colony, along with 
teachers of drawing and painting in private schools and in studios. George 
Willey was lecturing on the fine arts, and traveling exhibitions came to 
Cleveland occasionally. An appreciation of art, however, was scarcely evident 
in the fifties. 

Meetings were taking on convention proportions, as railroads began to 
weave their networks. Public halls were moving eastward from Water 
Street and St. Clair, and hotels and halls were expanding to accommodate 
greater crowds. The enlarged Weddell House, managed by a New York 
concern with an air foreign to the unpolished, untutored Western Reserve, 
was announcing in French its dining-room bill of fare. 

With the appearance of Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Knicf{er- 
boc\er's Magazine, the Atlantic Monthly, the North American Review, and 
the Century, readers could enjoy contributions of the best authors of the 
day, and enrich their Httle worlds that had not yet begun to widen through 



RAILS AND RED GOLD 



229 



transportation improvement. Bookstores were advertising titles related to the 
occult, travel, and ancient times, as well as works of foreign and American 
authors — Washington Irving, Grace Greenwood, Ralph Waldo Emerson, 
Bayard Taylor, Thoreau, Scott, Dickens, and the poets, Longfellow, Bryant, 
and Whittier. Polite and philosophical literature was growing in popularity. 

Cleveland's general awakening was reflected in a variety of sports, some of 
which expanded into inter-city competitions. Horse racing had been popular 
since the early days; now the annual meets were attracting large crowds of 
fans. Yachtsmen began to organize. The St. George Cricket Club was play- 
ing teams in large cities. A fishing smack was kept busy catering to parties. 
The coming of the gymnasium gave rise to boxing, track, and athletic 
events. Billiard matches were being arranged, and a chess club was com- 
peting with distant opponents by telegraph. Pigeon shooting and a rifle- 
and-pistol gallery attracted the best marksmen. Skating, sleighing, and curl- 
ing matches led the winter events. Sports flourished until the beginning 
of the Civil War. 

Ferment between North and South was manifested in increased traffic of 
escaping slaves over the "Underground Railroad" north of the Mason-and- 
Dixon line. Origin of the "railroad" is obscure, but it is known to have 
appeared first in the late 1820s. As feeling heightened against slavery, and 
the cotton gin made cotton-growing more profitable, traffic of fugitives by 
secret passage grew. Ohio had many lines connecting the Ohio River with 
Lake Erie. Barns, sheds, and farmhouses of friendly Abolitionists and free 
Negroes constituted the stations on the hit-or-miss railway. "Conductors" 
smuggled escaped slaves from station to station, usually at night. Defying 
the stringent Fugitive-Slave Act, they held to their ideals at any cost. Salmon 
P. Chase of Cincinnati and Edward Wade championed the Negro's rights 
in Cleveland. David Hudson, pioneer of the Hudson community, was 
famous as a stationmaster. Owen Brown, father of John Brown, fiery foe of 
slavery, lived near Hudson Village. Oberlin — seat of the famous Oberlin- 
Wellington rescue, Vermilion, Lorain, Sandusky, Painesville, and Ashtabula 
were gateways to safety. 

Cleveland citizens silently provided havens for frantic fugitives in their 
homes, and many decades later basements and secret passages in line old 
residences still bore the mark of confinement in slavery days. Trembling 
slaves climbed the long, steep ascent to the belfry of St. John's Episcopal 
Church on the West Side, where they found refuge until signal flashes 
roused them to embark on the final lap of their journey to Canada and 
freedom. The city was the stamping ground for professional slave hunters. 
An arrangement provided for the ringing of the Stone Church bell when 
one of them was seen in the city, and a five-dollar reward was offered by an 
ardent Abolitionist to the first person making use of the alarm. That the 
underground movement reached major proportions is indicated by the claim 
that a single free Negro stationmaster helped more than a thousand run- 
aways to freedom. 

On the basis of affiliations with twenty-one congregations, about three 
thousand people made up the church population, as reported by the city 



230 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 

directory of 1850. Once a strict and exacting New England community, 
Cleveland had undergone a profound change in its religious aspects. De- 
nominational influence had increased with the population. From Europe 
had come Irish, German, and English-speaking Catholics in such numbers 
that Bishop Amadeus Rappe sought ministerial, educational, and charitable 
aid for their welfare. 

Strife between Presbyterians and Congregationalists increased as anti- 
slavery agitation heightened. As lines became more closely defined and 
members were called upon to take their stand on the question, some bravely 
withdrew from the stern Presbytery and founded new churches on free, 
Congregational principles, resulting in two strong denominations. 

Until 1852, churches and lodges seem to have carried on charitable efforts 
quietly, leaving little trace of their efforts. The railroad era, however, aroused 
the public to a need for organized facilities to help the homeless, the needy, 
and the infirm. It also brought organized hospital service and medical and 
dental societies, prompting the city to build a new Infirmary and manifest 
an interest in public health. 

Young men who clerked in Cleveland stores had little time for reading 
and religious uplift. They worked from early morning until late evening, 
yet they were stirred by Lucius F. Mellen's reports of the new Young Men's 
Christian Association movement that had started in London in 1844, and 
was taking root in the United States. In their weekly prayer meeting they 
planned for a "Y" of their own, and the enthusiastic effort of forty members 
became the leaven that enriched the character and development of the city. 

Bank Street — the Wall Street of Cleveland — was the center of finance, 
and in its growth and importance was reflected the expansion of commerce 
and industry. Inflation had gone hand-in-hand with careless promises and 
the spending spree on railroads and public improvements in the fifties. A 
day of reckoning came in 1857 when a large Cincinnati banking house ex- 
perienced temporary panic, and failures elsewhere brought suffering and 
loss to the nation. A week after panic struck, the Leader, reporting for 
Cleveland, stated, "the feeling is now quite calm, comparatively . . . and 
things are rapidly resuming their accustomed channels." Cleveland banks 
came through safely. The Board of Trade, reviewing the effect on business, 
wrote, "We believe not one manufactory closed its doors for want of work, 
a few were run to their full capacity." The panic left its mark on employ- 
ment, however, for in most cases "the number of employees were reduced 
from 25 to 50 per cent." Railroads and public-improvement projects were 
threatened with total loss, and, saddled with debt, it was with great difficulty 
that they withstood the period of business stagnation. Four independent 
banks, including the City Bank (later The National City Bank of Cleve- 
land) and the Society for Savings, two state branch banks, and fourteen 
private banking houses were listed in the city directory of 1858. 

With rich iron deposits to the north, vast coal fields to the south, untapped 
reserves of petroleum to the east, limestone along the lakeshore, capital, 
labor, management, improved transportation, and ready markets, Cleveland's 
future as a mighty industrial empire had been established by men whose 



:i85o] 



RAILS AND RED GOLD 



231 



names would ever be associated with the city's progress, among them Mather, 
Otis, Chisholm, Wade, and Hanna. Foundations of great fortunes had been 
laid that would benefit the city in many directions. 

While Cincinnati reigned as the cultural and commercial queen of the 
West, the new era of iron ore and railroads had dawned in Cleveland. The 
prophetic words of the Plain Dealer editor in 1849 were on the way to ful- 
fillment: "it will not be long before the flats over the Cuyahoga will be a 
Manchester, vying with the Iron City in the furnace blowers and dust." 



1850 



The demand for gas lighting exceeded the supply, as it was introduced 
into public buildings. When St. Paul's Church was lighted with gas, it was 
suggested that "all places of worship ought to be." The American House 



The Herald Building, erected in 1851, on Bank 
Street was the first stone-front business block in 
the city. The Plain Dealer occupied it from 1885 
to 1889. 




put up warning signs, "Please do not blow out the gas!!" Street lamps 
operated on a "moonlight schedule," and, as late as 1861, lamps were put 
out at midnight. Not until 1867 did the People's Gas Light Company bring 
the utility to the West Side. 

The Family Visitor, a weekly that appeared on January 3, was an ambitious 
family paper owned and edited by Drs. Jared P. Kirtland and Samuel St. 
John. For eight years it sought to "instruct the mind and improve the 
heart," bringing to the home non-partisan articles written by able authors, 
such as Louis Agassiz, ranging from science to the Legislature. 

The Herald extolled the benefits of gas lighting, railroads, and plank 
roads on January 18. Fifty lamps were already scattered along Superior 
and River streets. The editor had ridden the entire ten-mile strip of railroad 
that was pushing toward Columbus. "Something new under heaven for 
Cleveland," he declared. Cleveland was a great town, concluded the 
newspaperman, as he lamented that she needed paved sidewalks, a pound, 
a seamen's home, and a house of correction. 



232 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1850] 

On March 7, the Legislature authorized the City Council to establish a 
Board o£ Health with power to abate nuisances and "take such prompt 
and efficacious measures ... as may be necessary" to combat infectious 
disease. 

Construction o£ the new Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati railroad 
absorbed the Cleveland community, and on March 16 the City Council 
enjoyed an excursion over the first fifteen-mile stretch. Behind the proud 
little Cleveland locomotive, its high, expanded stack belching billows of 
smoke, they bounded adventurously over that distance in the remarkable 
time of twenty-seven minutes. Civic pride ran high, and, as a humorist 
observed, the locomotive was the only motive that could induce a man to 
leave Cleveland. 

The ten-acre lots of Cleveland Township and all the unsurveyed strip 
along the river north and south of Kingsbury Run — nearly twice the area 
of the original city — was annexed on March 22. Willson Avenue, named for 
Hiram V. Willson, prominent lawyer, became the eastern boundary line. 

The Herald was now a four-page daily, seven columns wide, with twenty- 
two columns devoted to advertisements and six to reading matter. Early in 
the year, A. W. Fairbanks of Toledo took an interest in the business which 
included printing, bookbinding, and publishing the paper. In 1857 Josiah 
A. Harris retired after twenty years of devoted community service. Fair- 
banks purchased the Benedict interest in the influential paper in 1872. Five 
years later, Richard C. Parsons and William F. Fogg acquired the business 
and organized The Herald Publishing Company. This was a short-lived 
venture; and, as the stock scattered, the paper deteriorated. Parsons went 
back to his law practice in 1880. 

At a union revival meeting in the Stone Church, conducted by the Rev. 
Edwin H. Nevin, reformer and pronounced Abolitionist, Benajah Barker 
was converted. Stirred by reports that the pastor of a leading church had hid 
behind a column while a fugitive slave was arrested and carried to bondage, 
several friends joined Barker and set out to found a new church with Nevin 
as pastor. On March 25, this year, thirty members formed the Free Presby- 
terian Church — "free" of the sin of slavery — which became the Third 
Presbyterian Church. There were sixty-nine members in 1852 when it 
united with the Congregationalists and adopted the name Plymouth 
Church, at the suggestion of Henry Ward Beecher. An early principle 
opposed slaveholding as a sin and crime, declaring "this church will not 
fellowship slave-holders, the abettors of slavery or slave-holding churches." 
The round Tabernacle on Wood Street, vacated by the Millerites, was the 
church home until 1853, when the city's finest brick edifice, costing $20,000, 
was erected at the northwest corner of Euclid and Erie streets. Barker, H. B. 
Spelman — father of Mrs, John D. Rockefeller, and a few members who 
headed the building committee were unable to raise money to pay for the 
property, and it was sold to the First Baptist Society. The congregation 
rented the Wesleyan Methodist chapel until 1857, when a small church was 
erected on Prospect Street near Erie that served for nearly twenty years. 
The Rev. James C. White, second pastor, 1855-61, was a powerful and 



[1850] RAILS AND RED GOLD 233 

persuasive orator, and large accessions were made to the churcii. He was 
succeeded by the Rev. Samuel Wolcott, a preacher of national reputation. 

Charles Whittlesey had gained wide renown as a geologist and archeologist, 
and his surveys of the Indian Mounds of Ohio were published by the 
Smithsonian Institution this year. Many of his articles on the mineral re- 
sources of the Lake Superior area had already appeared prominently. From 
1847 to 1851 he was employed by the United States Government in surveying 
the upper peninsula of Michigan to locate mines and minerals. His vast 
knowledge and experience served as a great contribution to the coming 
industrial era. 

The first stock yards took form about this time, when the Cleveland, 
Columbus & Cincinnati Railroad Company brought about the building 
of a few stock pens on Scranton Avenue (opposite Fairfield). Slaughter 
houses were built around the pens as well as along the river and on Walworth 
Run. By 1870, the Scranton yards consisted of ten open pens with a 
capacity of about forty cars of livestock. 

The Western Reserve Eclectic Institute (later Hiram College) opened 
at Hiram, Ohio, this year. Built on one of the highest points in the Western 
Reserve, it was a cultural center of the Disciples of Christ. James A. 
Garfield was a student, and later principal. 

Professional men were likely to be highly versatile, as evidenced by an 
April 14 announcement: "J- J- Walker has opened an office. . . . He practices 
surgery, dentistry, shaving and hairdressing, and also manufactures tooth 
powder and tooth tincture." 

Principal Joseph B. Meriam, the trustees of Shaw Academy in Euclid 
Township, and "Aunt" Shaw strained every effort to provide a new 
building that would fulfill the terms of John Shaw's will. When house- 
warming day came on May i, neighboring communities poured in to 
celebrate and support the fair and ice-cream festival that would help to 
defray the $2,800 required to pay for the new two-story, brick schoolhouse. 
"Aunt" Shaw, feeble and old, was carried in her rocking chair to witness 
the laying of the cornerstone, and tears of joy trickled down the tired face 
under the little lace cap as she realized that young Meriam in his enthusiasm 
had restored the Shaw name to a place of honor. On January 9, the next 
year, she died. When Meriam had built the enrollment to a hundred, he 
asked for a dormitory and was refused. The trustees reconsidered, but the 
young man had resigned to join the City Bank of Cleveland as cashier. 
Later he became a partner in Meriam & Morgan, makers of paraffin and one 
of the early oil refineries. A succession of principals followed at the academy. 
In 1875 the school assumed high-school rank. In 1883 the East Cleveland 
Board of Education leased the ground and buildings, and Shaw High 
School was on the way to becoming one of the finest schools of its kind 
in the country. The story of Shaw Academy is the story of a typical Western 
Reserve community, struggling heroically to achieve noble purposes for the 
common good. 

This year witnessed practical progress in the public schools. According to 
the annual report for 1849-50, principals' salaries in senior schools were 



234 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1850] 

increased to $500 per year, and the high-school principal received $575. 
Operating cost for the year was $6,736.18. The Champlain Street School, a 
new, two-story, brick building at Champlain and Seneca streets, would be 
finished in the fall, and in it the wandering Bethel School would be 
established. A three-story building on the old Academy lot, to be finished in 
time for the fall term, was to be known as the West St. Clair Street School. 
During the year, a third story was added to Rockwell School. Teachers and 
pupils took great pride in the new piano they had purchased, the first 
piano procured for a public school. Friends donated pictures for the rooms 
and about four hundred books with which to start a school library at 
Rockwell. Fire damaged the school, and it was rebuilt in 1868. "Cleveland 
school buildings," a visitor observed, "are the best west of the Hudson 
River." 

Libraries were springing into existence in Cleveland; but the chief 
collection consisted of about three thousand volumes that had been 
accumulated in a score of churches. The Cleveland Library Association 
collection exceeded two thousand volumes. Seamen found welcome relaxation 
in the Bethel Reading Room, open two evenings a week. A red signal 
light indicated that the library was open. 

The Second Constitutional Convention met at Columbus on May 6, 
and Sherlock J. Andrews and Reuben Hitchcock represented Cuyahoga 
County. After four and a half months of earnest eflfort, a new instrument 
was submitted to the people and ratified. Ohio had learned a costly lesson. 
The prevailing policy of public improvements and special legislation was 
prohibited under the new Constitution of 1851, and only Hmited expenditures 
were permitted to maintain the state public works. Full manhood suffrage 
was granted to free whites, excepting idiots, insane persons, and those 
convicted "of an infamous crime." 

During the Constitutional Convention, Dr. Norton S. Townsend, delegate 
from Lorain County, delivered an eloquent appeal supporting a motion to 
strike out the word "male" from the revised instrument. He asserted that 
woman was man's equal in intelligence and virtue, and therefore as well 
qualified as man to share in the responsibilities of government. Only 
seven votes joined him, but the seed had been sown that would bear fruit 
seventy years later. 

Reuben Wood, Cleveland Democrat, was elected governor of Ohio at a 
salary of |i,2oo per year. When his term was interrupted by the new con- 
stitution, he was re-elected by more than twice his former majority. Since 
1825, when he was elected to the State Senate, Wood's stature as a political 
figure had grown. After serving three terms as presiding judge of the 
third judicial district, he was elevated to the Ohio Supreme Court in 
1833, from which he resigned in 1845, having been chief justice the last 
three years. 

Slavery had become a political rather than a moral issue, as Abolitionists 
gained ground enabling them to present their candidates at the elections, 
When Joshua R, Giddings of Jefferson, Ohio, advocate of free speech, 
opposed Irad Kelley of Cleveland and gained a seat in Congress on a Free- 



[1850] RAILS AND RED GOLD 235 

Soil ticket in this year, there was no doubt as to the organized strength of 
the movement. 

Champions of antislavery in Cleveland were incensed when the Fugitive- 
Slave Act was passed this year, providing for the return of escaped slaves to 
their masters. Indignation meetings were held. Leading citizens, among 
them Elisha Taylor, Reuben Hitchcock, Dr. Samuel C. Aiken, Samuel 
Williamson, John S. Newberry, George Mygatt, Judge Daniel R. Tilden, 
and Franklin T. Backus, denounced this legislation that extended and per- 
petuated human bondage. They doubled their efforts in supporting the 
Underground Railroad, and offered oratory and money in the bitter struggle 
against the vicious Kansas-Nebraska Bill. 

Dissension in the Anshe Chesed Congregation resulted in formation of the 
Tifereth Israel Congregation (later the Temple, East 105th Street and Ansel 
Road) on May 26, with forty-seven charter members headed by Alexander 
Schwab, president. Worship was conducted in the homes of members in the 
early days, and Isadore Kalisch was the first rabbi. A generous contribution 
of Judah Touro, Jewish philanthropist, provided funds for the purchase of a 
lot on Huron Street, where a new Temple was dedicated in 1855. 

Mrs. Thirsa Pelton cherished the idea of founding a girls' school, and 
purchased about seventy acres this year as a site for Pelton Park (West 14th 
Street). Upon her death in 1853, ^^^ grounds were fenced and locked. The 
people declared that the property was meant for public use, and the fence was 
repeatedly torn down. Bitter litigation followed in the courts, and on 
November 17, 1879, the city purchased the tract for $50,000, by deed from 
John G. Jennings. Citizens were proud of their new landscaped park, but 
it soon deteriorated; when it was restored in 1896, it bore a new name, 
Lincoln Square, later Lincoln Park. 

A plat of Newburgh Village, made this year by Ahaz Merchant, county 
surveyor, reserved space for a park or public square. This commons was 
given by Theodore Miles, pioneer, and named Miles Park in his honor 
by ordinance of June 11, 1877. 

A spectacular fire destroyed the sidewheeler Griffith twenty miles east 
of Cleveland in the early morning of June 17. Of the three hundred and 
twenty-six persons aboard when the boat left Buffalo, almost three hundred 
lost their lives. Safer construction and more rigid inspection of steam 
vessels resulted from the disaster. 

The Cleveland Ladies Temperance Union was organized on June 27 by 
leading women of Cleveland. Mrs. Benjamin F. Rouse, Mrs. Josiah A. 
Harris, and Mrs. J. Lyman were the first directors; and Mrs. Joel Scranton, 
Mrs. Elisha Taylor, Mrs. Samuel Williamson, and Mrs. Samuel C. Aiken 
were prominent workers. More than fourteen hundred members had signed 
the pledge by 1853. 

Thirty-seven miles of the Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati railroad had 
been completed southward as far as Wellington. On July i the first train 
left for Cleveland at 6 a.m., arriving at "8 o'clock, 30 minutes." A cheering 
crowd was on hand when the little brass-trimmed locomotive puffed into 
the wooden depot on the Superior Street hill near the New England 



236 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1850] 

Hotel. The wood-burning engine moved on a pair of six-foot drivers and 
four front wheels. It had no cow-catcher or headlight, but it made the most of 
its shrill whistle. Behind the engine was a box-like car piled with wood, 
followed by the water tender and three forty-foot passenger cars with quaint 
curtains, railed platforms, and hand brakes. Twenty miles per hour was the 
announced speed. Patrons could get a glimpse of Berea, Olmstead, Grafton, 
and LaGrange en route, and a carriage met the train in Wellington to show 
travelers the sights. On June 29 the Plain Dealer had published a schedule 
for the two trains on the road, the first local railroad advertisement to appear 
in a Cleveland paper. By November the road had crept as far as Shelby, 
and two trains were running on weekdays. 

Hecker's Band, organized this year, was in great demand at public and 
private functions. 

The Fourth of July celebration started at sunrise with a "baby waker," a 
volley fired by the Cleveland Light Artillery. By nine o'clock a grand pro- 
cession was forming in the Public Square. Hotels were filled, and ladies in 
billowy dresses and beribboned bonnets began sauntering along the streets 
under dainty parasols. Lemonade stands thrived on the hot day. 

Cleveland bowed its head with grief upon the death of President Zachary 
Taylor on July 9. Memorial services were held on the twelfth; business 
houses closed, and flags were lowered to half mast. Mayor William Case 
presided at a meeting in the Square, and Reuben Wood and William 
Johnson delivered orations. The speakers were candidates for the governor- 
ship, Wood a Democrat, and Johnson a Whig. In a solemn military parade, 
a hearse upon which rested a plumed chapeau and sheathed sword was 
drawn by white horses, followed by a riderless mount. 

Cleveland's first brick building, erected by the Kelleys in 1814 on the south 
side of Superior, had served as a hotel in its later years. Irad Kelley began 
replacing it this year with the Kelley Block, another brick structure, with 
stores on the first floor. The upper floor was known as the celebrated Kelley 's 
Hall, where Clevelanders enjoyed the finest concerts and lectures of the 
day and the most fashionable balls. In 1863, the building took the name of 
the theater housed in it. Athenaeum, and it served commercial purposes for 
many years. 

The Cleveland Iron Mining Company was organized this year, after 
extensive mineralogical surveys by Dr. J. Lang Cassels, its charter dating 
from 1853. The founders were Samuel L. Mather, John Outhwaite, Morgan 
L. Hewitt, Selah Chamberlain, Isaac L. Hewitt, Henry F. Brayton, and E. 
M. Clark. William J. Gordon was the first president. In the early fifties iron 
ore was h-auled laboriously by mule wagon from the Lake Superior mines 
to Marquette, loaded in sailing vessels bound for the Soo, carried around 
the falls in wagons, and reloaded in ships sailing to the lower lakes, bound 
for Ohio and Pennsylvania furnaces. Transportation was a major problem 
until the Soo Canal opened in 1855, when a continuous voyage was made 
possible. As industry developed, the company constructed virtually everything 
it needed in the upper-Michigan wilderness. Timber was required for under- 
ground mine posts, and the acquisition of vast timber lands began. Railroad 



[1850] RAILS AND RED GOLD 237 

facilities were needed to carry ore from mine to dock, and the road later 
known as the Lake Superior & Ishpeming line was constructed. In 1867 the 
company (later The Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company) purchased a half 
interest in a small freight vessel, marking the beginning of a lake fleet 
that numbered twenty-two freighters in the middle of the 1940s. 

Annual trotting and pacing races were inaugurated with a five-day event 
held by the Cleveland Jockey Club at the Forest City course, a track that 
connected with the county fair grounds on Ohio Street (between East 
9th and East 14th). The entrance fee was $5, and purses ranged from 
$40 to $75. 

Land at the southeast corner of Ontario Street and the Public Square 
(Park Building site) was offered to R. H. Lodge for $1,100. In 1865, however, 
Joseph Tamblyn purchased the property from Horace P. Weddell for 
|i2,ooo; in 1904, The Park Investment Company leased it from Tamblyn's 
heirs for thirty-five years at an annual rental of $17,000. 

Spiritualistic meetings were being held in Henry Bingham's saloon in the 
basement of the American House, one of the leading bars in town. According 
to the Daily True Democrat, "many of our citizens heard and witnessed 
strange communications under circumstances which must have removed all 
doubts from the mind of the most skeptical as to the existence of any 
collusion between the operator and the spirit." The hotel attracted all kinds 
of patronage. Sleighing parties from near-by towns came to Cleveland to 
dine and dance at the American. Military companies, a chess club, fraternal 
organizations, printers, conventions, and civic groups made it their head- 
quarters. It also attracted its share of oddities, such as a guest who hired 
two men and a dray to remove his luggage, which consisted of a hat box, 
and who was committed on a lunacy charge; and Henderson, the barber, 
whose advertisement, bearing attesting signatures of customers, claimed that 
"he made new hair grow on their bald heads." 

Bishop Amadeus Rappe invited the Ursuline Sisters of France to establish 
a select academy for girls in Cleveland. The Judge Samuel Cowles home on 
Euclid Street (Taylor's store site) was purchased, and classes opened in 
September. A charter was granted to the Ursuline College for women in 1871. 
The convent was moved to the west side of Scovill Avenue at Willson in 
1893, and it remained the Mother House after the college was established 
on Overlook Road in the late 1920s. 

Culture reached new heights with the founding of Cleveland University. 
Classes opened in the fall in the Mechanics Block, while construction was 
going ahead on the first building in University Heights (later Lincoln 
Heights) on the south side of the river opposite Ontario Street. Ultimately 
the undertaking was to be "a combined literary and charitable institution," 
including "a Male and Female Seminary, an Orphan Asylum, and a Retreat 
for aged persons," conducted on the self-supporting manual-labor plan of 
liberal education. The Rev. Asa Mahan left the presidency of Oberlin 
College to head the new university, and William Slade, later governor of 
Vermont, was secretary-treasurer. A class of three students, who had at- 
tended Oberlin, was graduated at the end of the first term, August 31, 1851. 



238 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1850] 

The financial structure of the university was as weak as the planning was 
comprehensive. Despite leadership of prominent men, including Brewster 
Pelton of Oberlin, Harmon Kingsbury, William Case, Truman P. Handy, 
George Mygatt, Ahaz Merchant, Richard Hilliard, Samuel Starkweather, 
and James M. Hoyt, the school was dissolved after a few years. College 
Avenue, Literary Road, University Road, Professor Street, and Jefferson 
Avenue remain as reminders of a brilliant effort that was a generation ahead 
of its time. 

In October, a school census showed that there were 4,773 persons in 
Cleveland between the ages of four and twenty-one. Enrollment in the 
public schools was 2,081, with an average daily attendance of 1,440. Twenty- 
five teachers were employed. In Cuyahoga County, according to the federal 
census, 11,601 children were attending school, 1,547 o^ them foreign-born. 

The first winter session of the Western College of Homeopathic Medicine 
opened on November 4 in the Mechanics Block. An able faculty included 
prominent disciples of homeopathy: Drs. Edwin C. Wetherell, Charles D. 
Williams, Lewis Dodge, Hamilton H. Smith, Jehu Brainard, Storm Rosa, 
and Arthur E. Bissell. Twelve students were in the first graduating class in 
1 85 1. The institution was badly damaged in 1852 by a mob incited by 
stories of stolen bodies traced to the college dissecting room. At the close of 
the year, work was resumed in the Belvidere Building on Ohio Street near 
the Haymarket. Dr. Asa Mahan was elected president in March, 1853, and the 
name was changed to The Western Homeopathic College in 1857. Humiston 
Institute was purchased in 1868, and The Homeopathic Hospital College 
emerged in 1870, working closely with the Cleveland Protestant Hospital. 
Three years later, it moved into the church building formerly owned by 
the Congregationalists on Prospect west of Erie. 

Council voted "one or more free evening schools" to "keep the youths out 
of mischief and teach them to improve their minds." At the same time, 
education was now within reach of young men and boys who were employed 
during the daytime. The academies were finding real competition in the 
public high school. 

With organization of the Cleveland Mendelssohn Society in December, 
sacred music became a vital influence in the community. Truman P. Handy 
was the first president; J. L. Severance, vice president; and Jarvis F. Hanks, 
director of music. In 1853 membership had reached a hundred and twelve, 
and it seems to have been confined to pioneer stock, as it contained no 
Germans. An orchestra of twenty-five pieces supplemented the activity. 

The canals had reached the peak of their prosperity, and their importance 
is reflected in the exchange of products between Cleveland and the interior 
during the year. Received: Coal, 2,347,844 bushels; pig iron and scrap, 
7,003,438 pounds; iron and cast iron, 6,508,333 pounds; nails and spikes, 
4,343,220 pounds; flour, 367,737 barrels; wheat, 1,192,559 bushels; bacon 
and pork, 2,284,116 pounds; wool, 2,038,195 pounds; pottersware, 1,787,814 
pounds; butter, 1,339,731 pounds; lard, 1,281,368 pounds; corn, 831,704 
bushels; whisky, 24,580 barrels; sundries, 6,018,366 pounds; merchandise, 
1,268,444 pounds. Furniture, lumber and building materials, machinery, 



[1851] RAILS AND RED GOLD 239 

farm and dairy products, pot and pearl ashes, fruit, furs, hides and leather, 
and barrel staves and headings were also received in large quantities. 
Shipped: Iron and cast iron, 15,070,354 pounds; pig iron and scrap, 
1,314,984 pounds; gypsum, 3,275,562 pounds; marble, 1,698,858 pounds; 
coffee, 1,004,411 pounds; salt, 61,468 barrels; molasses, 842,719 pounds; 
sugar, 833,598 pounds; Ohio saleratus, 398,953 pounds; grindstones, 332,510 
pounds; pot and pearl ashes, 313,393 pounds; lumber, 7,960,018 feet; split 
and flat hoops, 1,947,548; shingles, 4,446,000; merchandise, 9,711,472 pounds; 
sundries, 7,723,591 pounds. Dairy and farm products, crockery, furniture, 
machinery, tobacco, hides, and leather were shipped in large amounts. Canal 
tolls collected at Cleveland for the year were $90,874.20. Passenger traffic 
totaled 10,949. 



1851 

Young men were holding informal prayer meetings in a law office in the 
Kelley Block, and, after a time, they broadened their interest to include work 
among the poor. Horace Benton, Dan P. Eells, Joseph B. Meriam, Solon L. 
Severance, E. F. Young, Lucius F. Mellen, Loren Prentiss, L. M. H. Battey, 
S. P. Churchill, William Gribben, and E. P. Cook were early participants. 
This unorganized effort fathered the Young Men's Christian Association. 

"Feminists" were adding to the unrest of the period by constantly making 
themselves heard on the subject of equal voting rights. Their agitation, 
inspired by the first Woman's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls, New York, 
July 19, 1848, prompted a humorous editorial in the Plain Dealer on 
February 11, this year: 

Imagine a Whig husband and a Democratic wife, a free soil uncle and a 
hunker aunt, a liberty party cousin, a colonization nephew, a slave-holding 
niece and three blooming daughters who have gone over bodice and bustle 
to the terrified democracy and for the first time in their lives will vote 
in pink muslin at the next election! Imagine this group gathered around 
the same table, tea and muffins, graced by Mr. Garrison (William Lloyd 
Garrison) and Abby (Abby Kelley Foster) looking in at the window! How 
long would a well-built house probably stand, thus divided against itself? 

The bloomer costume, introduced by fearless Mrs. Amelia Jenks Bloomer 
at the Woman's Rights Convention in 1848, had begun to invade Cleveland, 
adding to the feminine upheaval. The baggy knee trousers, representing a 
revolt against the hoopskirt that had been brought back into fashion, and a 
demand for equal rights brought down pious exhortations from the Good 
Book by the scornful, who" declared that "woman shall not wear that which 
pertaineth unto a man." Most housewives gathered their voluminous, trailing 
skirts a little closer and went back to their knitting. 

At midnight on February 18, Alfred Kelley and Mayor William Case 



240 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1851] 

drove the last spikes in the Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati railroad (later 
Big Four, New York Central System) at Iberia, Ohio, completing the 
northern half of the through railway from the lake to the Ohio River. The 
southern portion, from Columbus to Cincinnati, had been operating for 
some time. 

February 21 was a day long to be remembered. At eight in the morning, 
a delegation of 428 citizens, officials, and dignitaries from Cincinnati and 
Columbus left the capital on the new Cleveland-to-Cincinnati railroad bound 
for Cleveland to attend a celebration of the completion of the line. Throngs 
gathered along the route to cheer the pioneer train as it bounded on the 
rough, unballasted tracks. It was drawn by a handsome, polished locomotive 
with flags flying and the name Cleveland painted in bold letters on the 
tender. In the evening, the engine steamed into the wooden depot on the 
Superior Street hill, where crowds let loose a noisy welcome in honor of 
"Our Railroad." 

Gunfire announced Washington's Birthday and a great holiday celebrat- 
ing the new railroad. City firemen led a colorful parade that ended in a 
public meeting at the Square, where Mayor William Case welcomed the 
procession from the Court House steps. C. C. Converse, president of the 
Ohio Senate, delivered an address, followed by Samuel Starkweather's 
oration and short speeches by Governor Reuben Wood, Alfred Kelley, 
Henry B. Payne, George E. Pugh of Cincinnati, and others. Dignitaries then 
returned to the depot and made a trial run to Hudson on the new Cleveland 
& Pittsburgh Railroad line. There was great embarrassment when food 
supplies ran out and some of the company were obliged to go hungry. On 
the return trip, the train left the tracks, and the party was late for the 
evening banquet at the Weddell House. A torchlight parade closed the 
day's events. A local editor reported that the Buckeyes from the rich valleys 
of the Ohio, Miami, and Scioto mingled their "congratulations with those 
of the Yankee Reserve upon the completion of an improvement . . . accom- 
plishing a good work for Ohio, the value of which no figures could compute." 
Amasa Stone, superintendent of the Cleveland-to-Cincinnati road at a salary 
of four thousand dollars a year, became a director the next year and began his 
climb to wealth and power. 

When the Cleveland-to-Hudson section of the Cleveland & Pittsburgh Rail- 
road (later Pennsylvania) opened on February 22, John G. Stockley lost 
his fight to preserve the lakefront for parks and docks. "You're letting the 
railroad ruin the most beautiful thing we have," he protested. But the tracks 
remained, henceforth to complicate lakefront problems. By November the 
road reached Hanover (Kensington) via Ravenna; and on March 4, 1852, 
it was completed to Wellsville, where connections were established with 
Pittsburgh and the East. Rich coal and fire-clay deposits in southern Ohio 
were then opened. 

"Churches were crowded with listeners from abi-oad" on Sunday morning, 
February 23. Governor Reuben Wood, his staff and many notables attended 
services at the Stone Church and listened to Dr. Samuel C. Aiken's historic 
sermon on the far-reaching influence of public improvements, later published 



[1851] RAILS AND RED GOLD 241 

by railroad officials. The text was taken from Nahum 2:4; and with vision, 
the good clergyman predicted that the new mode of transportation would 
play a great part in helping to wipe out barriers between North and South. 
"The railroad will be a leveller," he declared, "bringing the lowly nearer 
to the plane of the rich through increased means of travel. One benefit 
will be its auxiliary assistance to the cause of temperance, employes having to 
be total abstainers, if they are to be trustworthy and eificient." To those who 
feared that the railroad would wipe out Sabbath observance. Dr. Aiken 
responded: "Experience is gradually deciding in favor of remembering the 
Sabbath day to keep it holy. . . . Wherever the voice of the community 
favors it. Directors are not backward to let their men and enginery remain 
quiet on this day, for it is found that nothing is gained and much lost by 
running." On Monday morning, visitors and a Cleveland delegation left 
for a celebration at Columbus, eight hours and forty-five minutes to the 
south. 

Superior Street had been paved with stone and plank and coated with 
sand in 1850, and it was the object of visitors' admiration during the railroad 
celebration. Assessments determined by the City Council, however, resulted 
in litigation carried to the Supreme Court, where they were upheld. By 
i860 the pavement was "irreparably dilapidated" and was replenished. 

The first gymnasium opened on May 2 on the top floor of the building 
occupied by Handerson, Punderson & Company's drug store on Superior 
(east of the Wilshire Building). Ladders, bars, swinging apparatus, and 
appliances were provided. 

Construction of a new brick passenger depot was completed by the 
Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati Railroad on May 29 at the foot of Bath 
Street. It served as a union station for the railroads until the mid-sixties. 
The Cleveland-to-Cincinnati railroad carried 31,679/^ fares during March, 
April, and May, producing revenue of $56,625.21; freight returns were 
$25,929.85. 

Real-estate values were reviewed in a public statement on May 29 : 

Lands one mile east from the court house and even to the city limits 
are now selling at $16 per foot, ordinary depths from main streets. On 
Superior street west of the square $300 per foot is freely paid. Lots on Water 
street range from $100 to $200 per foot its entire length; Bank street from 
$50 to $100. Water front lots on River street vary from $75 to $250 
per foot as you approach the mouth of the river. ... At present prices, say 
an average of $50 per foot, the whole city of Cleveland, as now extended, 
would require the entire gold receipts from California for a year at least 
to purchase the plat. 

The new Arcade Building — the first of that name — at Superior and Vine- 
yard streets was purchased by }. W. Gray and its name changed to the 
Plain Dealer Building. This was the home of the paper until 1869, when it 
moved to Bank Street, and five years later to the Drum Block at Seneca 
Street and Frankfort. 



242 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1851] 

The annual school report showed expansion of public-school facilities, an 
increase in night-school classes, new school libraries, the raising of high- 
school-teachers' salaries to $550 yearly, and that of the principal to $650. The 
teaching of American history was begun, and "professional teachers" were 
employed to instruct in music and drawing. The three-year high-school 
course included trigonometry, astronomy, mental philosophy, bookkeeping, 
general history, surveying, botany, elements of criticism, and logic in the 
third year. 

The Forest City Lyceum was organized, with Albert T. Slade, president, 
and O. J. Hodge, librarian. It was an outgrowth of the Cleveland Lyceum, 
and flourished until the Civil War sapped its strength. 

The Sisters of Charity had come from France this year in answer to 
Bishop Rappe's call for aid to minister to the sick and poor of the Cleveland 
Diocese. Land was purchased at Monroe and Willett streets for St. Vincent's 
Orphanage, and a fair provided a building fund. The asylum opened in May, 
1853, ^'^ eleven children. Crowded conditions demanded enlarged facilities 
from time to time for the charitable institution that became known as 
Parmadale. 

The first stone-front commercial building was erected on Bank Street by 
the Herald. It was a four-story building of brick and sandstone quarried nine 
miles from the city on the canal. The Post Office was located on the first floor. 

Seneca O. Griswold, a student in the law office of Thomas Bolton and 
Moses Kelley, was admitted to the partnership, which became Bolton, 
Kelley & Griswold this year. Bolton had served as councilman and prosecut- 
ing attorney in the late thirties, and as alderman in 1841. He left the 
Democratic Party in 1848, joined the Free Soilers, and went over to the 
Republicans as an organizer of the party. He was elected judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas in 1856, serving for a decade, when he retired from 
active life. Kelley had been a member of the City Council and the State 
Senate in the forties; and, in 1849, he was selected by the Legislature to 
represent the city's interests in the Cleveland & Pittsburgh Railroad Company, 
of which he was a director. Bolton and Kelley purchased about seventy 
acres of the "Gidding Farm" on Euclid Street (at East 71st) at about the 
mid-century. Here they built identical homes in which they spent their 
later years. Bolton died in 1870, aged sixty-two, and the next year Kelley 
passed on at the age of sixty-one. 

After a western tour, a Philadelphia businessman wrote this interesting 
criticism of Great Lakes ports in July: 

All our lake towns show promise and are now growing very fast. Some 
of them will overtake the largest river towns within the lives of many now 
living. Among the most prosperous are Cleveland, Sandusky, Toledo, De- 
troit, and Chicago. All afford good society. There is less form and etiquette 
than in the eastern towns, but I think there is more intelligence and not less 
real refinement. In the appearance of all there is a want of finish, as 
compared with older towns on the Atlantic. 



[1851] RAILS AND RED GOLD 243 

A horse-drawn coach began on July 18, carrying passengers hourly from 
the Dunham House to Ohio City and back for a ten-cent fare. 

Cleveland printers welcomed the opening of the first engraving plant on 
July 21. Long delays in receiving copper and steel engravings from the East 
had been a great handicap in getting out the news. 

The first sewing machine was exhibited at the Weddell House in August. 
Elias Howe had invented the device in 1846, and it was soon revolutionizing 
the boot-and-shoe and clothing industries, despite charges that it would 
create unemployment. The machine turned with a crank, and sewed two 
hundred and fifty lock stitches a minute. 

Delegates to the meeting of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Education came to Cleveland by stage, canal, and lake. The four-day 
session opened on August 19 in the First Presbyterian Church with William 
Case, chairman. Most of the hundred and fifty educators found lodging in 
private homes. The Rev. Asa Mahan, president of Cleveland University, was 
a prominent figure. Dominating the program was the school's system of 
education, which had abandoned collegiate compulsory fundamentals, and 
emphasized physical, mental, and moral training as essential to the develop- 
ment of a useful life. There was a lively debate over higher education for 
women. 

A small house on St. Clair Street near Bond offered temporary asylum 
for girls of St. Mary's Orphanage, established this year by Bishop Rappe. 
.The Ladies of the Sacred Heart of Mary, of the Sisterhood in France, were 
entrusted with the work, which was the first charitable undertaking of this 
kind established by the order in the United States. An inheritance of one of 
the sisters, with help from France, made possible the purchase of land for 
a new building on Harmon Street in 1853. 

A quarter admitted the curious to see Barnum's great six-thousand-dollar 
exhibition of "Chinese fires, the hydro-oxygen microscope and the dis- 
solving views," prepared in Paris and showing at the Melodeon in 
September. 

Tallmadge coal, brought to Cleveland by canal boat, sold for two and a 
half dollars a ton. 

After a month's preparation, Ira J. Thurston staged the first public aerial 
exhibition in Cleveland on October 6 when he rose from the ground at the 
foot of Erie Street in the balloon Jupiter, ending his flight in a treetop in 
the East Cleveland woods. Upon totaling the twenty-five-cent admissions 
collected from "an immense multitude," he bemoaned his loss suffered from 
crowds who saw the show "for free" outside the fence. 

Nine Common Pleas districts were defined under the new Ohio Con- 
stitution, and Cuyahoga County made up the third subdivision of the 
fourth district. On October 14, Samuel Starkweather and Harvey Foote were 
elected judges of the court by the people; and although the Legislature 
increased the number to keep pace with a top-heavy docket, there were 
never enough officials to keep the slate clean. Thomas Bolton, James M. 
Coffinberry, Samuel B. Prentiss, Robert F. Paine, and Jesse P. Bishop, 



244 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1851] 

partner with Franklin T. Backus, early judges on the bench, were men o£ 
superior judgment. They characterized the high quality o£ personnel who 
served the people through the years. 

The Probate Court was established under the new Constitution, with 
"jurisdiction of all probate and testamentary matters." Flavel W. Bingham 
was the first probate judge. He was succeeded in 1855 by Daniel R. Tilden, 
friend of widows and orphans. Tilden served continuously until his retire- 
ment in 1887. Henry C. White and Alexander Hadden were among those 
who gave conspicuous service in later years. 

Clevelanders voted an emphatic "no" on October 14 to the proposed union 
of Cleveland and Ohio City, declaring that their neighbor would benefit 
from the larger city's advantages without assuming a reasonable share of 
the cost. 

In a small room at the corner of Pearl and Turnpike streets in Ohio City, 
for which he paid fifty dollars a year rental, Horace Benton started his 
wholesale drug business. Nine years later, two brothers joined him under 
the name of Benton Brothers. Then followed expansion with new partners 
forming the firm of Benton, Meyers & Canfield. It was in 1875 that Lucien 
B, Hall entered the business; and in 1884, A. H. VanGorder joined him 
to develop Hall & VanGorder with a wide territory of sales. The Hall- 
VanGorder Company in 1928 — its seventy-seventh year — ^became a division 
of McKesson-Robbins, Inc. 

The Plain Dealer introduced a column of local news captioned "Spice," 
written by William Edward McLaren, who later left the newspaper field to 
join the ministry and became a bishop in the Protestant Episcopal Church. 
On the staff of the paper during the fifties were writers who went on to 
fame, among them David R. Locke, better known as Petroleum Vesuvius 
Nasby, author of the "Nasby Letters." Locke denounced slavery and ad- 
vanced other causes through satiric propaganda in his Toledo Blade 
editorials. He later joined the New Yor\ Evening Mail as managing 
editor. J. B. Bouton of the Plain Dealer rose to city editor of the Journal of 
Commerce in New York. Alphonse M. Griswold became a prominent 
journalist, humorist, and lecturer. John H. Sargent and George M. Marshall 
of Cleveland made valuable contributions to the Plain Dealer columns 
through their letters written while abroad. 

Musical history really began in Cleveland when Jenny Lind sang at 
Kelley's Hall on November 7. She had arrived at the Weddell House the 
night before with a troupe of fourteen people. Tickets sold quickly at from 
two to four dollars, and there was a fashionable capacity house. Her program 
included John Anderson, My Jo, the Gipsy Song, Echo Song, and her famous 
Bird Song, with which she calmed the audience when peeping spectators 
broke through the skylight. The Swedish Nightingale, called the greatest 
singer of her time, had been imported by P. T. Barnum and built into a 
sensational artist through ingenious publicity. Her brief but fabulous career 
in America closed the following May. Said Barnum, "She was a woman 
who would have been adored if she had had the voice of a crow." 

Harvey Rice, lawyer, legislator, and keen businessman, was elected to the 



[1852] RAILS AND RED GOLD 245 

State Senate this year, where he fathered the law that created free pubHc 
schools in Ohio, supported by taxes rather than by voluntary subscription — 
schools "cheap enough for the poorest and good enough for the richest." 
Rice also introduced the reform-farm bill, providing for educational and 
moral training of delinquent boys. A wise leader, he gave liberally of his 
time to public welfare. His several volumes of history, biography, poems, 
and essays remain a valuable source of material relating to the Cleveland 
he knew. He died in 1891. 

The Mercantile Library Association, organized on December 9 with 
James A. Briggs as president, originated in the Cleveland Library Association. 
Its membership of one hundred and fifty met in the Forest City Block on 
Superior Street. Through lecture courses, Clevelanders enjoyed the wisdom, 
eloquence, and charm of the greatest names appearing on the public 
platform. 

A Sunday School, established in 1846 by the First Baptist Church at Eagle 
and Erie streets, was the nucleus of the Erie Street Baptist Church, organized 
in December this year by the Rev. J. Hyatt Smith with forty-three members. 
The meeting house on Rockwell Street was purchased from the Second 
Presbyterian Church and moved to the northeast corner of Erie and Ohio 
streets. To relieve the congregation of burdensome debt, twelve young 
men — John D. Rockefeller, who had joined the church in 1854, his brother, 
William, William and Stewart Chisholm, and others organized a society 
and saved the church (later Euclid Avenue Baptist Church). 

As was their custom in the homeland at holiday time, Germans in the 
Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church set up a candle-lighted Christmas tree 
in their little sanctuary (Public Auditorium site). A "heathenish custom," 
complained hide-bound New Englanders, this "groveling before the shrubs." 
Not so long before, in 1847, a twenty-one-year-old German youth named 
August Ingard set up a Christmas tree, believed to be the first in America, 
in his home at Wooster, Ohio. Cleveland's tree was probably the first to 
appear in a church or in a ceremony. Gingerbread figures, popcorn strings, 
tinsel, and paper decorations were placed on the early trees with tender care. 



1852 

A new school building, costing $3,500, opened in January on Clinton 
Street, later called Brownell Street School (between Prospect and Central). 
It was soon overcrowded; and while the authorities debated the question, a 
high wind blew the root of? the building. A third story restored the roof 
and relieved the congestion. Children of prominent Euclid Street families 
received their grade-school education here. 

Mrs. Benjamin Rouse and members of the early Dorcas Society took 
practical interest in the care of orphans, and played a large part in the 
founding of the Cleveland Orphan Asylum. The project was launched at a 
meeting in the Stone Church on January 22, its founders being John M. 



246 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1852] 

Woolsey, first chairman of the board of trustees, Mrs. Sherlock J. Andrews, 
Mrs. Philo Scovill, Mrs. J. K. Miller, Mrs. Henry W. Clark, Mrs. Stillman 
Witt, Mrs. C. D. Williams, Mrs. Elisha Taylor, Mrs. George A. Benedict, 
Mrs. Josiah A. Harris, Mrs. Buckley Stedman, Mrs. Mary H. Severance, and 
Mrs. A. H. Barney. Benjamin Rouse was an early trustee. Mrs. Witt rented a 
house on Erie Street as a haven for unfortunate children, and, during the 
first year, eleven orphans received care. The asylum was incorporated in 
1853, and Sherlock J. Andrews became president of the board. Mrs. Rouse 
was an active member of the board of managers. New and efficient 
methods, made possible by generous gifts and endowment, shaped a pattern 
for America. The asylum having outgrown its early quarters, Beech-Brook, 
a beautiful cottage community on suburban Lander Road, was provided in 
1926 for the Cleveland Protestant Orphan Asylum, as it had become known. 

John Downie came to America with his family to prospect for California 
gold; but his funds were exhausted when he reached Cleveland, and he found 
employment painting ships in Ohio City. He rented a store this year at 
Rockwell and Wood streets from Leonard Case for fifty dollars a year and 
opened a shop. Adding wallpaper to the stock, Downie & Son soon found 
themselves in demand as painters and decorators. The son, William, headed 
the business until succeeded by his son, William, who was a civic leader 
and a founder of Cleveland Rotary. The store moved to the Public Square, 
thence to Prospect; and when the firm incorporated in 1912 as William 
Downie Company, it was located at 9500 Edmunds Avenue. William Downie 
II was head of the family-owned business in the 1940s; associated with him 
was his son, William III. The company was the oldest painting firm in Ohio, 
operated continuously by the same family. 

The visit of Louis Kossuth, brilliant orator and eminent Hungarian 
patriot, was an occasion of great moment. Upon the invitation of leading 
Clevelanders, he arrived January 31 and was escorted to the Weddell House 
by civic and military bodies. Two days later, he spoke from the balcony of 
the American House; and at Melodeon Hall, citizens paid three and four 
dollars to hear "the gallant knight," attired in a rich costume of his native 
land. About fifteen hundred dollars was contributed to the Hungarian-relief 
cause, and Hungarian aid societies were formed. 

Reports that graves were being robbed to supply medical institutions 
with cadavers seemed to be substantiated when a portion of a body was found 
near the Western College of Homeopathic Medicine on February 17. A 
father, whose daughter's coffin had been found empty, identified the body. 
The news spread quickly and soon an angry mob filled the Public Square, 
crowded on Ontario Street to the college, and forced its way inside, spreading 
destruction from top to bottom. The pitiful police force was helpless, the 
fire hose failed to make a dent, and it took the militia to put down the riot. 
Long, wearisome trials of the accused disclosed that the body was that of a 
man, a fact that compensated not one whit for the great damage suffered 
by the college. This was one of the few recorded instances of mob violence 
in early Cleveland's history. 

Members of the First Presbyterian Church of East Cleveland gathered for 



[1852] RAILS AND RED GOLD 247 

a crucial meeting, February 21, on the subject of a proposed change in church 
government, and their relation "to the sin of slavery" through connection 
with the General Assembly. Because the church severed its affiliation with 
the Presbytery, nine members dissented and two of them left the con- 
gregation, which, for the next decade, was known as the Independent 
Presbyterian Church. Its pastor, the Rev. C. W. Torrey, served through the 
critical period. In 1862, the identity became First Congregational Church of 
East Cleveland. Five years later, during the ministry of the Rev. Albert M. 
Richardson, a brick meeting house, with one hundred and twenty-four 
pews seating six hundred, the largest and one of the finest churches in the 
district, was dedicated at the southeast corner of Euclid and Logan streets 
on a lot given by W. S. Streator. The bell was removed from the old Doan's 
Corners building and hung in the new. In 1872, the name was changed to 
The Euclid Avenue Congregational Church of East Cleveland, and sex 
was eliminated from membership qualifications. 

At about this time, Rufus P. Spalding retired from public life and came 
to Cleveland, where he engaged in law practice with Richard C. Parsons. 
The son of a wealthy Massachusetts doctor, Spalding was born in 1798 and 
educated at Yale College; he later studied law. He located in Warren, Ohio, 
in about 1821, later moving to Ravenna and Akron. An eloquent lawyer, he 
had served in the State Legislature and as judge of the Ohio Supreme Court 
in the forties. Spalding had been a Democrat until his party joined the 
advocates of slavery; he then went over to the Free Soilers, and later was an 
organizer of the Republican Party. He succeeded Albert G. Riddle in 
Congress in 1864; after re-election in 1864, he developed the Reconstruction 
Laws, outlining many of the important measures. Refusing a third-term 
nomination, he returned to Cleveland, where he was active in the social 
and cultural life of the city until his death in 1866. 

Richard C. Parsons, law partner of Rufus P. Spalding, was born in 
Connecticut in 1826. Although having been admitted to the bar in 1851, 
he was elected to the Cleveland City Council this year, and within a few 
months was made president. A pioneer Republican, he served two terms 
in the Legislature, and was chosen speaker of the house. President Abraham 
Lincoln appointed him consul to Rio de Janeiro, and he later held the post 
of collector of internal revenue at Cleveland and was marshal of the United 
States Supreme Court, 1866-72. While a member of Congress, 1873-75, 
Parsons was instrumental in securing life-saving service for Cleveland, the 
lighthouse, and the launching of breakwater improvements. It is said that 
"his polished appearance and his patent-leather shoes" inspired defeat for 
re-election by the labor vote. After a brief venture in the newspaper business, 
he served as national-bank examiner, meanwhile continuing his law practice. 

Hog owners scratched their heads when they read the marshal's notice 
on February 26 stating that "All persons owning hogs, are hereby notified, 
that the ordinance restraining the same from running at large within the 
city of Cleveland, will be enforced unless the same be restrained." Plainly 
speaking, the animals could no longer run hog-wild. 

With his earnings as clerk and, later, as partner in a drug store, John Owen 



248 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1852] 

fulfilled the dream he had as a boy o£ nine, when he watched the fire-eating 
Wal^-in-the-Water steam into Cleveland in 1818. He and his associates 
organized the Detroit & Cleveland Steamboat Line this year. They built the 
Forest City, chartered the St. Louis and Sam Ward, and took over the 
Detroit-Cleveland run, started two years earlier by Captain Arthur Edwards. 
The May Queen and the City of Cleveland were added the next year, and 
the business played a large part in the advance o£ both Cleveland and Detroit. 
It provided a water route from- Detroit to Cleveland, and laid the foundation 
of one of the world's largest inland passenger and freight steamship lines. 
David Carter came into the firm, and in 1868 the Detroit & Cleveland Steam 
Navigation Company was formed. The steamers Ocean, Morning Star, and 
R. N. Rice were added to the fleet, the Northwest later replacing the Morning 
Star and the Saginaw taking the place of the R. N. Rice. 




The famous Forest City House, formerly the Dunham House. 

William A. Smith took over the Dunham House at the southwest corner 
of Superior and the Public Square on February 27. It was expanded by a 
four-story addition built by George P. Smith along the Square, with stores 
and a barber shop on the street floor. Railed porches extended above the 
entranceway, and an ornamental tower loomed above the high mansard roof, 
rising to the equivalent of six stories. This was the Forest City House, that 
took its name from the Forest City it served. It was one of the finest hotels 
in the West, the social, commercial, and historical center of the growing 
city. In the enlarged dining room, political clubs toasted their champions, 
and civic organizations furthered the city's advance. The building was later 
extended almost to Diebolt's Alley. Management changed a number of 
times, the dynasty of chin-whiskered William "Billy" Akers and S. T. Paine, 
beginning in 1888, standing out in the annals of Cleveland hotel history. 
Akers was a host out of fiction, genial and a born entertainer, with an 
endless fund of stories and eloquent recitations upon which to draw. 

Publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin or Life Among the Lowly, written by 



Libranj of the Wat- 
em Reserve Histor- 
ical Society on FAist 
Boulevard. 




Dr. Elisha S. Sterling 
Dr. A. Mai/nard 
D. W. Cross 
George A. Stanley 
John Coon 



A Meeting at the Ark 
Captain B. A. Stannard 
William Case 
Leonard Case. Jr. 
StouQhton Bliss 



J. J. Tracy 
Btishnell White 
E. A. Scovill 
Rufus K. Winslow 
Henry G. Abhey 




In the 1820s 




% 








In the 18S0s 



In the 1840s 




In the CWuf Xineties 



Styles in tlie Nineteenth Century. Cleveland picture collection, 

CLEVELAND PUHLIC LIBRARY. 



[1852] RAILS AND RED GOLD 249 

Harriet Beecher Stowe, sister of the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, was an- 
nounced on March 27, and orders were soHcited at prices ranging from one 
to two dollars. Published by Jewett, Proctor & Worthington of Cleveland, 
the work was hailed as "the most beautiful, truthful, and valuable book 
ever written or published by an American," according to the Daily True 
Democrat. The long-awaited volume poured fresh oil on the flames of the 
slavery controversy. 

Charles A. Otis, son of William A. Otis, pioneer ironmaster, set up a steam 
forge on Whisky Island with John N. Ford, a skilled mechanic from the 
East, to make steamboat shafts, iron castings, and axles for the railroads. 
Known as the Lake Erie Iron Works, a rolling mill was added early in the 
decade to make boiler plate. The elder Otis was a promoter of the Columbus 
and Pittsburgh railroads, and served as director of both for a number of years. 

Dr. Leonard Hanna, his brother, Robert, and Hiram Garretson came to 
Cleveland from Lisbon, Ohio, and organized the wholesale grocery and 
commission firm of Hanna, Garretson & Company on Merwin Street. Dr. 
Hanna's family followed the next fall, leaving their Lisbon farm,, where 
Marcus Alonzo Hanna was born in 1837. Having become interested in Lake 
Superior copper and iron, the company began operating several vessels in 
lake trading later in the fifties, and expanded operations to include coal min- 
ing in Ohio. Young "Mark" went to work in his father's business late in 
the decade. After a long illness. Dr. Hanna died in 1862, and the firm dis- 
solved. From this small beginning, however, the diversified industrial 
interests of the Hanna family developed to vast proportions. Mark was a 
lively figure in the social set. Early in the sixties he was courting the daughter 
of Daniel P. Rhodes, who at first opposed a suitor of Republican politics, but 
later relented, and gave consent to the marriage. 

Edwin B. Hale came to Cleveland and entered the private banking business 
of Sturgis & Hale. Having purchased his partner's interest, the firm became 
E. B. Hale & Company. W. H. Barriss joined him in 1859, and the business 
grew until it was one of the largest in Ohio. In 1891, the company was 
succeeded by the Marine Bank Company, of which Hale was president and 
Barriss, cashier. 

An act of the Legislature, passed on May 3, provided for the incorporation 
of cities and villages. A population of twenty thousand constituted the 
dividing line between cities of the first and second class, and Cleveland fell 
short of first rating. Two trustees from each ward made up the Council, each 
receiving a dollar for every session. The mayor's power was restricted, and 
Council fixed his salary. Operation of the city had grown complex, and a 
board of city commissioners was created with authority over streets and 
bridges. The marshal, treasurer and city solicitor, and a market superintendent 
were elected; and added to the official family were a civil engineer, an 
auditor, and a complete police court, including a judge, clerk, and prosecutor. 

A fourth ward was created in Cleveland, made up largely of the new 
district annexed to the east, and extending to Willson Avenue. 

The First United Brethren Church, organized this year at Kentucky and 
Lorain streets, inspired the founding of several prominent United Brethren 



250 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1852] 

churches in the county. In 1868, it moved to an estabUshed location (West 
42nd Street and Orchard Avenue). The church belonged to the Ohio German 
Conference until 1930, when it transferred to the East Ohio Conference. The 
Rev. E. F. Wegner gave stimulating leadership for twenty-two years, during 
which activity expanded. The Rev. James Howsare was pastor in 1946 at 
the time of the merger of the Evangelical and United Brethren denomina- 
tions, the identity of First Church being changed to First Evangelical 
United Brethren Church. The Rev. D. A. Ewing later became pastor. 

On lower Superior Street, between the Weddell House and the Franklin 
House, the site of Abram Hickox' pioneer smithy, the Johnson House had 
been erected by Levi Johnson. It opened in June, and commercial travelers 
and civic and political organizations favored it. Late in the century it had 
lost its prestige. In 1910 it was razed, and an addition to the Rockefeller 
Building rose in its place. 

Although the Cleveland & Mahoning Valley Railroad Company (later 
Erie Railroad) had received its charter on February 22, 1848, financing 
seemed an impossibility. In June, 1852, the first stockholders meeting was held 
in Warren, Ohio, when three hundred thousand dollars had been subscribed. 
The directorate included able businessmen: Jacob Perkins, son of General 
Simon Perkins of Trumbull County, Frederick Kinsman, and Charles Smith 
of Warren; David Tod of Youngstown; Dudley Baldwin of Cleveland; 
Robert Cunningham of New Castle; and James Magee of Pittsburgh. Later 
having been refused aid at home and in Europe, President Perkins came 
forward and pledged $100,000 of his personal fortune to the venture, and the 
directors joined him, making the project possible. In 1857 the road reached 
Youngstown via Warren, opening the Mahoning Valley coal fields to 
Cleveland and other lake ports and dealing a mighty blow to canal com- 
merce. Just before he passed on in 1859 in Cleveland, his home for about 
seven years, Jacob Perkins remarked in jest, "If I die you may inscribe on 
my tombstone, 'Died of the Mahoning Valley Railroad.' " 

Cleveland mourned with the nation upon hearing by "magnetic telegraph" 
of the death of Henry Clay, "the Great Pacificator," on June 29. The remains 
were brought to Cleveland from Buffalo on the steamer Bucl{eye State on 
July 7, with a distinguished party; and as minute guns fired and bells tolled, 
the coffin was borne between rows of citizens to the railroad funeral car, 
and a committee headed by Governor Reuben Wood accompanied it to 
Lexington, Kentucky, for burial. 

Jabez W. Fitch was appointed chief of the Volunteer Fire Department by 
the City Council; but William Cowen, James Hill, and Edward Hart, who 
succeeded him, were chosen directly by the people. Then the law was 
changed, and James Craw was chosen by the Council. Engine companies 
at this time were Eagle No. i, Forest City No. 2, Saratoga No. 3, Phoenix No. 
4, Cataract No. 5, Red Jacket No. 6, Forest City Hook and Ladder No. i, 
and Hope No. 8. Slow, startling taps from the old bell on the First Baptist 
Church at Seneca and Champlain streets were the signal for firemen to start 
for the engine house, whether in a prayer meeting, at a horse race, or 
a-courting. The first to arrive seized the trumpet, and he was in command 



[1852] RAILS AND RED GOLD 251 

until the chief or an assistant came on the scene. Engines weighed from one 
to three tons and were dragged laboriously by ropes through sand and mud 
or over plank pavements. Curious citizens followed the company, and were 
expected to lend needed help under penalty of fine and imprisonment. 
Engines were operated by hand, with long levers at the sides of the machines. 
A stream one hundred feet high was their limit, and then only with greatest 
exertion. Each engine carried one hundred feet of hose. About forty firemen 
constituted a company. They designed and furnished their uniforms, served 
without pay, and were exempt from jury duty, from paying poll tax and from 
working on the highways. After five years of service, exemptions continued 
for life. They met eight times a year for drill meets, and were paid $1 each 
time. The chief received a salary of $150 per year, which he was expected to 
spend for prizes awarded at the firemen's annual ball, a brilliant affair. All 
companies responded to every call, and intense rivalry and jealousy resulted. 
This was aggravated by monthly competitive drills; but ill feeling was 
banished as the firemen joined in their annual celebration. 

In the Democratic Convention to nominate a candidate for President of the 
United States, votes of Ohio delegates were all that were required to seal the 
nomination of Reuben Wood of Cleveland. When J. W. Gray and General 
H. H. Dodge, representing Cuyahoga County, failed to support him, their 
influence spread and Franklin Pierce was chosen. Wood had been traveling 
with the Hunkers in New York, a faction not approved by party leaders. 
Gray explained later. President Pierce appointed him consul to Valparaiso 
in 1853, and the next year Wood withdrew from active life, retiring to his 
beautiful estate on Ridge Road in Rockport Township, where he died in 
1864 at the age of seventy-two. 

Differences arose over the slavery question, and on July 4, a small group of 
members of the First Presbyterian Church of Euclid organized The Free 
Congregational Church of Euclid Village in a schoolhouse (near Euclid 
Avenue and Noble Road). Their recorded purpose was "to advance the 
cause of purity in our hearts and give our influence to cleanse the church, 
and ultimately the world, of slave holding." Charter members of the Collamer 
congregation included community pioneers, Asa Cady — or Cody, John 
Ruple, Rufus Dutton, M. S. Mcllrath, WilHam H. Coit, Jay Odell, and 
Andrew Wemple, said to have been "either conductors, engineers or 
station agents on the underground railroad." Membership began to disin- 
tegrate after the Civil War. In 1876, some members withdrew to form the 
Congregational Church of Collinwood. Missions at Wickliffe, Glenville, 
and Fairmount had been started. Affiliations with the mother church were 
resumed by the majority of members. On June 15, 1893, the trustees were 
authorized to sell the church property (at Euclid and Allendale Avenue) and 
transfer to the Congregational City Missionary Society the proceeds and any 
other property upon condition that the same be used to purchase a lot in 
East Cleveland and erect on it a Congregational Church building, which 
became the home of East Congregational Church (later East Cleveland 
Congregational Church) in 1900. 

Resigning his connection with the Cleveland Iron Mining Company, 



252 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1852] 

Henry B. Tuttle had set up an agency for the handling of Lake Superior 
iron ore. The first shipment of ore from the Marquette Range consisted of 
six barrels shipped by the Marquette Iron Company on July 7 on the 
schooner Baltimore to Tuttle in Cleveland. There were no locks at the Soo, 
and the ore was unloaded and sent south by rail. Although some considered 
it not worth the freight, "red gold" from the iron country was destined to 
make Cleveland one of the world's greatest producers of iron-and-steel 
products. George H. Ely, associated with Tuttle, later established a partner- 
ship with S. P. Ely, handling iron ore in Cleveland, and they became 
prominent in the business. Horace A. and Fred Tuttle ultimately joined their 
father, and when Willis W. Masters entered the firm in 1881, it became 
Tuttle, Masters & Company. Earl W. Oglebay, Wheeling industrialist, came 
to Cleveland in 1884, and with Horace A. Tuttle and Daniel McGarry estab- 
lished Tuttle, Oglebay & Company (later Oglebay, Norton & Company). 
Their interests centered in a new mining region later known as the Gogebic 
Range. 

Having settled the vast estate of his father. General Simon Perkins 
of Trumbull County, who died in 1844, Joseph Perkins, aged thirty-three, 
came to Cleveland, where he became prominent in banking and business. 
While serving as a member of the Ohio Board of State Charities in 1867, 
Perkins developed a reform plan by which prisoners were classified and no 
longer thrown together promiscuously. He then reformed the infirmary 
systems of the State, greatly improving the physical and mental health of the 
insane. Perkins gave generously of his time and wealth to the uplift of human- 
ity until his death in 1885. His son, Joseph, Jr., was closely identified with 
Cleveland's educational and cultural life. 

Cleveland was growing up, and the boundaries of the open countryside 
were being pushed farther by new communities. This gave rise to a need for 
parks, and attention was turned to the Public Square. Residents whose homes 
fronted on the Square wanted it fenced and the street entrances closed to 
form "a grand central park." On July 22, a petition was introduced into 
Council asking that the streets be vacated; but although the law department 
declared it illegal, the famous "fence war" between the residents and en- 
croaching business interests had been declared, and for fifteen years the 
feud continued. 

P. T. Barnum's "grand colossal museum and menagerie" gave an exhibition 
in the city. Tradition says that the showman gave ten free tickets to prominent 
Bedford citizens. Train service not being available, the ten went to Cleveland 
on a handcar. The car was stolen while they were at the show, and they 
walked the ties home. 

The first avenues were named this year, Case, Sawtell, Sterling, and 
Willson, and Superior became known also as an avenue. William Case, 
mayor during 1850 and 1851, led in a tree-planting movement that established 
Cleveland as the "Forest City." In 1855, Cedar Street became an avenue; 
Clinton Street was changed to Brownell; Division Street became Center 
Street; Second Street became Hill Street; York Street was changed to Ham- 



[1852] RAILS AND RED GOLD 253 

ikon Street; and Prospect Street on the West Side became Franklin Street. 

The first issue of the Waechter am Erie (later Waechter und Anzeiger) 
appeared on August 2, dedicated to "the Union, the abohtion o£ slavery and 
the promulgation of liberal culture." August Thieme, scholar, essayist, and 
journalist, was the first editor. The paper later supported the RepubHcans 
and became a daily in 1866. 

Cleveland's first general hospital originated in a small brick building of 
St. Vincent's Orphan Asylum at Willett and Monroe streets on the West Side. 
On August 5, the Sisters of Charity of St. Augustine opened the doors of St. 
Joseph's Hospital (forerunner of St. Vincent Charity Hospital) to the 
community. 



Clevelands first high-school 
building, erected in 1832 and 
torn dotvn in 1856. 




Although the United States Government had purchased about nine acres 
of land at Erie and Lake streets for a Marine Hospital as early as 1837, 
construction was delayed by the administration, and it was not opened for 
service until this year. Surgeons appointed from civil life were in charge 
until 1889, when medical officers of the United States Marine Hospital 
Service assumed authority. The hospital cared for "sick seamen, boatmen and 
other navigators on the western rivers and lakes." Until 1884, the service was 
supported by monthly deductions from seamen's wages; support then came 
from tonnage taxes until 1905, when direct appropriations were made by 
Congress. 

The reed organ, a new musical instrument made in Cleveland by Child & 
Bishop, later the Jewett & Goodman Organ Company, appeared in local 
churches. 

Dr. Nathan H. Ambler established himself as a dentist at the corner of 
Seneca and Superior streets this year. On a large tract of land overlooking 
Doan Brook Valley, he built a fine stone residence. The district became 
known as Ambler Heights, and Ambler Road honors his name. 

The High School having outgrown its quarters, a 104-foot lot was purchased 
by the city for $5,000 on Euclid near Erie as a site for its first home. A 
temporary frame building costing $1,200 was ready for occupancy in the 
fall, and served until 1856. 

Mayflower Street School was opened this year in a little, two-room, 
wooden building at the corner of Orange Street. Most of the children were 



254 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1852] 

Bohemian and could scarcely understand English, but they soon picked up 
the language in their playtime associations. Two years later, a three-story, 
brick building was erected to meet the growing demands of the community, 
and four hundred and fifty pupils were admitted. Remarkable discipline 
characterized Principal Palmer's school routine. He introduced the "slipper 
arrangement," by which slippers were worn in the schoolroom by the boys, 
boots having been exchanged for them in the basement. Palmer's floors were 
spotless! In 1869, the building was doubled in size to accommodate a 
thousand pupils. 

The Ohio State Fair, held in Cleveland for the first time, "on the Scovill 
lot" on Kinsman Street, opened on September 15 for a three-day run. An 
advance warning went out, "Watch your railroad tickets; most people will 
have to eat standing up; beware of pickpockets." 

General Sam Houston made a fiery speech from the balcony of the 
Forest City House during the State Fair, in which he pleaded the cause 
of his candidate for President, Franklin Pierce, Democrat. Houston was 
a picturesque campaigner in his broad-brimmed slouch hat and vest of 
wildcat skin. On the twentieth, General Winfield Scott, who headed the 
Whig ticket, tried to influence votes from the American House balcony, but 
his efforts failed to carry him to victory. 

The best wheat grown in Ohio this year was produced by Thomas Hird 
on his East Rockport (Lakewood) farm, and he received a medal from, the 
Ohio Board of Agriculture for his achievement. Hird was hired to manage 
Richard Lord's 320-acre farm in 1818 (extending from West 117th and 
Madison Avenue to the lake). When he married Lord's daughter, Hope, he 
inherited the lands. For many years, their fine home stood at Hird and 
Detroit avenues. 

Iris Lodge No. 229, Free and Accepted Masons, was organized on October 
22. Meetings were held in Iris Hall in the Forest City Block, rented for $150 
per year, including light and heat. Quarters were shared with Cleveland 
City Lodge, which now had a membership of about sixty. Bigelow Lodge 
No. 243 was organized in 1853, Concordia No. 345 in 1863, and Ellsworth 
in 1865. Masonry was gaining slowly in strength, the Oriental Commandery, 
Knights Templar, having been formed in 1851. EUadah Grand Lodge of 
Perfection, Ancient Scottish Rite, and Bahurim Council Prince of Jerusalem 
began in 1859, followed by Ariel Chapter in i860. The Cleveland Council 
was organized in 1865. 

Cleveland's water supply came from springs, wells, the canal, and the 
river. In the business district pumps had been provided for public use and 
for fire-fighting. Increased population, neglected sanitation, and heavy fire 
losses aroused the citizens, and they demanded improvements. Mayor Wil- 
liam Case and an able committee, consisting of William J. Warner, Dr. 
Jared P. Kirtland, and Charles Whittlesey, made a report on October 29, 
after nearly two years of investigation, recommending that the lake was the 
only "unfailing" source of supply. Private building of a water works, they 
agreed, "can be carried on more economically by individuals or companies 
than by municipal corporations, and also better managed after construction." 



[1852] RAILS AND RED GOLD 255 

Private enterprise was considered impractical in Cleveland, however, for 
want of adequate capital. 

The first locomotive traveled the entire length of the Cleveland, Paines- 
ville & Ashtabula Railroad (later New York Central) from Cleveland east- 
ward to the state line in November. Envisioning future needs, a double track 
had been laid on a 100-foot roadway, costing $15,000 per mile. T-rails, 12 
to 18 feet long and made in England, had been introduced. Passenger 
coaches 56 feet long, the largest then in use, with eight wheels and brakes, 
went into service along with 26-foot freight cars, supplied with brakes. Six 
engines — two built in Ohio City — handled the traffic. They were 30-ton 
wood-burners with 6-foot drivers, the finest in Ohio. Sheds along the route 
furnished ample supplies of cordwood fuel. Extension of the road to Erie 
along the Franklin Canal Railway line was permitted when the courts 
overruled objections of Erie citizens. Although handicapped by varying 
gauges, the final link in a through route between Cincinnati and New 
York, via Cleveland and Buffalo, had been forged. On October 8, 1867, the 
company leased the Cleveland & Toledo Railroad Company. The Cleveland, 
Painesville & Ashtabula Railroad emerged as the Lake Shore Railway Com- 
pany on June 22, 1868. It acquired the Cleveland & Toledo road in 1869, 
bringing the Erie-Toledo line under one corporation. 

Only a country road led to the lake when St. John's Cathedral was dedi- 
cated at Superior and Erie streets on November 7. Pomp and ceremony 
marked the consecration of the second cathedral, seating 900. It was one 
of the city's finest buildings. The interior was designed by Patrick C. Keily, 
nationally known Gothic architect. Magnificent stained-glass windows were 
set in the walls, and the carved-oak altar was made in France. St. John's 
School for boys was constructed several years later, followed by Cathedral 
Hall and the school for girls in another decade. Four other parochial schools 
were also in existence: St. Patrick's and St. Mary's on the West Side, and 
St. Joseph's and St. Peter's on the East Side. Slow progress was made in 
early education, as Catholics were comparatively few and scattered. In 1884 
St. John's Cathedral was redecorated, and four years later a new brick 
school building was erected. 

Three brothers, Caius Cassius, Brutus Junius, and Junius Brutus Cobb, 
had learned the book business in the famous house of Moses C. Younglove & 
Company, and in 1852 they acquired the firm, which became J. B. Cobb 
& Company. That their father also had strong literary tendencies is evidenced 
by the intriguing names of his other children — Lucius Marcius, Marcius 
Lucius, Lucia Marcia, Cassius Caius, Marcia Lucia, and Daniel. The store 
on Superior Street grew, and soon there were branches in other cities. The 
firm was known as Cobb, Andrews & Company when it invaded residential 
Euclid Avenue in about 1875. 

Joseph Medill came to Cleveland from Coshocton, Ohio, and established 
the Daily Forest City. The next year, it merged with the True Democrat 
under a new name, Forest City Democrat. Edwin Cowles became a partner 
and business manager, and Medill and John C. Vaughn were the editors. 

Horace Mann aroused considerable comment with his middle-of-the-road 



256 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [l%3] 

lectures on Woman in Cleveland, December 14-15. Quoting the Morning 
True Democrat, "Neither the friends, nor the enemies, of the Woman's 
Rights Movement, so-called, could be altogether pleased." While the great 
educator devoted some of his time to an attack upon the plight of woman, 
the oppressed, the journal regretted that he was more intent upon "showing 
that God did not make woman man; that she ought not to fight, vote, 
preach, practice law, nor be shut up with men over night in a jury room 
from which her husband is excluded; and that this Woman's Rights 'school 
which has arisen in our day' has as 'its leader in Europe, Miss Helen Maria 
Weber, Esquire, who dresses like a man, with her blue dress coat, bright 
buttons, buff vest and biped continuations.' " Horace Mann spoke frequently 
to enthusiastic Cleveland audiences. In 1853 he began to put to work his 
pioneering plans for co-operative education when he became the first presi- 
dent of Antioch College. His great capacity for achievement in advancing 
education may be summed up in his inspiring words, "be ashamed to die 
until you have won some victory for humanity." 



1853 

Knight & Parsons' Cleveland City Directory, 18^2-^, released on Jan- 
uary I, was a notable achievement. Commending the 380-page volume to 
the public in an introductory statement headed "Advertisement," the editors, 
who were local booksellers, stressed the fact that the directory was a product 
of Cleveland endeavor, the paper having been made in the Younglove & 
Hoyt mill, printing by Harris, Fairbanks & Company of the Herald, and a 
map engraved expressly for the purpose. Dr. John S. Newberry had pre- 
pared twenty editorial pages relating to the city's growth and development, 
compiling an historical sketch from John Barr's notes. 

The trend of the times is reflected in goods and services advertised for 
sale in the forty-one-page yellow section of the city directory : white-ironstone 
ware and feather dusters, trunks and valises, agricultural implements and 
seeds, bird cages and umbrella stands, suspenders and cravats, gas fittings 
and railroad-car wheels, marble statuary and peddler's goods, saddles and 
horse goods, opera glasses and buffalo robes, dolls and toys, patent melodeons 
and daguerreotypes, steam dyeing and shawl cleaning "at the Curled-Hair 
Factory on the Flats," steamship services to California- and Europe, and 
cooking, parlor, plate, and coal stoves. Six local companies and forty-three 
agents, largely representing eastern firms, were competing for insurance 
business. Six commercial banks, with a combined capital of $1,700,000, as 
many private banking houses, two exchange brokers and the Society for Sav- 
ings were meeting the city's financial needs. There were 26 religious societies 
in the city, most of them agitated by the existence of 57 saloons and 105 
retail grocers who also dealt in Hquor. Only 360 retail stores were listed in 
the entire city! Although the gas age had begun, 3 companies were making 
lard oil; and 4, soap and candles. A page of subscribers constituted the only 



pii^^rwpa?'^ rsiTii 







5^ s 

-^ s| 
o 

V. Co la 

•^ cuol 
S •§ Cr 
*« -C c/2 
*^ r* c^ 
■^ ^ '^ 

o -a 
« . 

O -r* "JO 
•^ tS '^ 



CC 






Co ^S 

s 



Co O 



CO O 

o 



rS5 

I 
(a 






.2 — 

so 



^ s 






<3 



O -S r« 

52 ^ ^ 



o- 



CO 5 13 ca 









o tj 



^ S 2 



til 



258 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1853] 

reference to Ohio City, which may or may not be due to the feud of long 
standing. It is interesting to observe, however, that a nine-page blue section 
at the end of the directory advertised friendly Pittsburgh's industry and 
retail business. For a number of years, the directory appeared at irregular 
intervals. 

The Plain Dealer commented on the free-and-easy flow of liquor, observ- 
ing on January 17: "Our government lands cost |i an acre on an average, 
and champagne $2 a bottle. How many a man dies in the poorhouse, who, 
during his lifetime, has drank a fertile township, trees and all." 

The fame of Ralph Waldo Emerson, essayist and philosopher, had pre- 
ceded him, and the intellectual and the curious assembled in Melodeon 
Hall on January 20 to hear his lecture. The English Race. It was presented 
as the ninth of the Cleveland Library Association course, arranged by the 
Mercantile Library Association. "The chance of hearing such a man is 
seldom offered," remarked an editor. A report of the event stated, "His 
lecture last evening was a beautiful one," while the editorial of another paper 
criticized carpetbagging lecturers who traveled the country reading over 
and over again from a few sheets of foolscap. Emerson's reception was satis- 
factory, for on the twenty-second he gave a second lecture on Culture that 
was instructive and "clothed in beautiful language." While the first lecture 
"was rather materialistic than Emersonian ... in the latter he was more like 
himself," a news review stated. 

"The pressing want of a Presbyterian church in the eastern portion of 
the city" is said to have inspired Elisha Taylor, Zalmon Fitch, George 
Worthington, and ten others to break away from the First Presbyterian 
Church, halting its building plans for several years. During a controversy 
as to whether or not the First Church should build a new edifice, Taylor, 
a founder, and his adherents met in the basement of the church on January 
25 and launched the Euclid Street Presbyterian Church. Paper plans showed 
that a building could be provided by selling 178 pews appraised at $50,450. 
The southeast corner of Euclid and Brownell Street was purchased and a 
building erected at a cost of $60,750. Dr. Joseph B. Bittinger was called as 
pastor. The pretentious "church of 40 corners" greatly taxed the strength 
of the congregation. Time after time the courageous planners failed to reach 
financial goals, and it was not until 1871 that the debt was wiped out. In 
1880 the word "Avenue" replaced "Street" in the church name. The pastorate 
of Dr. Samuel P. Sprecher, 1 887-1905, was notable, as he was probably the 
most popular preacher of his time. In 1906, the Beckwith Memorial Church 
joined with EucHd Avenue; and, in 1920, a union with the Second Presby- 
terian Church resulted in the Church of the Covenant. Prominent in the 
life of the Euchd Church were Joseph Perkins, Franklin J. Slosson, Ann 
Walworth, Dr. H. J. Herrick, Joseph B. Meriam, Henry F. Pope, H. R. 
Hatch, and H. R. P. Hamilton. The old EucHd Avenue Church was razed 
to make way for the Hanna Building. 

The Public School Library (later Cleveland Public Library) originated in 
a state law enacted on March 14, permitting the purchase of books for 
school libraries. 



[1853] RAILS AND RED GOLD 259 

William Edwards, twenty-two, had been in Cleveland a year, having 
come from his birthplace in Springfield, Massachusetts; he found employ- 
ment with W. J. Gordon, owner of the largest wholesale grocery west of 
the Alleghenies. This year. Treat & Edwards was organized, operating a 
wholesale-grocery business in a two-story frame building on River Street 
near the site of the great future plant at 1300 West 9th Street, The founder 
died in 1898, and his family continued to manage the business. From this 
early enterprise, the William Edwards Company developed in 1906. The 
founder's sons, Harry R. and Major General Clarence R. — who won distinc- 
tion in World War I, were active on the board. Charles A. Otis, who had 
married their sister, Lucia R., became president in 1931 when General 
Edwards died. A year later, the company sponsored a co-operative group 
of independent grocers known as the Edwards Food Stores. In 1942 the 
William Edwards Company, the oldest food firm between New York and 
Chicago, was purchased by the Weideman Company, operating under direc- 
tion of M. M. Cohn. Lyman F. Narten became president in 1932. 

A "lightening train" was announced on March 29, to go into service 
between Cleveland and Cincinnati, cutting travel time to eight hours. 
"Every passenger train to and from this city consists of five to ten cars," 
observed the Daily True Democrat. In July, the editor reported another 
"lightening train" had cut the Buffalo trip to six and a half hours. 

When J. W. Gray was appointed postmaster on April i, he moved the 
Post Office to the Plain Dealer Building. With the advent of the railroad 
and mounting population, the volume of mail increased greatly. "Three 
men, three horses and two wagons are needed to bring twenty tons of mail 
a day from the depot," it was reported on June 27. Gray turned over the 
Plain Dealer operation to his brother, Nicholas, and others, while he fought 
his political enemies with a sharp pen. In 1858, he lost his office as post- 
master through his devotion to Stephen A. Douglas and his compromising 
stand on slavery. 

The election in April was of great importance, as a number of new offices 
were filled in accordance with the revised state constitution. Administration 
of city affairs was scattered in many directions, but the quality of leadership 
chosen seems to have precluded any serious inefficiencies that might have 
resulted. With the election of the first Board of Water Works Commis- 
sioners, consisting of Henry B. Payne, B. L. Spangler, and Richard Hilliard, 
Cleveland's major health problem was to have constructive attention. By 
special vote — 1,230 for, and 599 against, the people authorized the city to 
spend $400,000 for a water works, and the officials were directed to go to 
work immediately. 

The Cleveland Theater, under construction since 1851, was opened for- 
mally, April 16, 1853, by Manager Charles Foster of Pittsburgh. Located on 
the top floor of the three-story, brick building on the east side of Bank 
Street (1371 West 6th), it was one of the finest theaters in the country. 
The curtain went up on The School for Scandal, played by a stock company 
headed by Ben Maginley, later a celebrated comedian. John A. Ellsler, 
who had taught Joseph Jefferson the dialect for Rip Van Winkle when they 



260 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1853] 

were partners, leased the theater, which was in financial difficulties, and gave 
it the name of Academy of Music. He organized a stock company, one of 
the first dramatic schools in the nation, and gave actors their start. John 
McCullough began his march to stardom here as Virginius; and Lawrence 
Barrett, then a struggling actor, earned another chance under Ellsler. 
Ellsler and his wife, Effie E., were distinguished performers in the com- 
pany; and his pretty red-haired daughter, Effie, Cleveland's sweetheart, be- 
came a great actress. Gas footlights in front of the red-plush curtain were 
lit with a taper, and the hundreds of china candles in the center chandelier 
were lighted from the balcony with a long rod. The stage sloped toward 
the audience, affording a hazard to actors who might unceremoniously tum- 
ble headlong into the orchestra pit, where a music-teacher conductor presided 
with his pupils. That the Academy started to go downhill may be charged 
to hard times or perhaps to high admissions, varying from $1 to 50 cents 
in the dress circle, 25 cents in the gallery, and boxes at I5 and $10. At any 
rate, in 1858, the Ellslers went on the road, returning at intervals with a 
traveling company that played to passably large audiences. Ellsler again 
became manager of the Academy in 1862, and a new era of sparkling music, 
drama, and opera began. He also managed the Opera House in Canton, 
where his Cleveland shows were presented. Through the stage door of the 
Academy passed some of America's greatest artists — Edwin Forrest, Char- 
lotte Thompson, Edward A. Sothern, Lawrence Barrett, Joseph Jefferson, 
Edwin Booth, Charlotte Cushman, E. L. Davenport, Joseph Proctor, Clara 
Morris, Maggie Mitchell, and James Lewis, who won fame with Augustin 
Daly's famous stock company. 

The Richman Brothers Company, founded by Henry Richman in Ports- 
mouth, Ohio, this year, was moved to Cleveland in 1879. Richman made 
men's suits, trousers, and overcoats in his Water Street factory, selling 
products through independent dealers. As his three sons, Nathan G., Charles 
L., and Henry C, reached sixteen years of age, they came into the business, 
earning $3 a week. 

Protests against mounting crime demanded more efficient policing. Only 
"three or four acting constables" and "half a dozen watchmen" were on 
duty to guard the population. On April 17, the first session of Police Court 
was held in a back room in the Gaylord Block on Superior Street, between 
Seneca and the Public Square. John Barr was the police judge; Bushnell 
White, prosecuting attorney; and Orlando J. Hodge, clerk. They had won 
their offices in a spirited political contest, the first two being victorious 
Whigs, and the latter a Democrat. In the first case before the court, five 
firemen were charged with "getting up a false alarm of fire and disturbing 
the peace." The culprits had been arrested and much excitement resulted, 
as it was understood that the volunteers were exempt from punishment, no 
matter how playful they became. When the judge fined all but one of the 
accused $5 each and costs, city firemen met in protest and the verdict was 
soundly denounced. 

German families in Ohio City joined under the leadership of the Rev. 
Phillip Stempel, a learned man, in organizing the United German Evan- 



[1853] RAILS AND RED GOLD 261 

gelical Protestant Church, the pastor serving also as school teacher at a 
salary of $250 per year. A brick house o£ worship was erected in i860 at the 
corner of Bridge and Kentucky streets, the traditional church site down 
through the years. Later known as the West Side Evangelical Church, it 
played a large part in the life of a changing community through broadening 
activities. The Rev. Walter K. Klein, the fourth pastor, came to the church 
in 1924. Steady growth continued, and West Side developed into one of the 
strongest churches in the Evangelical and Reformed denomination in 
Cleveland. 

Euclid Street at Erie was muddy and rutted, and it was commonly called 
the "Frog Pond." A wit of the day erected a headboard in the street pro- 
claiming: "Here lieth ye Street Commissioner, so called, who departed this 
life, May 6, 1853." Relief did not come until 1859, when a 25-foot gravel 
carriageway was laid from the Square to Erie Street at a cost of $776.50. 
The first efforts at grading and draining "Lake Euclid" had come two years 
before. Although an ordinance required owners to pave sidewalks, little 
attention was paid to it. 

Omnibus service on Euclid Street was started by Ed Duty, who made 
two trips daily between the City Hotel and the Croton House in East 
Cleveland, fare ten cents. He later extended his line to Euclid Creek. By 
i860, a line operated to Collamer, via St. Clair; on Kinsman, ending near 
Case Avenue; and on the West Side, to the Reservoir on Franklin Street. 

The Bank of Commerce, chartered about 1845, opened this year in the 
Atwater Block with a capital of |ioo,ooo. Parker Handy, the first president, 
was succeeded in several years by Joseph Perkins. Reorganization as the 
Second National Bank was effected in 1864, and in 1870 the institution 
moved into the new National Bank Building. It continued for many years 
under a succession of able presidents — Amasa Stone, Sylvester T. Everett, 
Jeptha H. Wade, and G. A. Garretson. After several transitions, it emerged in 
1899 as The Bank of Commerce National Association, located in the Western 
Reserve Building. It was the oldest unit in the merger which became the 
Union Trust Company in 1924. 

Cleveland bankers showed the way to free the country of old Spanish 
coins that had been piHng up. The limited amount of American silver in 
circulation commanded a premium of five per cent over bankable currency, 
and four per cent over gold. Spanish coins were widely used, but they were 
worn thin and were unpopular. When the banks advertised that within 
three months these coins would be accepted at reduced rates, they vanished 
in short order. As the news spread, other banks adopted the plan. 

Administration of the public schools passed from the Board of School 
Managers to the Board of Education, created on June i. The new board 
consisted of Charles Bradburn, president; Samuel H. Mather, secretary; 
W. D. Beattie, T. P. Handy, George Willey, Buckley Stedman, and Samuel 
Starkweather. One of their first acts was to elect Andrew Freese superin- 
tendent of instruction. At a salary of $1,300 a year, he supervised the 
schools, continued as high-school principal, examined applicants and granted 
certificates to qualified teachers. Freese struggled under this peculiar working 



262 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1853] 

and financial arrangement for three years, when he was released from high- 
school responsibility — with a proportionate salary reduction of $300, despite 
his valuable and time-taking service. 

Woodland Cemetery was dedicated on June 14, and named for the fine 
grove of trees in it. The city had purchased about sixty acres of land from 
Benjamin F. Butler for $13,639.50 as the site. A sixty-foot Indian mound 
was preserved as a landmark. The stone entranceway with chapel and 
waiting room was erected in 1870. 

A dozen German families banded together as St. John's Evangelical 
Lutheran Church, and purchased an acre of land on Mayfield Road, South 
Euclid, where they erected a small frame church. The Rev. H. Kuehn was 
pastor. In the church school the children were educated in the grammar 
grades. The crossroads community grew slowly, and by i860 there were 
twenty families in the congregation. The Rev. John Adam Ernst, who be- 
came pastor this year, was succeeded in 1863 by the Rev. Frederick W. 
Husman, minister for nearly a score of years. Both were founders of the 
Missouri Synod. The roots of the church grew strong and deep, St. John's 
Lutheran Church continuing to serve on its original site, 4390 Mayfield Road. 
The Rev. Walter Bischoff began his long service as pastor in 1922. 

Jacob H. Silverthorn moved his family to Rocky River, where he had pur- 
chased the old Wright Tavern. In the sixties the Patchen family bought the 
Silverthorn Tavern and remodeled it as the Patchen House. Silverthorn 
took over Jonathan Bowles' tavern in East Cleveland (Case School site), 
and until 1870 it was one of the most popular resorts in northern Ohio, 
famed for game dinners and champagne. In the wintertime, Silverthorn's 
Tavern was the destination of big bobsled parties from Cleveland. 

Hundreds were turned away when P. T. Barnum lectured in National 
Hall, July 17, on the evils of intemperance. "He was quite as attractive as his 
circus," it was observed. 

At about this time, P. T. Barnum's agent opened the Athenaeum, a 
theater on the top floor of Kelley's Block, managed by E. T. Nichols. From 
the start, he found keen competition in the new Academy of Music and 
Melodeon Hall, which were favored by the critics. The showman's great 
moral drama. The Drunkard, opened on July 18, and was an advance sell- 
out at 50 cents admission, "rear seats" at 25 cents. Barnum brought the 
Marsh family to Cleveland in his New York presentation of Uncle Tom's 
Cabin, and in fifteen nights in November more than twelve thousand people 
attended. Although the newspapers were obliged to acknowledge the sen- 
sational attraction, the theater failed to succeed, and Adolph Montpellier 
ran it as a variety house until the Theatre Comique became his consuming 
interest. It declined and then closed, except for special events. "General" 
Tom Thumb made his last appearance in Cleveland at the Athenaeum about 
1870, and the building was converted into offices. 

A fine retail store on Superior Street, according to Historian Orth, showed 
the following schedule of yearly operating expenses based on sales of 
$42,750 for the year and 15 per cent net profit: rent, $1,500; chief clerk, 
$600; assistant clerk and bookkeeper, $500; three additional clerks, 



[1853] RAILS AND RED GOLD 263 

insurance on stock, $300; taxes, $200; annual depreciation of stock, $2,000; 
proprietor's family expenses, $1,000. Only male employees were being hired, 
as economic necessity had not yet driven women into business. 

Three companies had been organized to build certain Ohio railroads, 
but had hardly progressed beyond the charter stage: the Junction Railroad 
Company, chartered in 1846 to build a standard-gauge road from a point on 
the Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati line, within thirty miles of Cleveland, 
to Fremont, via Elyria and Bellevue, also a branch from Elyria to Fremont 
through Sandusky following the ancient Ohio Railroad right-of-way, the 
"stilt road"; the Toledo, Norwalk & Cleveland Railroad, incorporated in 
1850 to build a narrow-gauge line from Toledo eastward via Norwalk to 
Grafton; and the Port Clinton Railroad Company, chartered in 1852 to 
build from Sandusky through Port Clinton to Toledo. On September i, 
1853, the lines were united in a new corporation, the Cleveland & Toledo 
Railroad Company (later New York Central). When completed, the Port 
Clinton, or Northern Division, came into Cleveland from the west through 
Whisky Island, stopping at the river bank, where its passengers were ferried 
across the Cuyahoga, because the city refused permission to cross the river 
and connect with eastbound lines. In 1856, the narrow-gauge Cleveland, 
Columbus & Cincinnati tracks were leased, extending the Southern Divi- 
sion of the Cleveland & Toledo road from Grafton to Cleveland. 

Competing telegraph lines serving Cleveland, Buffalo, Milwaukee, Co- 
lumbus, Cincinnati, St. Louis, Wheeling, Zanesville, Warren, and Pittsburgh 
were consolidated as the Speed & Wade Telegraph Lines, operating 2,515 
miles of line and 104 offices, with headquarters in the American House in 
Cleveland. Locally, they operated as Speed's Line and Wade's Line. 

Melodeon Hall was the scene of the National Woman's Rights Conven- 
tion, a three-day session opening on October 5, and marked by great en- 
thusiasm. Lucy Stone and William Lloyd Garrison, noted suffrage crusaders, 
were present. Godey's Lady's Boo\ fanned a tempestuous attack against use 
of the "parasitical word 'female' " as derived from male. A local organization 
was set up with Frances E. Gage, president, and T. C. Severance, treasurer. 
The masculine population was apprehensive. 

An era of strife over slavery, moral issues, and state sovereignty prevailed 
when the Cleveland Congregational Conference was organized on October 
19, placing emphasis upon fellowship of the churches. Rapid increase in 
population made imperative the need of an organization that would plant 
new churches, and, in 1892, the Congregational City Missionary Society was 
created. Conference and society united in 1912 to form the Congregational 
Union of Cleveland. 

A mission school for poor children, opened near the foot of Champlain 
Street by the Rev. Dillon Prosser, was one of the city's earliest charities. It 
originated in the outreach effort of a prayer group of young men (fore- 
runner of YMCA). Called the Ragged School, it was reorganized in 1856 
as the City Industrial School, from which the Children's Aid Society de- 
veloped in 1858, with Truman P. Handy as president. So effective was its 
work that the City Council offered the use of a vacant schoolhouse for the 



^64 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1853] 

education of needy children, and provided day-school teachers for a time. 
Mrs. Eliza Jennings gave to the society a farm on which it built a new home 
(10427 Detroit Avenue), and Mrs. E. G. Leffingwell, Leonard Case, Sr., 
and Jeptha H. Wade were among its early benefactors. 

In the peaceful Chagrin Valley at the foot of the Gates Mills hill, a 
small community of Methodists erected a meeting house of rare Colonial 
beauty called the Gates Mills Methodist Episcopal Church (later St. Chris- 
topher 's-by-the-River, Episcopal). Wooden-pegged floor boards were cut in 
Holsey Gates' mills. Much of the woodwork was carved by hand, and the 
pulpit was one of the finest examples of Colonial ecclesiastical architecture 
in the country. Gates gave $800 of the required $1,300 to build the church. 

William Howard Day became editor and publisher of the first Negro 
newspaper. The Aliened American. He had come to Cleveland following 
graduation from Oberlin College in 1847. From 1850 to i860 he served as a 
librarian for the Cleveland Library Association and a member of the staff 
of the Daily True Democrat. 

St. Paul's Methodist Church was organized in Ohio City (Lorain and 
West 26th) under the leadership of the Rev. John Baldhauf. In 1880, the 
congregation moved westward, erecting a church at what became Bridge 
Avenue and West 44th Street. Dr. E. B. McBroom became pastor in 1945. 

Ole Bull, famed violinist, appeared in Cleveland on November 28. On a 
return engagement, November 2, 1854, a capacity audience paid $1 admission, 
and heard him play their new favorite, Stephen Foster's My Old Kentucky 
Home. 

A wooden drawbridge that had long been needed was built this year at 
Division Street, affording a natural route from downtown Cleveland to the 
West Side. 

Trinity Church, pioneer Evangelical Lutheran congregation on the West 
Side, was organized this year on Jersey Street. It was the offspring of Zion 
Church, with the Rev. J. C. W. Lindeman, first pastor, and it became inde- 
pendent in 1857. Children of members attended the church grammar school. 
The Rev. Frederick C. D. Wynekeen, pastor for many years, had been a 
founder of the Missouri Synod. The German community flourished in the 
eighties, when there were 1,400 communicants; then the outward popula- 
tion shift resulted in a changing neighborhood, but Trinity remained stead- 
fast through the years, its location taking a new address, 2031 West 30th 
Street, after the turn of the century. The Rev. Martin H. Sommerfeld be- 
came pastor in 1933. 

Jacob Rauch began building and repairing carriages and wagons on the 
site of a large future factory (2168 West 25th). In 1878, Charles Rauch, son 
of the founder, incorporated the Rauch & Lang Carriage Company (later 
the Baker-Raulang Company), and custom coach-building became a 
specialty. 

"To cherish the traditions and customs of the pioneer settlers of New 
England and to foster and promote a kindred spirit among their sons and 
daughters" was the purpose of the New England Society of Cleveland, 
organized on December 22. Mayor Abner C. Brownell, the first president. 



[1854] RAILS AND RED GOLD 265 

was succeeded by Benjamin Rouse, 1854-56, and Philo Chamberlain, 1857-58. 
Dinner meetings were held for a time, the last being given at the Angier 
House in 1859 when William Slade was president. The first secretary was 
Colonel William P. Fogg, who was succeeded by H. M. Chapin, 1857-69. 
The organization was suspended in 1869 and revived in 1894. 



1854 

Abolitionists who were members of the Disciples of Christ sponsored an 
antislavery convention in Cleveland, commencing on January 21. The con- 
stituency of the communion was about evenly divided between the North 
and South, and great agitation in the church was aroused. Alexander 
Campbell and prominent leaders opposed the Abolitionists' methods; they 
considered slavery to be a political issue not within the realm of the church. 
This meeting is the only Abolitionists' convention of record in the Disciples 
Church. 

The Rev. Samuel C. Aiken presided over the organization meeting of the 
Young Men's Christian Association, February 6. A committee, including 
Samuel H. Mather, Presbyterian; Loren Prentiss, Baptist; L. M. H. Battey, 
Congregationalist; E. W. Roby, Episcopalian; and E. F. Young, Methodist, 
was appointed to lay founding plans. On February 28, at a meeting in the 
First Baptist Church, sixty members were enrolled, many of them prominent 
names in the city, and John S. Newberry was elected president. Through 
weekly prayer meetings, lectures, mission work, and a circulating library, 
the "Y" hoped to reach beyond the sphere of the churches, and lend moral 
and cultural strength to a needy community. Well-known lecturers, among 
them Henry Ward Beecher, Bayard Taylor, and Cassius M. Clay, were 
brought to Cleveland. Close co-operation existed between the new "Y" and 
the seven leading churches located within a mile of the Public Square. In 
July, association rooms were opened in Northrup & Spangler's Block at the 
southeast corner of Superior and Seneca streets. 

The Germans' enthusiasm for music centered in the new Gesangverein, 
directed by Fritz Abel, which superseded the Frohsinn. Here culture of the 
fatherland found expression in music appreciation that was inspiring national 
interest. 

Upon the insistence of Edwin Cowles, the Forest City Democrat appeared 
on March 16 under a new name, the Leader, a morning paper. A year later, 
he bought his partners' interests, and Medill and Vaughn joined with 
Cowles' brother, Alfred, in assuming control of the Tribune in Chicago, 
The Leader was a strong supporter of the antislavery cause; and when fear- 
less Editor Cowles threw his weight on the side of his new champion, 
the Republican Party, the paper grew in influence as its owner gained 
stature and became a leading publisher in the West. In 1861 the Evening 
Leader, an afternoon edition, was added, and in 1868 it became the Evening 
News. Upon the death of Cowles in 1890, John C. Covert was editor for a 



266 



CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 



[1854] 



time; he later became United States consul to Lyons, France. James B. 
Morrow, who succeeded him as editor, became a well-known biographer. 
James H. Kennedy, then on the staff, gained recognition as the author of 
a History of Cleveland. 

On April i an incendiary lire on Seneca Street near Superior destroyed 
engine house No. i, two homes and a drug store. Sparks carried the blaze 
to a planing mill on Michigan Street, a brewery, dwelling, paint shop, and 
cooper shop. The loss was $18,000. 

Years of petty quarreling between the cities east and west of the river 
were buried in a friendly annexation election, held on April 3, that resulted 
in uniting Ohio City with Cleveland. The new Constitution of Ohio allowed 
the cities to carry through the annexation procedure on their own initiative, 
and commissioners were appointed to work out the details: W. A. Otis, H. V. 
Willson, and Franklin T. Backus for Cleveland; and WiUiam B. Castle, 
Needham M. Standart, and C. S. Rhodes for Ohio City. 




Angier House, opened in 
1854, became the Kennard 
House in 1866. As the Lin- 
coln Hotel, it continued to 
serve patrons in the 1940s. 



The Penny Post was established by Henry S. Bishop in his privately 
operated post office on lower Superior Street. Bishop's blue stamps, with a 
large "2" in the center surrounded by the words, "Bishop's City Postage, 
Clev'd, Ohio," sold for two cents. Employees picked up the mail from boxes 
located at strategic points and disposed of it through Bishop's post office. 
The service was so efficient and reasonable in cost that it became a real 
threat to federal business. In 1861 the practice was declared illegal by the 
United States courts. 

The Board of Trade was now making daily reports after this fashion: 
"Wheat dull. Sales Saturday evening 13,000 bushels Chicago at $1.25." 
"Freight rates to New York, flour 58c, corn 12c. To Albany, corn loc." 
Incoming shipments of wool, oats, starch, oil, nails, tobacco, buffalo robes, 
and sundries were reported. Listed as received and shipped from Cleveland 
were lard, sugar, cattle, pigs, sheep, coal, glass, glassware, and iron. Then 
the Board began reporting railroad stocks, the condition of the money 
market, and the arrival and departure of lake vessels. 



[1854] RAILS AND RED GOLD 267 

The Angier House opened on April 17 at the southeast corner of St. Clair 
and Bank streets, on the site of Cleveland's first schoolhouse. This fashion- 
able, five-story hotel was built by Ahaz Merchant and leased to Roswell P. 
Angier. It was "heated by the steam process," with "a reservoir on the roof 
for distributing water throughout the building." Visitors came from a dis- 
tance to enjoy famous dinners, "the best served west of New York City." 
Scanning the menu printed in English, many made it their custom to order 
"all the way down." The hotel entertained distinguished guests and im- 
portant business and social gatherings. 

That the Cleveland Female Seminary was an important undertaking is 
evidenced by the character of the first directorate: John M. Woolsey, W. D. 
Beattie, Leonard Case, Jr., E. M. Sawtell, H. P. Weddell, H. V. Willson, 
Stillman Witt, Oliver Perry, and James M. Hoyt. In a spacious $50,000 
building, erected on Kinsman Street, between Sawtell Avenue and Walling- 
ford Court, "one of the most beautiful rural parts of the city," a boarding 
and day school for young ladies was opened on May 20 with one hundred 
and twenty pupils enrolled in the three-year course. Dr. Samuel St. Johns 
was installed as principal, and on the teaching staff was Linda T. Guilford. 
The fee of boarding students was $300 per year. The seminary was the 
largest private school in Cleveland, ranking with the country's finest institu- 
tions. It pointed the way to the first colleges for women and to co-educa- 
tional schools, and operated until about 1883. 

On June 5, the report of the committee on annexation was rendered to the 
councils of Cleveland and Ohio City. It provided that the City of Ohio 
be annexed to and constitute the eighth, ninth, tenth, and eleventh wards 
of Cleveland; that councilmen from these wards shall hold their seats in the 
augmented City Council; and that detailed provision be made for the joint 
liability of public property, bonds, and debts of the two cities, excepting the 
subscriptions to railroad stock made by each corporation. The report was 
adopted, and on June 10 the first meeting of the enlarged City Council was 
held, Richard C. Parsons being elected president. The Cleveland boundary 
line was thus extended beyond the Cuyahoga to the west line of original 
Brooklyn Township lots Nos. 49 and 50, and southward to Walworth Run. 
As Abner C. Brownell had been elected mayor of Cleveland for a two- 
year term, he continued in office; but it was agreed that the next mayor 
should come from the West Side. Hence, WilUam B. Castle, Ohio City's 
last mayor, became chief executive of the united Cleveland in 1855, 

Ohio City added 2,438 persons to the school population, 800 to the public- 
school attendance and 11 teachers to the staff as a result of the consolidation. 
The Board of Education was now increased to 11 members, of which 
Benjamin Sheldon was president and Samuel H. Mather, secretary. Two 
years later, it was reduced to 5. As chairman of the committee on schools 
in the City Council, Charles Bradburn was in a position to wield a great 
influence in public-school development. Ohio City had three school build- 
ings, located on Penn, Vermont, and Church streets; and three large brick 
schoolhouses under construction on Pearl, Hicks, and Kentucky streets, 



268 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1854] 

which Cleveland completed at a cost o£ about seven thousand dollars 
each. Superintendent Freese began to work for uniformity of methods and 
text-books as well as grading and classifying of schools and pupils. 

A case of cholera was reported on July 4, the first in a siege that continued 
until September, taking a toll of sixty-seven deaths. This was the last attack 
of epidemic proportions that Cleveland suffered. 

The Chapin Block was erected by H. M. Chapin at the corner of Euclid 
and the Square (Williamson Building site), a forbidding, three-story, brown- 
front, commercial building. Stores occupied the street level. The third floor 
was given over to a "most elegant" public auditorium, with twelve 
hundred upholstered seats. Lectures, concerts, dances, and public and private 
functions were held here. It was first called Concert Hall, and later Chapin's 
Hall. The hot-air heating system made a name for the hall in the West. 
In the mid-sixties, the auditorium became known as Garrett's Hall, and 
stars of the entertainment world were presented until Case Hall over- 
shadowed it. An ice-cream parlor operated by S. W. Garrett on the street 
level attracted popular patronage. 

A little band of members of Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church, located 
southeast of Cleveland in a district of farms and steel-mill workers, organized 
a congregation in July that took the name St. John's. They erected a small 
community building, and shortly after established a school. The memory 
of August Schefft, an early teacher whose forty years of service left a deep 
impress, is revered among the faithful. Unique features of a new church, 
erected in 1880, were exterior walls constructed of horizontally set timbers, 
and an exquisitely hand-carved pulpit and lectern. St. John's location, later 
known as Turney Road at Granger in Garfield Heights, continued un- 
changed through the years. The Rev. Harry C. Weidner came to the pulpit 
in 1911. He announced a $145,000 program in 1946 to extend the work of 
the church in a changing community. 

The Stadler Products Company originated this year, producing commer- 
cial fertilizer for farmers in the Cleveland area. In 1920, a group of Cleve- 
landers, who saw opportunity for development in a larger territory, came 
into ownership, and the business spread through sections of Ohio, Indiana, 
and Michigan. In 1946, J. F. Johnson was president of Stadler, the oldest 
fertilizer company in the county, and Wesley W. Johnson was vice presi- 
dent and general manager. 

The State Fair was held on the new fair grounds on Kinsman Street 
(at East 22nd), the finest in Ohio. Three halls, each 152 by 160 feet, had been 
built on the 20-acre tract, and stalls accommodated 300 cattle. Exhibit entries 
totaled 2,823, and there were 30,000 paid admissions. The State Fair Ball 
was a brilliant feature. 

The southwest side of the Square was swept by fire on October 7, and 
almost a score of buildings were destroyed. Flames threatened the Court 
House and the First Baptist Church at Seneca and Champlain streets. 

The Evangelical Association moved its Publishing House to Cleveland 
this year. Located on Kinsman Street, it began producing periodicals and 
church literature for distribution throughout the country. 



[1854] RAILS AND RED GOLD 269 

A fire, originating in a livery stable on October 27, leveled the buildings 
on Merwin Street and the block enclosed by Superior Lane, James Street, 
and the railroad, with an estimated loss of $215,000, The New England 
Hotel — the city's largest hotel, the St. Charles Hotel, and the Commercial 
Exchange were destroyed. Leaping across the street, the flames blackened the 
walls of the Oviatt Block, consuming the Board of Trade rooms. When 
Oviatt's Exchange was rebuilt, the Board occupied its old headquarters. The 
year 1854 was marked by a number of serious fires, indicating the urgent 
need for improved fire protection and increased water supply. 

On November 2, the Herald and the Plain Dealer contracted with a new 
organization, the Associated Press, to receive telegraphic reports. Market 
quotations were of great benefit to Cleveland business. 

Uncertain value of paper money and overwhelming threat of railroad 
competition with the canals were largely responsible for failure of the 
Canal Bank of Cleveland in early November. A "run" on the bank brought 
out the city's population as well as a police detail to keep the peace. There 
was uneasiness as anxious depositors faced the probable loss of savings. Then 
Dr. H. C. Ackley, trustee of the new Northern Ohio Lunatic Asylum at 
Newburgh, stepped forward and demanded the institution's $9,000 deposit, 
although unmindful of his own personal account. When he was refused, 
the sheriff's deputies went to work, armed with sledge hammers. Despite 
protests, blow after blow fell on the vault until the keys were produced. The 
sheriff handed the doctor I400 in gold and $1,460 in bills, and the bank 
"exploded into thin air." 

William Benedict Scofield purchased the tract of swamp land at Euclid 
and Erie streets. Handsome oak and black-walnut timbers were felled 
to make floor joists for a three-story, brick residence-hotel at the southwest 
corner of the intersection. Prospect Place, later remodeled as the Euclid 
Place Hotel, did not cater to the traveling public; but among its visitors 
were missionaries to the western Indian tribes, attracted by the Scofield 
family's religious views. William Hopkins' drug store occupied the corner 
of the business block on the street floor, and the location became a perennial 
drug-store site. The hotel landmark came down in 1901 when plans for the 
Schofield Building, now spelled with the "h," were under way. 

The Rouse Block, Cleveland's finest office building, was erected by 
Benjamin Rouse on the northwest corner of Superior Street and the 
Square. The street floor of the four-story, gray stone structure was devoted 
to stores, Albertson's jewelry store occupying the corner behind "a front of 
costly plate glass." A newsstand and book store became a traditional institu- 
tion on this site. Law firms and insurance companies occupied two upper 
floors, and Folsom's Mercantile College (later Spencerian College), the 
•fourth. An ornamental iron staircase and balcony traced the PubHc Square 
wall. William Furst, barber, was a famous tenant from the eighties until 1913, 
when the rusty balcony came down and the building gave way to the new 
Marshall Building. 

German Catholics west of the river organized a church under the name 
of St. Mary's of the Assumption, worshiping in the "church on the flats" 



270 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [l^55] 

until the new edifice at Carroll and Jersey streets was dedicated in 1865. 
Those east of the river founded St. Peter's congregation, from which St. 
Joseph's developed in 1862. Its famous church was located on Woodland 
at Chapel Street. St. Patrick's Church on Whitman Street was also established 
this year to serve a growing community of Irish Catholics. Two years later, 
the Immaculate Conception congregation was organized. It worshiped in a 
former chapel and school in the rear of the cathedral, and later in a new 
stone church erected at Superior and Lyman streets. St. Bridget's Parish 
had its beginning on Perry Street in 1858. 

The William Lemen home was razed to make way for the four-story 
Hoffman Block at the southeast corner of the Public Square and Superior 
(Cuyahoga Building site). Gaylord & Company's drug store occupied the 
corner, and drug stores continued to flourish here through the years. The 
stone pillars from the beautiful old "Stone Cottage" were used in building 
a temple on the Lemen family lot in Lake View Cemetery. 

R. B. Wheeler and E. A. Payne, music teachers, opened the Cleveland 
Academy of Music on November 13 in a hall in the HoflFman Block. It 
existed only a short time. 

Education as It Should Be was the subject of Horace Greeley's lecture 
to a packed house in December, in which he strongly advocated the trade 
school. Five decades passed, however, before vocational education was 
introduced in Cleveland. 



1855 

Western Reserve College in Hudson, Ohio, (later Western Reserve 
University and Western Reserve Academy) had led a hand-to-mouth ex- 
istence since the early days. At heart-breaking sacrifice, friends brought 
contributions in land, cattle, grain, implements, jewelry, household goods, 
and a rare assortment of commodities to keep the doors of educational 
opportunity open. George Edmond Pierce, president from 1834-55, rarely 
received his yearly $900 salary in money; and when he resigned, the college 
owed him thousands of dollars, in part payment of which he accepted a 
deed to the Oviatt farm. When the Rev. Henry L. Hitchcock succeeded 
him, the school was $25,000 in debt and the organization had been disrupted. 
The Panic of 1857 was approaching, followed by the Civil War, which took 
the entire faculty and student body into the service. While President 
Hitchcock triumphed in his singlehanded struggle to build up the financial 
structure of Western Reserve, it cost him his health, and he was obliged to 
resign in 1871. Carroll Cutler, a faculty member since i860, succeeded him. 

Isaac Cody, second son of Philip Cody of East Cleveland, had moved 
his family to Davenport, Iowa, where he became deeply interested in keeping 
Kansas a free state. On several occasions he visited Cleveland, trying to 
interest others in the cause. At about this time, when his son, William F., 
one of seven children, was nearing his tenth year, the father was seriously 



[1855] RAILS AND RED GOLD 271 

injured by an assailant as he discoursed on slavery. A year later, he died. 
Not long afterward William was sent by his mother to Cleveland, where 
she hoped he might obtain an education. His grandparents were no longer 
living, and he probably lived with relatives on the Cody lands, a large tract 
between EucHd and Garden Street (near East 83rd). His stay must have 
been short, for he was barely fourteen years old when he went to the 
Colorado gold mines and soon joined the Pony Express. After the Civil War, 
he earned the nickname "Buffalo Bill" while fulfilling a contract to supply 
construction camps of a western railroad with buffalo meat. 

The building of the Northern Ohio Lunatic Asylum (later Cleveland 
State Hospital) was opened by the State in Newburgh on March 5. This 
was the second asylum in Ohio, the first having been located at Columbus. 
Two months later townsmen were shocked to learn that there were only 
forty-eight patients in the $190,000 building. John Gill, who had come to 
America from the Isle of Man in 1854, was the building contractor. His 
sons, John T, and Kermode F., joined him in the business, and they 
constructed a number of large buildings in Cleveland and in other cities. 

In the spring, during the pastorate of the Rev. S. W. Adams, the congrega- 
tion of the First Baptist Church moved to the impressive brick sanctuary 
at the northwest corner of Euclid and Erie streets, that had been purchased 
from the Plymouth Congregational Church. A spire rising 205 feet was 
added and the interior remodeled, seating a thousand people. Steady growth 
followed, missions were encouraged, and denominational influence extended. 

Weather observations were undertaken by Professor Gustavus A. Hyde on 
May I for the United States Weather Bureau. 

When Albert Shawk of Cincinnati unloaded his steam fire engine from 
a flat car at the foot of Water Street on May 4, he was about to demonstrate 
a bargain in an invention equal to four first-class hand engines. It pumped 
continuously for an indefinite time, and one man could easily operate it! At 
the Bank Street reservoir, Shawk fired the monster with cordwood and 
prepared to stage his exhibition before city officials and a crowd. Presently 
a stream of water shot higher and higher, over the Weddell House, topping 
the flagpole. As a cheer rose from, the spectators, a chambermaid put her 
head out of a third-story window just in time to receive a thorough soaking. 
Shawk named his price, which was equal to the cost of four hand engines; 
but the committee shook their heads. "Too much money," they said, and 
not enough water in Cleveland. Besides, a steamer with one professional 
engineer would deal a deadly blow to the volunteer organization that served 
the city. Rolling up his hose. Inventor Shawk raked his fire, coupled his 
team, and turned their heads in the direction of the railroad station. 

Thirteen acres of land were purchased for St. John's Cemetery (7000 
Woodland) on May 4, and the first interment took place in 1858. Catholic 
priests who died while serving their parishes were buried here. 

The spring term closed at the High School (later Central) with the first 
high-school commencement in Cleveland. Several students, however, had 
completed the prescribed course since the school was founded in 1846, but 
no class had done so. The graduates were George W. Durgin, Jr., Henry 



272 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1855] 

W. Hamlen, John G. Prince, Timothy H. Rearden, Albert H. Spencer, 
Emeline W. Curtis, Helen E. Farrand (Mrs. Moses G. Watterson), Julia 
E. O'Brien (Mrs. Ashley McM. Van Duzer), Laura C. Spelman (Mrs. 
John D. Rockefeller), and Lucy M. Spelman, her sister. Laura C. Spelman 
read an essay, "I Can Paddle My Own Canoe." 

The congregation had outgrown "Old Trinity," and in 1853, as the Rev. 
Lloyd Windsor concluded his seven-year ministry, a new house o£ worship 
was begun uptown near the southwest corner of Superior and Bond streets 
(west portion of Leader Building site). The old lot had been sold, and 
before disposition was made of the building, it burned in March, 1854. On 
May 17, 1855, the second Trinity Church was consecrated, a beautiful brick 
edifice with stone front. The interior was exquisitely appointed, from the 
Gothic doorway to the six great chandeliers. A massive, white-marble font 
was presented to the parish by Samuel L. Mather. The rectorship of Dr. 
James A. Bolles, 1854-59, ^^^ ^^^ ^f grea:t devotion. The Church Home for 
the Sick and Friendless was opened at Scovill and Brownell streets in 1856, 
and a Free Chapel was consecrated. When the vestry declined to make the 
parish church free, Rev. Bolles resigned. The Rev. Thomas A. Starkey 
served as rector until 1869, and later became bishop of the Diocese of Newark. 

German singing societies had united to form the Saengerbund of North 
America, and in 1849 they held the first Saengerfest in Cincinnati. Cleveland 
joined two years later. On May 28, 1855, national attention was focused on 
Cleveland as Saengerbund enthusiasts met in the city for the first time to 
hold their seventh German musical festival in Concert Hall. The Cleveland 
Gesangverein was represented by eighteen societies with one hundred and 
eighteen voices in the three-day prize competition, "patronized by a fashion- 
able and appreciative auditory." A chorus of three hundred singers, led by 
Hans Balatka of Milwaukee, was a brilliant feature. 

An expedition, organized by the War Department, set out this year to 
explore the uncharted wilds of northern California, Oregon, and the South- 
west, Through the influence of Dr. John S. Newberry of Cleveland, assistant 
surgeon and geologist of the party, Dr. Elisha Sterling was selected as 
naturalist. Many of their reports represented the first authentic accounts of the 
tremendous resources of the West. Explorations continued until 1861. Dr. 
Newberry then went into war service as secretary of the western division 
of the United States Sanitary Commission. John Strong Newberry was born 
in Connecticut in 1822. About two years later, the family moved to Cuyahoga 
Falls, Ohio. Young Newberry was graduated from Western Reserve College 
in 1846, from the Cleveland Medical College in 1848, and studied in Europe. 
He came to Cleveland in 1850 and practiced medicine for five years. After 
graduating from the Cleveland Medical College, Dr. Elisha Sterling studied 
in Europe. An expert on fish culture and a skilled taxidermist, as well as an 
excellent surgeon, his name was to be found frequently as a contributor to 
scientific journals. He died in Cleveland in 1890, aged sixty-six. 

E. M. Peck had built his first schooner, the Jenny hind, and this year he 
joined in a partnership with L U. Masters. They had produced fifty vessels 
in their yards when the firm dissolved in 1864. Peck continued in business, 



[1855] RAILS AND RED GOLD 273 

building several revenue cutters for the Government and some of the largest 
ships on the lakes. 

The Ivanhoe Boat Club, Cleveland's first boating organization, was 
founded this year and won the Independence Day race with a Sandusky 
team on the Cuyahoga. River racing was abandoned several years later as 
commerce increased. 

With the granting of university powers this year, Baldwin Institute became 
Baldwin University (later Baldwin- Wallace College). The Rev. John Wheeler 
was the first president. This college of liberal arts occupied "three spacious 
buildings," North and South halls and Baldwin Hall, the latter a four-story 
stone building housing students who desired "to board themselves." Wallace 
Hall, occupied the next year, was the gift of James Wallace of the board of 
trustees, who also deeded PubHc Lyceum Square to the institution. In 1868, 
Hulet Hall, the university chapel, was opened. It was made possible through 
the combined generosity of Fletcher Hulet, James Wallace, and John 
Baldwin. Until 1896 it served both school and community. 

Conflict between market men, hucksters, and grocers had developed when 
hucksters began purchasing the produce of market gardeners direct, com- 
manding high prices and cutting down the middle-men's trade. The year-old 
practice culminated in a "bread, meat and rent" meeting on the Public 
Square, August 9, when workmen organized a "protective union" to fight 
the monopoly. Council stepped in and passed an ordinance designed to relieve 
the consumer. 

J. D. Garrett's plan for a breakwater was a good one, and councilmen 
approved it in August. It called for tight crib work, filled with stone, rising 
six feet above the water. Beginning at the outer end of the stone pier at 
the river mouth, it was to run parallel to the shore eastward, 1,000 feet out, 
in 15 feet of water, to a point opposite Wood Street. The district Congressman 
called it a visionary scheme, however, and that was the end of Citizen 
Garrett's plan. 

One of the finest churches west of New York City was dedicated by the 
congregation of the First Presbyterian Church of Cleveland (Old Stone) 
on August 12. Built "without any extraordinary exertions or sacrifices" at a 
cost of $60,000, it stood on the original site of the first stone church at the 
northwest corner of Ontario and the Public Square. 

John D. Rockefeller, a lad of sixteen, graduated from Folsom's Mercantile 
College (later Spencerian College) in August. Finding a job was difficult; 
but on September 26, Hewitt & Tuttle, commission merchants on Merwin 
Street, hired him to assist with bookkeeping and office work. No mention 
of pay was made until the last day of December, when the boy received $50 
for services to date. A little brown "ledger" was one of his first purchases; 
and the first entry, "10 cents to the missionary cause," was indicative of 
thrifty living and gifts to worthy causes that exceeded a half-billion dollars 
during his long life. In three and one-half years with the firm, Rockefeller 
earned only $1,525; but his experience was to prove invaluable in future 
business ventures that earned great wealth for him. 

The canal at Saillt Ste. Marie was completed, opening to commerce 1,000 



274 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1855] 

additional miles of waterway, and bringing Cleveland closer to the world's 
great iron region. The first cargo of iron ore, totaling 132 tons, was shipped 
by the Cleveland Iron Mining Company (later Cleveland-Cliffs) from the 
Lake Superior mines, via the Soo, bound for Cleveland. On the brigantine 
Columbia, built at Sandusky in 1842, it passed through the canal on August 
14. The company's shipments for the season, amounting to 1,449 tons, 
constituted the waterway's ore tonnage for the year. 

To circumvent the law, which permitted only one high school in Cleve- 
land, a branch of the city high school (later Central) was organized on the 
third floor of the Kentucky Grade School to serve the West Side. Branch 
High School (forerunner of West High School) was, however, a separate 
school, with A. G. Hopkinson, former superintendent of the Ohio City 
schools, as principal. In 1861, it moved to its own building at State and 
Clinton streets; in 1882, into the West High School building at Bridge 
and Randall streets; and in 1903, to a new home on Franklin Boulevard. 

Until this time, Ohio constituted a federal district, and the United States 
district and circuit courts convened in Columbus. Now that lake trade and 
maritime business had greatly expanded, a northern district was created, 
with Cleveland as the seat of the United States Court. President Franklin 
Pierce appointed Hiram V. Willson the first judge; Daniel O. Morton of 
Toledo, district attorney; and Jabez W. Fitch, United States marshal. The 
court appointed Frederick W. Green of Seneca County, clerk, and General 
Henry H. Dodge and Bushnell White, United States commissioners. Lewis 
Dibble served as bailiff for thirty years. The admiralty interests, flourishing 
counterfeiters, and byproducts of the Fugitive-Slave Law kept the grand 
jury busy and created excitement in the community. 

The slavery issue had split old-line political parties, making the formation 
of a new party imperative. This year's campaign was of historic importance, 
as it was the first state contest in which the new Republican Party engaged. 
Dissatisfied antislavery Whigs, Free Soilers, members of the Know-Nothing 
Party, and Abolitionists rallied behind their candidate for governor, Salmon 
P. Chase of Cincinnati, who spoke in Cleveland on September 20. His great 
victory inspired a mammoth celebration on the night of October 13, launched 
by one hundred and one guns, a giant bonfire in the middle of the Square, 
fireworks, bands, parades, and speeches. 

The City Infirmary, a brick building, was erected in Brooklyn (3395 
Scranton Road) to house the insane, the sick, and the infirm poor, and to 
provide facilities for the instruction of medical students. In 1858 it was 
reported that in the Infirmary there were "187 inmates varying in age from 
one month to eighty years. Fifteen are insane. All of the insane women are 
confined in cells in straight jackets. Two wholesome meals are prepared 
every day ... a very excellent and pleasant farm. At present there is no 
physician in attendance." After 1872 a city physician visited the institution 
three times a week; but it was not until 1889 that a hospital was erected by 
Cleveland authorities. The building was enlarged to meet growing needs, 
providing quarters for the Work House and the House of Correction 
until 1871. 



[1856] RAILS AND RED GOLD 275 

Adelina Patti, a child of twelve, made her first appearance in Cleveland 
in Melodeon Hall on October 11. 

The first American Rabbinical Conference held in the United States con- 
vened in Cleveland on October 17. 

A boycott aimed by local newspapers at the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, 
famous Congregational minister and lecturer, reached for the pocketbooks 
of Clevelanders and snapped shut all but "75 or 80" on the evening of 
October 24, when the "Prophet of Plymouth Church" spoke at Chapin's Hall. 
These few paid the fifty-cent admission to hear his discourse on Patriotism, 
unmindful of press admonitions that it was the "brassiest imposition" to ask 
so much. Beecher favored women's rights, but declared that females should 
not speak in public. As to holding public office, he observed that there were 
a good many "old grannies" in office, and they "might as well have real 
women." Cincinnati joined in the boycott; and when the admission charge 
was reduced to a quarter, Milwaukee and Buffalo produced full houses. The 
incident was discussed for weeks, and the prophecy was made in Cleveland 
that a repeat performance at twenty-five cents would be a great success. 
Beecher proved his oratorical genius on October 20, 1857, when "one of the 
largest crowds ever assembled in the Melodeon" heard his eloquent lecture. 
The Ministration of the Beautiful; and a capacity audience heard his Com- 
monwealth the next evening. Returns from the events helped to ease the 
financial burden of the city's two lecture societies. For more than two 
decades, Beecher charmed his Cleveland audiences with brilliant discussions 
of the leading questions of the day. 

The city's lease of the two upper floors in the new Jones Building, a 
brick block built by John Jones on the southwest corner of the Square, was 
celebrated at a banquet held in one of the lower rooms on November 14, 
following the meeting of City Council. Mayors who served Cleveland while 
the administration was located in this rented City Hall were William B. 
Castle, 1855-56; Samuel Starkweather, 1857-58; George B. Senter, 1859-60; 
Edward S. Flint, 1861-62; Irvine U. Masters, 1863-64, who died in office 
and was succeeded by George B. Senter; Herman M. Chapin, 1865-66; 
Stephen Buhrer, 1867-70; Frederick W. Pelton, 1871-72; Charles A. Otis, 

1873-74- 



1856 

Council made a feeble step in the direction of enforced sanitation on 
January 10, when an ordinance creating a Board of Health also provided 
for the appointment of "one person and such deputies as the council may, 
from time to time, appoint" to be responsible for the city's health. Dr. Fred 
W. Marseilles, the first health officer, and his able successors attacked their 
problems in the name of decency and common safety; but co-operation and 
progress came slowly, despite realization of the need. 

"You can't come it!" shouted a sleighing party of 7 four-horse teams from 



276 



CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 



[1856] 

Solon, Ohio, as they dashed through Twinsburg on the crusted roads. 
Translated into modern vernacular, this was a challenge meaning "this is 
a bigger crowd than Twinsburg can turn out!" Twinsburg lost no time. 
The next day 14 four-horse turnouts paid a call on Solon. Then Bedford 
stepped in with 32 teams and drove to Twinsburg bearing a cheesecloth 
banner with the figure of a boy, his hand to his mouth, calling out, "You 
can't come it." A great contest was in the making; and from Akron to Lake 
Erie, sleighs were recruited to swell town representations. On February 29, 
it took place m Bedford, Uniformed marshals, bands, and decorated sleighs 
and horses formed a gay procession, and Brecksville won the banner with 
54 teams. The contest reached county proportions, and live thousand people 
came to Richfield from northern Ohio to see Summit, Cuyahoga, and Medina 




First Central High School. 



counties compete on March 14, when Summit won with 171 cutters. Cleve- 
land was greatly chagrined when Cuyahoga mustered only 151. In the last 
contest, on March 18 at Akron, Medina County moved to first place with 
185 teams and took home the banner, which it preserved for posterity. 

"The finest school in the West" was built on Euclid Street west of Erie, 
adjacent to Mayell's drug store on the corner (Citizens Building site), as 
the home of the overcrowded city high school, which took the name Central. 
The twenty-thousand-dollar building was dedicated on April i; and, while 
visitors came from miles around to see it, many taxpayers considered it "a 
piece of vicious extravagance." Decorative cornices were introduced in the 
60 by 90-foot brick building faced with stone. On the first floor were quarters 
for the school superintendent and a library, and on the third was a large 
exhibition hall. Graduates of this early school won marked distinction in 



[1856] RAILS AND RED GOLD 277 

later life, among them Charles F. Brush, who made a commencement speech 
in 1867 on the subject of the arc light; John D. Rockefeller, Samuel Mather, 
Alexander E. Brown, John Long Severance, Frederick Harris GofI, 
and John P. Green, distinguished Negro lawyer. Central produced the 
beloved educator, Daniel W. Lothman, who gave forty-five years of inspira- 
tion to young Clevelanders, twenty-one of them as principal of East High 
School. 

Thirteen telegraph companies, operating short lines in five states north 
of the Ohio River, were competing in their weakness when a merger as the 
Western Union Telegraph Company was efFected on April 4. As the name 
implies, it was a union of western lines into one system. The initiative of 
Jeptha H. Wade had played a large part in the consolidation; and, having 
become general agent of the new company, he moved to Cleveland. The 
telegraph had been used in the operation of trains since 1851; and its con- 
tribution to safety and efficiency was to be of continuously increasing im- 
portance as rails reached out to the far corners of the nation. Republicans 
utilized the new telegraph to bring quick election returns to a political rally 
in Melodeon Hall for the first time this year. 

In May, Dr. S. R. Beckwith organized the first privately owned hospital 
in Cleveland, known as the Cleveland Homeopathic Hospital (later Huron 
Road Hospital). The doctor was the surgeon for the railroads entering 
Cleveland, and hospital facilities were essential. For his purposes, he rented 
a two-story, frame house facing Clinton Park on Lake Street. 

While pleading the antislavery cause in Cleveland, Frederick Douglass, 
noted Negro lecturer, an escaped slave, was permitted to stop at the Forest 
City House. The incident was discussed throughout the country. 

Coal was first used as locomotive fuel on June 4 by the Cleveland & 
Pittsburgh railroad. After having consumed 9,798 pounds of coal in eleven 
hours and twenty-five minutes on a loi-mile run out of Cleveland, operators 
were convinced of its advantages and soon abandoned the use of wood. 

For a dollar admission, Clevelanders enjoyed a concert by Ole Bull and 
Adelina Patti in Melodeon Hall. There was some regret that the great 
violinist included Pop Goes the Weasel on the program. His selections 
should have been of "a higher order," it was observed. 

Lighthouse Street Bridge (later Willow Street Bridge) was built this year. 
It was replaced in 1898 by an electrically operated drawbridge. 

The Jones brothers, John and David I., Pennsylvania iron men, came to 
Newburgh with $5,000 with which they purchased land from Alonzo Carter 
and erected the first rolling mill in Newburgh. Production of T-rails was 
started, but the partners ran out of money. Henry Chisholm and another 
Jones purchased the business, and in 1857 it became Chisholm & Jones. The 
next year Andros B. Stone, brother of Amasa Stone, acquired an interest, and 
the firm became Stone, Chisholm & Jones. About 150 men were employed in 
the mill, producing about 50 tons of railroad iron daily. A blast furnace, 
erected at Newburgh in 1861, was the first in what later became Cleveland. 
When it went into operation, the glow against the night sky brought out 
the Fire Department to answer the false alarm. 



278 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1856] 

Henry Chisholm, twenty-eight-year-old Scotchman, had come to Cleveland 
in 1850 and supervised the building of a breakwater for the Cleveland & 
Pittsburgh Railroad at the lake terminus of the line. His work was so praise- 
worthy that he was kept busy building piers and docks until he entered the 
iron-manufacturing business. 

On condition that a railroad station be erected on property at Euclid and 
Willson Avenue, Jared V. Willson and his wife executed a quit-claim deed 
for a one-dollar consideration on July 5. A little wooden building was put 
up by the Cleveland & Pittsburgh road at the crossing in the farm com- 
munity, but almost a decade passed before a trading center began to take 
form. 

The year-end school report, issued in July, stated that Cleveland had 
twenty-three school buildings with an estimated value of $150,000, including 




Kentucky Street Reservoir, first central pumping station. 

land and equipment. The total school enrollment was 5,750, and six pupils 
had been graduated from each of the high schools. Greek and Latin had 
been introduced. 

Council shelved a resolution on July 22 that contemplated construction 
of a tunnel, or subway, under the city from the lakeshore to the extreme 
southern limit of the municipality, intended primarily for use of the rail- 
roads centering in Cleveland. Had it been adopted, vexing problems con- 
cerning rights-of-way, grade crossings, and riparian rights might have 
been avoided, and its influence on the city's civic and industrial future can 
hardly be estimated. 

The Federal Government purchased from Leonard Case, Sr., the Case 
homestead on the Public Square for $30,000 as the site for a federal building. 
A two-family, red-brick dwelling on Rockwell (opposite Federal Building), 
built in 1837 for renting purposes, was remodeled into a single house as the 
Case family home. In 1908, the property was acquired for the Group Plan. 
Leonard Street and Case Street, meeting at a bend of the Cuyahoga River, 



[1856] 



RAILS AND RED GOLD 



279 



were named for Leonard Case in 1853, and Case Avenue also honored the 
family name. 

After two years of construction, the Kentucky Street Reservoir, Cleve- 
land's first central pumping station, opened on September 24 with a color- 
ful celebration that attracted thirty thousand visitors. The six-acre mound 
was 35 feet above the level of Kentucky and Prospect streets (later Fair- 
view Park). Spectators climbed the steps up the side for a view of the 
six-million-gallon wonder and the city that stretched into the countryside. 
The cost was $526,712.99. Water was taken from the lake through a 300- 
foot steel tunnel (touching shore near West 58th Street). Two large mains 
carried the water throughout the city. Two Cornish engines, working 
alternately, were the first of their kind erected west of the Alleghenies. 
Professional well-and-cistern cleaners saw the handwriting on the wall. 
Despite large-scale planning, the utility was antiquated within a decade. 




As water was being let into the new city mains, a state fair was in progress 
in the center of the Public Square. A featured attraction was the "capacious 
fountain" from which thousands of visitors sampled drinking water piped 
from the lake. Local papers declared it was the first fountain in the State. 

A market-house site (Ontario, Woodland, and Broadway) was approved 
in October, and part was purchased for about fifteen hundred dollars, the 
rest of the property being given by members of the Walworth family for 
market purposes. Market men condemned the site as too far uptown. 
Factions clashed until 1857, when the Council determined to force the issue 
by moving the Michigan Street market to the new Central Market site. 
Stubborn opposition continued to attack the project, and it found rough 
going. 

One of the earliest Cleveland-built steamers to cross the Atlantic was the 
Dean Richmond that left Chicago for Liverpool in October. 

The first hydraulic press for making bricks was set up in A. W. Duty's 



280 Cleveland: the making of a city [1857] 

yards in East Cleveland. It had the amazing capacity of ten bricks a minute. 
Seventy-three rooms with parlor and bath were added to the Weddell 
House in a $25,000 expansion program. The new four-story addition on 
Bank Street extended to Frankfort, where the main entrance was re-located; 
and two bronze lions were mounted beside the ladies' entrance on Superior. 
The hotel was linked with the political, business, and social progress of 
Cleveland until the seventies, when it began to decline. 







Omnibtis lines were the 
forerunners of the modern 
streetcar system. Stevens' line, 
connecting hotels and depots, 
was operating in 1856. 



1857 



Many were turned away from Melodeon Hall on January 29, when a 
capacity audience Hstened "attentively and quietly" to Ralph Waldo Emer- 
son's lecture, The Conduct of Life. The Herald reporter was obviously 
not deeply impressed, for he stated that the subject "was treated in a 
transcendental sweeping, dry and orderless manner which characterizes 
the emanations of his mind." On one of Emerson's visits to Cleveland, his 
interest in education prompted him to pay an early-morning call on Central 
High School without warning, to see a western high school and watch the 
pupils at work. A telegraph hne installed by the pupils, and their publica- 
tion, The School Boy, impressed him. It was Emerson, the student, who 
wrote, "It matters little what your studies are; it all lies in who your 
teacher is." 

The Daily Review, non-partisan morning newspaper edited by H. N. 
Johnson, made its appearance this year in an era of political ferment. 
Cleveland's first penny sheet, it labored loud and long on reHgion and 
morality, and once a week it reviewed current events. In the following 
April, an experiment in a Sunday edition known as the Sunday Morning 
Review concluded with the eleventh issue, a casualty due to profound 
observance of the Sabbath. The paper failed to survive the Civil War. 

A loo-foot stream from Chief James Hill's hand-pumping engines was 
unable to reach the fire that spread from the roof of the Stone Church 
to the towering 250-foot steeple, and, like a flaming torch, it swayed and 
crashed across Ontario Street. Blackened stone walls remained as grim re- 




Looking south from the Public Square 
tlirougJi Ontario Street in 1862. The 
Square was enclosed by a fence, shut- 
ting of Ontario and Superior streets. 




A balloon ascension from the Public 
Square. 



South side of the Public 
Square, 1863, from a 
painting in the Western 
Reserve Historical Society. 








Dan P. Eells 



Bishop Richard Gihnour 




Jeptha H. Wade I 




Edwin Cowles 



John Hay 



Thomas H. White 




Eufus P. Ranney 



Gen. John H. Devereux 



Henry Chisholm 



[1857] RAILS AND RED GOLD 281 

minders of the calamity suffered by the new First Presbyterian Church 
on March 7. Rebuilding began promptly, and the congregation worshiped in 
Chapin's Hall until its home was restored. 

The Society for Savings needed larger quarters, and rooms built 
for it in the Weddell House were occupied this year. Having installed a 
burglar-proof safe in a brick vault, it was now prepared for safe-keeping 
of assets on the premises. F. W. Bingham became president in 1850 and 
was succeeded by WilHam A. Otis in 1852, S. J. Andrews in 1855, and 
Otis, who was elected again in 1861. 

The rail fences around the four sections of the Public Square had become 
dilapidated, and cows invaded the area to graze. The Square's residents 
and two thousand petitioners won a temporary victory in the "fence 
war" on March 24, when Council ordered that Superior Avenue and Ontario 
Street be vacated, and that a white double-railed fence be built around the 
grounds, enclosing it into a large park. On the first dark night, the fence 
went up, and traffic was obliged to circle the Square. Shrubs were planted 
and rambling walks were laid. Band concerts were given on summer 
evenings, and the park became a popular recreation spot. An unrelenting 
opposition fought the fence for a decade before it came down. 

In March, Charles C. Baldwin, twenty-two-year-old graduate of the Har- 
vard Law School, began reading law in the Cleveland office of S. B. and F. J. 
Prentiss, sons of Samuel Prentiss, famous Vermont senator. When he was 
only a babe, Baldwin's parents moved from Connecticut to Elyria, Ohio, 
where his father was a merchant until his death in 1847. When S. B. 
Prentiss was elected to the Common Pleas bench in 1867, the firm of Prentiss 
& Baldwin dissolved, and Baldwin later became associated with F. J. and 
Charles W. Prentiss. Baldwin was a corporation lawyer of unusual ability, 
and served on the directorate of four Cleveland banks. He was profoundly 
interested in the civic growth of his city, and devoted much of his time to 
cultural organizations. Elected circuit judge in 1884, his record on the bench 
reflected his keen intellect and his sterling character. He died while in 
office in 1895. 

Cleveland police were apprehensive and helpless on April 23, as they 
watched a lively ball game on the Public Square; but they did nothing 
more — there was no law. Virtuous citizens were astonished the same day 
when two females appeared in the street in the fullest and most astonishing 
bloomer style. 

The Fire Department expanded with the organization of the Alert Hose 
Company in this year, and the Protection Hose Company in 1858. 

Rufus P. Ranney, distinguished Ohio lawyer, resigned as judge of the 
Ohio Supreme Court and moved to Cleveland this year, where he began 
practicing law with the firm of Ranney, Backus & Noble. Born in Massa- 
chusetts in 1813, his family moved to Portage County, Ohio, in 1822. Ranney 
received limited schooling, and with his earnings managed to attend Western 
Reserve College for several terms. His search for work led to Jefferson, 
Ohio, where he studied law in the office of the eminent legislator, Benjamin 
F, Wade, and became his partner. Ranney moved to Warren, Ohio; and in 



282 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY U^Sj] 

1850, as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of Ohio, he displayed 
in debate a brilliant knowledge of law. Later in the year he was elected to the 
State Supreme Court, resigning in 1856 to return to law practice. A 
friendly campaign for election to the Ohio Supreme Court stirred political 
circles in 1862, when Judge Ranney, Democrat, was chosen to run against 
his law partner, Franklin T. Backus, Republican. Ranney won by a majority 
of several thousand votes, serving until 1865, when he resigned and re- 
turned to his law office. He was unanimously elected president of the Ohio 
State Bar Association when it was organized in 1881. One of Ohio's 
greatest lawyers and jurists, Judge Ranney was widely known for his 
integrity and his forceful devotion to the right. Modest, unassuming, and 
a man of simple tastes and habits, he and his family lived in a sturdy, 
gabled, stone house that he built on Euclid Avenue in 1876 (later Gray 
Hotel, 2728 EucHd). Here he died in 1891. 

Plymouth Congregational Church took the lead in a revival move- 
ment that began with daily prayer meetings at eight o'clock in the morning, 
chiefly for businessmen. Other churches soon began to hold services. The 
YMCA joined in the endeavor, and it was estimated that between two and 
three thousand persons worshiped every morning. Sunday Schools united 
in Sunday-afternoon meetings at the Second Presbyterian Church. It was 
believed that the "presence of an educated and cool-headed leadership exer- 
cises a restraining influence on an over-emotionalized company of people," 
and as a result of quiet conferences and earnest meetings, the churches 
greatly increased their memberships in the revival period that continued 
into 1858. A similar revival was held in 1866. 

Cleveland Typographical Union No. 53, pioneer labor local, was organized. 
Following a lapse during the Civil War, it was revived, and received an 
international charter in 1868. 

A great religious mania, born of revivalists' threats and astrologists' pre- 
dictions of the end of the world, was sweeping the country and adding to 
the general unrest as the Panic of 1857 climaxed in August. Depression 
clouds had begun to gather in the nation as early as 1853, resulting from 
over-extended bank credit, reckless spending, and over-projection of rail- 
roads. Specie was scarce. Fortunes were wiped out. Business and industry 
suffered dreadfully, and sixty-five Ohio banks failed. The future of railroads 
and public improvements was jeopardized. Cleveland banks rode out the 
storm, and "business houses generally survived." Employment was hard 
hit, however, and in most plants, "the number of employees were reduced 
from 25 to 50 per cent." Tight money brought people to their senses. 
Common need led to better understanding between classes, and church 
groups began to co-operate in welfare endeavors. Unsettled times lasted until 
the beginning of Civil War prosperity. 

Advocates of compensated emancipation met in national convention in 
Cleveland in August. Acknowledging that slavery was a national problem, 
they proposed that owners be paid $250 for the freedom of each slave, the 
money to be raised either by the sale of public lands or other sources of 
federal revenue. After airing itself, the movement died. 



[1857] RAILS AND RED GOLD 283 

William S. Kerruish gave up teaching in Twinsburg, Ohio, and came 
to Cleveland this year to study law in the office of Ranney, Backus & 
Noble. In 1827 his parents had come from the Isle of Man to settle in 
Warrensville, Ohio, where he was born in 1831. Kerruish attended Twins- 
burg Institute and Western Reserve College, and was graduated from Yale 
in 1855. He became one of Ohio's distinguished trial lawyers; gifted with 
unusual speaking ability, he was in demand for public addresses. His son, 
Sheldon Q., was admitted to his father's firm, Kerruish & Chapman; and 
when George T. Chapman died in 1906, the partnership became Kerruish 
& Kerruish. The long career of WilHam S. Kerruish closed with his death 
in 1927. His son became active head of the business, known as Kerruish, 
Kerruish, Hartshorn & Spooner in 191 2, when George E. Hartshorn and 
George W. Spooner were admitted. It was one of the largest legal firms 
in the State. 

A dozen photographic artists had opened studios in Cleveland, includ- 
ing Samuel Crobaugh, who was making daguerreotypes on Ontario Street 
in the early fifties; James F. Ryder, who won international fame; and 
E. Decker, who sold his thriving business to George M. Edmondson 
in 1863. 

Franklin Circle was fenced, and a fountain and wooden pavilion were 
placed in it to promote beautification. 

In the community of English people in the eastern part of Cleveland, 
the foundation for St. James Parish was laid by Trinity Church, supported 
by the united efforts of other Episcopal churches, resulting in a "Church 
Union." Samuel L. Mather of Trinity was the first senior warden, and 
Zenas King of St. Paul's, junior warden. A brick church was erected in 
1865 at Alabama and Superior streets, and the Rev. Richard Bury, former 
rector of Trinity, was in charge until ill health obliged him to withdraw 
in 1872. The little congregation was sheltered by Trinity until 1890, when 
it was revived. A stone church was built on Willson Avenue at Payne, 
where St. James served the needs of a changing community. The Rev. 
Vivian A. Peterson came to the parish as rector in 1919. Canon Peterson 
was a leader of the Anglo-Catholic group in the Episcopal Church of 
America. 

An overload of cattle caused the Seneca Street Bridge to collapse, and 
a new hand-operated wooden drawbridge took its place. A two-span iron 
structure replaced it in 1888. 

William Howard Taft, twenty-sixth President of the United States and 
later chief justice of the United States Supreme Court, was born on Sep- 
tember 15 at Cincinnati, Ohio. 

A second New England Hotel was built at the northeast corner of 
Water and Johnson streets. It could not compete with the finer houses of 
the day, but it was a good second-class hotel. Wholesale business moved 
into the Water Street district, and the New England passed out of existence 
in 1900. 

On October 29, Charles Farrar Brown, twenty-three, later known as 
Artemus Ward, was hired by J. W. Gray as commercial editor of the Plain 



284 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1857] 

Dealer, starting at a salary of ten dollars a week. Within three weeks, 
the gawky tramp printer had made a place for himself on the masthead 
as "associate editor," and his bantering treatment of the "locals" was 
ranking in reader interest with the editor's eloquent analyses of politics. 
Brown was devoted to his mother, whom he called Caroline. They were 
both endowed with a rare gift of humor, and Charles delighted in teasing 
her. "Be respectful to your mother," she admonished one day. "Remember 
what the Bible says." "Well, I expect I ought to," he agreed, "but it is so 
different from the Plain Dealer, I don't putter with it much ... a man 
cannot serve two masters, and I'm a Democrat." 

Eighteen of Cleveland's twenty-two dentists were present at the organiza- 
tion meeting of the Northern Ohio Dental Association, announced by Drs. 
W. H. Atkinson, J. A. Robinson, and others. They met in Tremont Hall 




Third Court House erected on the north 
side of the Public Square in 1857. 



on November 3, and elected Dr. F. S. Slosson the first president. Dr. W. P. 
Horton of Cleveland was a charter member. Dr. Benjamin Strickland, who 
called the assembly to order, was elected president the next year, and re- 
elected annually for eight terms. He was Cleveland's pioneer dentist, a 
man of rare ability and understanding, whose long service closed with his 
death in 1889. 

High on the roll of dentists who established their profession in Cleveland 
was Dr. W. H. Atkinson, who came to the city in 1853 and was Dr. 
Slosson's associate. Dr. Charles R. Butler was his student and later his 
partner. Paying tribute to Dr. Atkinson, Dr. Burton Lee Thorpe, dental 
historian, called him "Leader, 'Teacher of Teachers,' Prophet, and Past 
Grand Master Dental Enthusiast." Dr. M. L. Wright, who came in the 
forties, was graduated from the Cleveland Medical College. His son, 
M. L., and three grandsons, Harry D., Martin L., and William, chose to fol- 
low dentistry. In 1850, Dr. B. F. Robinson, the first of a family of dentists, 
came to Cleveland, followed by his brother. Dr. J. A., with his sons, 
Jere E. and William F. Dr. Lewis Buffett, newcomer in 1861, lectured at the 
Cleveland Medical College; and his brother, Charles, was treasurer of the 
Northern Ohio Dental Association for many years. Dr. D. R. Jennings 
practiced in Cleveland from 1872 to 1897. 

The county commissioners contracted for the building of a new Court 
House on November lo. The official business of Cuyahoga County had ex- 



[1858] RAILS AND RED GOLD 285 

panded tremendously, and die City Council had decided to clear the Public 
Square of permanent buildings. Erection of a three-story stone structure, 
80 by 152 feet, of simple ante-bellum dignity, was begun this year on narrow 
Rockwell Street at the northwest corner of the Square (west of the 
Illuminating Building). It was completed in i860 at a cost of $152,500. The 
famous "Bridge of Sighs" connected the Court House with the jail in the 
rear. During the construction period, the First Baptist Church was used for 
court purposes. 

"A great error of our present social system in America is that we have 
too few holidays, too few hours of relaxation from the cares of slavery of 
business, and too little of that social relish of existence which makes so 
charming the rural life of England, Germany and France. . . . We must 
hail the season of holidays." Thus a local editor gave vent on December 18 
to weariness at keeping pace with a busy world. 



1858 

Cleveland's master builder, Warham J. Warner, had restored the Stone 
Church on the Public Square after damage by fire, and it was dedicated 
on January 17. Ten years later, the galleries were completed, and another 
graceful spire reached heavenward from the east bell tower. Within its 
friendly walls in the heart of the busy city, willing members gave gen- 
erously of time and talents, inspiring sparks of human endeavor that 
developed into social, cultural, and civic movements touching the lives of 
Clevelanders from generation to generation. In August, 1858, the Rev. 
William H. Goodrich became assistant to Dr. Samuel C. Aiken, whose 
declining health forced retirement as pastor emeritus in 1861. Death came 
in 1879. Dr. Goodrich gained wide recognition as a civic leader, serving 
until his death in 1874. 

The first of Charles Farrar Brown's famous letters introducing Artemus 
Ward appeared in the Plain Dealer of January 30. Ward, an imaginary 
showman, traveled about Ohio with a small sideshow, but never quite 
reached Cleveland. Brown's visionary young man with an annual income of 
$2,500, seeking a wife by mail, produced lively reading and a pile of fan 
mail for the author. Another of his tall stories centered on a lion that 
dashed headlong into a pole, the force splitting him from head to tail. The 
owner put the animal together, but, alas, wrong-end-to. In the Plain Dealer, 
the twisted creature cavorted to the entertainment of Artemus Ward's widen- 
ing circle of readers. Patent medicines were used by Brown to add spirit 
to his literary efforts, and the sight of a peeping red petticoat claimed 
more of his attention than poking fun at politics. He dealt in extremes, 
whether they were intended as cutting criticism or fanciful nonsense. Where 
Brown's pen name originated has been debated, one authority claiming 
it was the name of a half-wit snake charmer who lived near Cleveland. 

The Cuyahoga County Historical Society, founded in February, was the 



286 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1858] 

first evidence o£ organized interest in historical Cleveland. Leonard Case, 
Sr., was president; John Barr, secretary; Samuel Williamson, treasurer; 
and Charles Whittlesey, Ahaz Merchant, and George B. Merwin, trustees. 
To broaden its influence, committees were created in each township, 
headed by a vice president. Interest centered in collecting and preserving 
historical material. Thousands turned out to enjoy "grand county picnic 
pioneer celebrations" patterned after the county fair, where relics were ex- 
hibited along with livestock, and orators and stunt performers enjoyed a 
field day. While the society became a victim of the Civil War, priceless 
historical treasures and manuscripts had been brought to light that were 
handed down to the Western Reserve Historical Society in the next decade. 

St. Paul's Evangelical and Reformed Church originated in a congregation 
organized as the Second German Evangelical Church on April 18, 1858. The 
Rev. J. M. Steiner was the first pastor. Affiliation with the Evangelical Synod 
of North America came in 1862. A church was erected on Scovill Avenue 
(at East 28th Street) to which a school was added. The cornerstone of a 
new house of worship was laid, September 11, 1921, at East 127th Street and 
Woodland Avenue. 

The pioneer drug store of Handerson, Punderson & Company was ac- 
quired by S. E. Strong and A. C. Armstrong, who established a wholesale 
department and were soon supplying retail stores in four neighboring 
states. Their first private formula was Dr. Strong's Fever Destroyer. Ahira 
Cobb joined the firm in 1870, and the name became Strong, Cobb & Com- 
pany. As the pharmaceutical branch developed, it gradually overshadowed 
other departments, so that by 1918 Strong, Cobb were manufacturing 
chemists, exclusively. The company became the largest "private formula" 
house in the United States. George Miller was made president in 1940, suc- 
ceeding T. S. Strong. 

W. P. Southworth, a Cleveland builder in the forties, established a 
grocery business this year, and surprised his competitors by inaugurating 
deliveries by wheelbarrow. Trade grew in his first store, at the corner of 
Ontario and Champlain streets, and he moved across Ontario (Park 
Building site), where he operated one of the leading groceries of the 
city. Upon his death in 1891, his son, William J., was head of the business 
until his death in 1907. Southworth's later moved to the Rose Building on 
Prospect Avenue. 

The barque D. C. Pierce was the first Cleveland freighter to clear for 
Europe. It carried a cargo of staves and black-walnut timber. Ten ships 
followed during the year. 

Four Cleveland-owned vessels, built in local shipyards, set out for Liver- 
pool on May 29 with cargoes of wheat and black-walnut timber. City 
officials and the artillery arranged a noisy departure for the "Liverpool 
Fleet." 

Twenty families were released from the Trinity Evangelical Lutheran 
Church on Jersey Street to organize St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church 
in North Dover, Ohio, on June 13. The Rev. John J. Rupprecht was called 



[1858] RAILS AND RED GOLD 287 

as pastor to serve the congregation of fifty-three communicants and ninety- 
three baptized members. For a number of years, services were held in a 
rented church (corner of Detroit and Dover Center roads, Westlake). On 
weekdays the pastor conducted a school in the building. A larger sanctuary 
was built in 1877, ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ church served as a schoolhouse. After nearly 
fifty-three years of service. Pastor Rupprecht died. O. C. Yunghans became 
schoolmaster and organist, and the Rev. Fred Reinking, pastor, in 191 1, the 
year in which a modern brick school was dedicated. The Rev. William J. 
Single succeeded Rev. Reinking upon his death in 1922. 

The first iron arch and swing bridges in northern Ohio were manufactured 
by Zenas King, who started business this year. In 1871, the King Iron Bridge 
& Manufacturing Company was organized by King, Thomas A. Reeve, A. 
B. Stone, Charles E. Barnard, Charles A. Crumb, Dan P. Eells, and Henry 
Chisholm. Under Harry W. King, the founder's son, structural- and wrought- 
iron work was furnished for major building projects. Annual sales had 
reached nearly a million dollars in 1876, when the company was located at 
St. Clair and Wason streets. The builders had met keen criticism of com- 
petitors, but they proved the superiority of King bridges, and a nationwide 
business developed. By 1886, their bridges, if placed end to end, would have 
extended more than 150 miles. 

Early in the morning of July 5 — Independence Day fell on Sunday, 
carriages, wagons, and railroads began pouring an estimated forty thousand 
people into the city to observe the holiday. A subscription of $2,800 had been 
taken up for the celebration, the "greatest" in northern Ohio. After a parade 
in which three thousand participated, concluding with exercises in the 
Public Square, dinner was spread by Father Mathew's Total Abstinence 
Society. Coffee and lemonade took the place of wines and liquors. The great 
feature came shortly after six in the evening, when M. Godard ascended in 
his balloon, the Canada, carrying a solitary passenger. After drifting for a 
half hour to Olmstead, he came down in a field. The Public Square was 
Cleveland's first airport. 

The Burnett House opened in the market district at the northeast corner 
of Prospect and unpaved Ontario in the Farmers Block. Weddings, reunions, 
and festive occasions increased its popularity, and it was soon enlarged. In 
1867, it was improved and opened as the Cleveland Hotel. A series of land- 
lords moved in and out until about 1880, when John B. White leased the 
hotel and named it the Prospect House. Colonel Ransom A. Gillette took 
it over a year later, and for more than a decade it flourished. It became the 
Wilmont in 1893, ^^^"^ the Hotel Frankfort, and in 1905 the Bailey Company 
acquired it, building and rebuilding until the old structure disappeared. 

An attack of fever that influenced young Stephen A. Douglas to leave 
Cleveland in 1833 helped to shape the careers of two great national figures. 
Douglas eventually settled in Illinois. In the famous Lincoln-Douglas debate 
at Freeport, Illinois, on August 27, Douglas was forced to admit that slavery 
might be excluded from a territory by its citizens. Douglas' campaign for 
re-election to the United States Senate was successful, but Lincoln had made 



288 



CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 



[1858] 



his mark in a fearless encounter with the champion. Staunch supporter of the 
Douglas political philosophies was J. W. Gray, editor of the Plain Dealer, 
whose loyalty cost him his office as Cleveland postmaster. 

William Case commissioned Julius Gollman to paint "A Meeting at the 
Ark," showing the original "Arkites" in characteristic session (preserved in 
the library of Western Reserve Historical Society). The German artist 
received $400 for his work. Case had moved the little wooden Ark out of 
the way of the new government building to an adjoining location (easterly 
portion of Federal Building site). 

A German department was inaugurated in Baldwin University (later 
Baldwin-Wallace College) in 1858 for the training of ministers and mission- 








Going to a fire. 



aries of the German Methodist Church. Its successful operation led to the 
opening in 1864 of German Wallace College in Baldwin Hall as a separate 
school, with the Rev. William Nast as president. It was the first German 
Methodist college in the United States. Enrollment the first year was forty 
students. Although the two institutions were independent in control and 
finances, they were intimately connected in instruction. 

Rivalry was the stuff of which firemen were made, and the annual Fire- 
men's Tournament was the big event of the year. For several days, visiting 
fire companies from all over Ohio — as far south as Columbus, Dayton, and 
Cincinnati — poured into Cleveland, bringing apparatus and bands. Septem- 
ber 9, tournament day, opened with a parade around the Square and a 
short program. Contests were staged in the afternoon, each delegation 
fortified by the frenzied support of homefolks. Five silver trumpets, the 



[1858] RAILS AND RED GOLD 289 

grand awards, had stirred up the commotion. Oberhn won the first event, 
racing its hook-and-ladder from the Square out Superior for a quarter-mile 
and mounting a man on top of the ladder in one minute, twenty-six seconds. 
The second trumpet went to Cleveland, whose Alert Company thundered 
down the same course, laid 300 feet of hose, and had water running in one 
minute, forty-nine seconds. No. 3 went to Dayton in the first-class engine 
competition at Ontario and Prospect, which threw a stream just short of 
195 feet. Second-class pumpers met at Erie and Euclid, and the fourth 
trumpet went to Cleveland with a winning stream of 194 feet. At Ontario 
and St. Clair, third-class pumpers fought it out, and Findlay won with a 
194-foot stream. Skirmishes kept the police busy during the day, but in the 
evening the visitors joined with the locals in gala balls at Grays Armory and 
National Hall. 

The problem of drainage was greatly facilitated by the topography of 
Cleveland, and it was not until this time that the matter of sewage received 
official attention. The first sewer, constructed this year, served only to drain 
surface water ofiF Euclid Street. It was cut through the ridge on Sterling and 
Case avenues for a distance of 915 feet, and cost $952.43. This inspired the 
building of brick sewers and culverts in distressed areas; but benefits in the 
name of sanitation varied according to the funds available, and the river, 
lake, and brooks continued to receive the discharge until 1895. 

Out of a Sunday School and prayer group, a little band of Welsh in New- 
burgh organized a Congregational church in the home of William Jones on 
Harvard Street. It had its beginning in the Jones family — David I. and his 
brother, John, who had erected the rolling mill, Thomas D., George M., 
Evan, and William. Of the fifteen original members, seven bore the name 
of Jones. The secretary, George M. Jones, was induced to fill the pulpit 
until 1864, when the Rev. W. Watkins became the first pastor, conducting 
services in the Welsh language. A little church built in i860 became inade- 
quate, and in 1876 a new edifice was erected on Jones Avenue during the 
ministry of the Rev. John E. Jones. The church grew steadily as a force in 
the religious and social life of the clannish, hard-working Welsh people, not 
only in Newburgh, but in the city; and on the church directory of 1896, 
containing 211 names, there appeared 20 bearing the name Davies; 25, 
Griffiths; and 40, Jones. In later years, the church suffered from economic 
influences that deeply affected the life of the community; and while years of 
hardship were endured, it continued to serve, decade after decade, as the 
Jones Road Congregational Church at Broadway and Jones Road. 

At a meeting in the Weddell House on November 8, the Cleveland Chess 
Club was organized with Leonard Case, Jr., president. Telegraph wires were 
installed in their room in the Waring Block, and during the winter an excit- 
ing game, played for almost a month, was lost to Detroit. 

Oberlin College offered educational opportunities to free Negroes, and 
the community naturally became a haven for escaped slaves. Here a Kentucky 
fugitive named John Price found refuge only to be discovered by a slave- 
catcher. Price was cleverly abducted and taken to Wellington, Ohio, where 
his captors awaited a train to Columbus. News of the seizure brought a 



290 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1858] 

rescue mob of about a thousand who forced the kidnapers to turn over their 
victim. After several days in security at the home of James H. Fairchild, 
Oberhn professor and later president, the slave was shipped over the "under- 
ground" safely to Canada. 

Thirty-seven supposed leaders in the Oberlin- Wellington rescue incident, 
including Oberlin professors, business and professional men, white and 
colored, were indicted under the Fugitive-Slave Law, and were arraigned 
before the United States District Court in Cleveland on December 7, where 
they pleaded "not guilty." Rufus P. Spalding, Franklin T. Backus, Albert G. 
Riddle, and Seneca O. Griswold, leading attorneys, volunteered to defend 
the accused. The ten-day trial was opened on April 7, 1859, by District 




The Atwater Building as it appeared in 1858, 
the home of pioneer banks and other important 
business institutions. 



Attorney George W. Belden before Judge Hiram V, Willson. Business 
almost ceased as citizens crowded into the Federal Building. The law 
clearly dictated a verdict of guilty against the major offenders, and sixty-day 
jail sentences were ordered with fines of $600. Protest meetings were held 
all over the Western Reserve, and people came from northern Ohio "by 
trainload and wagonload" to parade before the jail and cheer the "martyrs." 
Daily mass meetings were held in the Public Square, addressed by Joshua 
R. Giddings, Governor Salmon P. Chase, Judge Daniel R. Tilden, and lead- 
ing opponents of the slave law. Professor Henry E. Peck of Oberlin, a 
prisoner, preached quieting sermons to his fellows and to enraged sympa- 
thizers and bystanders. While serving their sentences, prisoners produced 
a bi-monthly newspaper called The Rescuer, and prepared propaganda for 
release to newspapers and ministers. Professor Fitch's Oberlin Sunday School 
paid him a visit in jail rather than enjoy their usual picnic. The trial was 
widely publicized, and newsmen from large cities reported for their papers. 



[1859] RAILS AND RED GOLD 291 

When the rescuers were released, they were hailed as heroes and patriots, 
and great crowds escorted them to their trains. Cheers, music, and prayers 
greeted the Oberlin party when they returned, and a banquet was served 
in their honor. 

The Clearing House Association was organized on December 28, "to effect 
at one place and in the most economical and safe manner the daily exchange 
between the several associated banks and bankers." T. P. Handy, the first 
president, Lemuel Wick, and Fayette Brown, private banker, made up the 
executive committee. Five commercial banks and four private banking houses 
constituted the membership. Headquarters were in the City Bank (The 
National City Bank of Cleveland) for many years. The association served 
as little more than a medium for the exchange of checks by members until 
1902, when its powers were greatly enlarged to increase its usefulness in 
expediting and safeguarding the city's financial interests. 

A new government building was opened on the Public Square (westerly 
portion of Federal Building site) on December 29, during the administration 
of Postmaster Benjamin Harrington, appointed on June 12. It housed the 
Post Office, Custom House, United States courts, and federal offices. Edwin 
Cowles became postmaster on April 4, 1861; George A. Benedict on July 12, 
1865; and John W. Allen on April 4, 1870. 



1859 

Rain prevented many from attending Ralph Waldo Emerson's lecture on 
The Law of Success at Melodeon Hall on January 20, arranged by the Cleve- 
land Library Association, admission twenty-five cents. Only from the pen of 
that strange personality, Artemus Ward, could have come the daring, 
humorous criticism in the Plain Dealer the next morning: "He is a man of 
massive intellect, a great and profound thinker — but ... his lecture last night 
was rather a sleepy aflair. For our part ... we had quite as lief see a perpen- 
dicular coffin behind a lecture desk as Emerson. The one would amuse as 
much as the other. Mr. Emerson is a great scholar — full of book learning — 
but, like many other great scholars, he is impractical and visionary. Let man- 
kind adopt his ideas (Providing always that mankind can understand what 
his ideas are) and they would live a strange, weird life — the chaotic dream 
of a lunatic." Large audiences greeted the eminent lecturer several times in 
the sixties; and in Ward's few remaining years of life, he saw Emerson's 
essays and philosophies capture the attention of the great minds of his day. 

Adding to his $1,000 savings a loan of $1,000 made by his father, John D. 
Rockefeller joined Maurice B. Clark in starting a produce commission busi- 
ness on River Street, March 18. Clark & Rockefeller operations soon extended 
into Indiana, and T. P. Handy loaned young Rockefeller $2,000 to keep pace 
with increasing trade. Sales the first year reached $500,000. 

State legislation took the election of the Board of Education from the City 
Council and placed it with the voters. Charles Bradburn was president of 



292 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1859] 

the first board, elected on April 5. High-school courses were extended from 
three to four years. German was introduced during the year, but a shortage 
of funds hampered general progress. 

Dr. C. A. Terry was the first president of the Cuyahoga County Medical 
Society, organized in April. Civil War years reduced it to inactivity; but in 
1874 it was revived and consolidated with the Cleveland Medical Association, 
which had originated in the Cleveland Academy of Medicine, founded in 
1867. The society's roll of presidents included leading medical men of 
Cleveland. In 1885 a portion of the annual dues was set aside for the pur- 
chase of medical books and journals to be placed in Case Library. This 
arrangement continued until a medical library association was formed in 
1894. 

Before Architect C. H. Heard put his plans for Case Hall on paper, 
William Case, who conceived the idea for a Cleveland cultural center, visited 
Faneuil Hall, Boston, then considered the country's civic and architectural 
gem, using it as a model. Case, wealthy leader in cultural and scientific 
affairs, had moved the historic Ark eastward on Superior (Public Library 
site), and erection of Case Hall began this year on Superior, just west of 
Wood Street, adjacent to the Federal Building. Quarters were provided for 
the Cleveland Library Association and the Cleveland Academy of Natural 
Science. William Case died of consumption in 1862 before the building was 
completed. 

Under the new militia law, four artillery companies were formed in 
Cleveland, one in Brooklyn, and one in Geneva, Ohio. They were in turn 
organized into the ist Regiment of Light Artillery, Colonel James Barnett 
commanding. 

The Ohio wheat crop was ruined, cornfields had to be replanted, and a 
great part of the fruit failed to ripen after the "Big Frost" of June 5, when 
the thermometer fell to 38° in sheltered spots. 

German singers came from all over the country, and a number from 
abroad, to compete for prizes in the eleventh Saengerfest, arranged by the 
North American Saengerbund, that opened on June 14 in National Hall. 
The Cleveland Gesangverein, represented by twenty-four societies with 
four hundred voices, presented Alessandro Stradella on the opening day, the 
first serious opera sung in the city, as a feature of the four-day event. First 
award in a prize concert on June 16 went to the Detroit Harmonie; the 
Buffalo Saengerbund captured the second honor. 

In a local paper of July 8, Elijah Smith advertised two frame houses for 
rent on Water Street at $8 each per month, "supplied with water and other 
conveniences." Eight hundred tons of Lake Huron ice were offered for sale 
by the Cleveland Ice Company, and "a nice saloon" could be purchased for 
$300. Law & North's "coal oil factory" was at high production, "making 
a beautiful straw-colored oil" to be used as fuel for reading lamps. Dr. M. J. 
Dickerson's services ran the gamut of mid-century dentistry: "Ulcerated 
teeth treated, fangs and crowns filled, exposed nerves capped and saved. Also, 
teeth inserted in gold, silver, coralite, or vulcanite plate, or platinum plate 
with continuous gum, which is so much used East." 



[1859] RAILS AND RED GOLD 293 

J. M. Richards built a fashionable resort hotel at the east end of the 
Thomas Bolton farm (northwest corner of Euclid and East 89th) that 
claimed to give the best service west of New York. Spring Pond House 
opened with a shooting match, and many ill-fated fowl, placed as targets 
behind a stump, met their end. Hundreds of turkeys, geese, and ducks went 
to the sportsmen as prizes. The house, in front of which was a circular foun- 
tain, took its name from a pond at one side, where guests bathed in summer. 
Swimming as a sport was hardly popular with the ladies, voluminous 
costumes being designed for coverage rather than for exercise. In the winter 
the frozen pond provided great fun for bustled women and side-whiskered 
escorts, and steaming oyster stew topped off many a party. About a half 
mile north of Spring Pond was a race track that brought profitable patron- 
age in the racing season. The hotel served until 1878. 




At about the time that E. L. Drake struck oil on August 27 near Titus- 
ville, Pennsylvania, three small stills were refining a smelly, tar-like oil from 
cannel coal in Cleveland at the rate of about a barrel daily. The country's 
first "oil rush" was soon under way, and refineries began to spring up in 
Cleveland, Pittsburgh, and on the east coast. 

The plant of the Lake Erie Iron Company had been enlarged by adding 
a rolling mill for making bar iron, and this year it took a new name, Otis 
& Company. During the Civil War, it supplied the Union with railroad iron 
and gun-carriage axles, but when the war ended, Charles A. Otis sold his 
interest. 

Professor Ransom F. Humiston, accomplished Cleveland teacher, organ- 
ized a company and opened Cleveland Institute — or Humiston Institute — in 
the Cleveland University building. Students from distant states were 
attracted to the co-educational boarding-and-day school, and in 1867-68 there 
were 196 pupils enrolled. The institution prospered for a number of years, 
then succumbed to public-school competition, despite the superior educa- 
tional opportunities it offered. 



294 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1859] 

Flora Temple, the greatest trotter o£ her day, had equaled her mile record 
of 2:21/^ in Cincinnati on October 7. Despite bad weather, a great crowd 
turned out to see her race in Cleveland. On the twenty-sixth, she won three 
heats from Ike Cook on a heavy track, trotting the final mile in 2:25 and 
setting a record in the city. 

Council rejected an ordinance in June to establish the Cuyahoga County 
Horse Railroad Company. Councilman Thayer protested, "It would indeed 
be a singular state of things if any mode of conveyance be prohibited on any 
street except on horseback or in ox carts." The streetcar question was 
debated bitterly, many taxpayers declaring that tracks would be a menace to 
pedestrians and existing transportation, and, further, the population was too 
small to support the new mode of travel. On October 25, however, opposi- 
tion yielded, and franchises were granted to the East Cleveland Railway 
Company and the Kinsman Street Railroad Company to operate horsecar 
lines. A few simple laws limited rapid-transit speed to five miles an hour, 
ordered horses and mules to walk at track curves, and designated 300 feet 
between cars going in the same direction. In these pioneer lines, metropolitan 
transportation had its beginning. 

Late in the year, grand opera returned to Cleveland when the Parodi 
Italian troupe gave a performance at the Academy of Music. The Leader 
reported on November 2 that it was a great success and well attended on the 
last night, when "the admission price was cut from one dollar to fifty cents." 

City authorities approached their street-cleaning problem with an eco- 
nomical medium known as the chain-gang system. On November 4, the first 
law-breaker, "Buffalo Jim," a notorious thief, went reluctantly to work. 
Prosperous citizens found guilty of infraction labored with pick, shovel, or 
broom in silk hats and frock coats by the side of petty offenders and tramps. 
Heavy iron balls were chained to each member of the clean-up crew. Keep- 
ing order was no small task for the "law." Five days after "Buffalo Jim" 
was assigned to the shovel, he was removed to the Infirmary to recover from 
exertions that "brought on maladies and reduced his strength" in encounters 
with the police. 

Many of the city's ministers opposed organization of the University 
Heights Congregational Church on November 13, as they feared that the 
thirty-four members, representing several denominations, could not live in 
peace and harmony. The Rev. William H. Brewster, the first pastor, served 
until 1868, and services were held in Humiston's Cleveland Institute. Among 
the early officers were John G. Jennings, Hiram V. Willson, Isaac P. Lamson, 
and Dr. Albert G. Hart, widely known surgeon and father of two famous 
sons, Hastings Hornell, penologist, and Albert Bushnell, historian. The 
church was independent in government until 1862, when it united with 
the Congregational Conference. Membership had reached 126 in 1869; and 
the next year a $16,000 church building was dedicated on property given by 
Brewster Pelton at the corner of Jennings and Howard Street during the 
ministry of the Rev. Thomas K. Noble. Seating capacity was increased to 
700, and a $20,000 pipe organ was installed in 1877 by the flourishing con- 
gregation. Identity of the church changed in 1883 to Jennings Avenue Con- 



[1859] RAILS AND RED GOLD 295 

gregational Church, and again in 1892 to Pilgrim Congregational Church. 

Many Clevelanders were aroused to bitter hatred when they learned that 
John Brown, of Harpers Ferry fame, was to be executed. Owen Brown had 
moved his family to the Hudson, Ohio, community in 1805, and his son's 
stormy career was followed by sympathizers and critics alike. On November 
29, Judge Daniel R. Tilden presided at a Cleveland meeting where plans 
were made for recognition of the day of Brown's execution. Church bells in 
the city began tolling for a half hour on December 2 at two o'clock, as the 
condemned man was driven in a spring wagon to the scaffold in Charles 
Town, West Virginia, seated on his coffin. Flags were at half mast. The 
Herald was published with a mourning border. Melodeon Hall was draped 
in black when a great mass meeting assembled in the evening. It was a 
solemn occasion, and Judge Rufus P. Spalding was the speaker. A letter writ- 
ten to Judge Tilden by Brown a few days before his death was passed 
through the audience. The last words were, "I do not think I can better 
serve the cause I love so much than to die for it." When the raider's body 
was brought to Hudson on the way to New York City, where services were 
held, many Clevelanders journeyed to the ancestral home. 

For nearly a half century, Alfred Kelley had devoted his tremendous 
ability and energy to the advancement of Cleveland and Ohio. Through his 
genius and firm resolve, waterways and railroads became practical realities, 
and both city and state were attracting industry and commerce. Through his 
wisdom, legislation stabilized public and private finance, and saved "the 
honor of the State." When Alfred Kelley died in Columbus on December 2 
at the age of seventy, Ohio lost one of its greatest practical planners. 

Benjamin Mastick, Asel Abels, and Andrew Kyle drafted articles of faith 
and by-laws for the Congregational Church of Rockport, organized this year 
with J. B. Allen as pastor, 1859-61. In 1861, the society became a corporate 
group; and in January, 1862, a building was erected near Kamm's Corners. 
The names of Triskett and Nichols were associated with the building enter- 
prise. The church was related to the Cleveland Presbytery for some years 
until 1869, when it joined the Congregational Conference. In 1904, during 
the pastorate of the Rev. J. P. Riedinger, 1903-17, the name was changed to 
West Park Congregational Church, conforming with the name of the com- 
munity. West Park, named for Benjamin West, Rockport Township pioneer. 
A new house of worship was erected in 1905 (at 3909 Rocky River Drive) ; 
and a parish house built in 1928 served church and community activities 
and became the weekly meeting place of the Kiwanis Club. The Rev. Well- 
ington Leininger came to the pulpit in 1935. Elisha Hoflman, church mem- 
ber, 1882-92, was a composer of gospel songs that gained popularity after the 
turn of the century. 

The decade of the fifties witnessed the establishment of business concerns 
that continued in existence in the 1940s: 1854, Cleveland Provision Company, 
Gerlach Company; 1856, Cleveland Agency of Berkshire Life Insurance 
Company; 1858, Central Publishing House, Cherry Burrell Corporation; 
1859, Leopold Brothers Furniture Company, J. M. & L. A. Osborn 
Company. 



CHAPTER 9 



Heartaches and Recovery 
1860-1869 



THE ROMANCE of Cleveland's early artisans in primitive industry 
was a closed chapter. A city of commerce and trade had been established 
by the pioneers, and a new industrial era was commencing — a period of 
solid foundations, of rapid growth, and of steadily increasing civic fame. 
Villages and crossroads communities were decreasing in population as the 
decade opened. One-sixth of the American people lived in cities of eight 
thousand or upward in i860, and industry was taking the lead in value of 
production over agriculture as the chief occupation in Ohio. 

Cleveland's population had increased to 43,417, more than two and one-half 
times over 1850, and it represented more than half of the 78,033 inhabitants 
in Cuyahoga County. Within the Cleveland boundaries, from Willson 
Avenue on the east to Waverly Street on the west, enclosing 7.325 square 
miles, a notable change was taking place. More than 44 per cent of the 
population was of foreign origin, as compared with more than 45 per cent of 
Cincinnati's total of 161,044. The New England element represented a 
minority in Cleveland, although leaders in the professions, in business, 
and in industry bore the names of early-day families. 

Increasing numbers of immigrants were attracted by Cleveland's pros- 
perity — Germans, who predominated, followed by EngHsh, Irish, Scotch, and 
Welsh. There were 15 Czech families in the city in i860. Nine years later 
there were 696, totaling 3,252, of which 1,949 were men, representing many 
skills and trades. Ninety men and 50 women were employed on farms, and 
soon they had purchased patches of ground for their simple country homes. 
Harvey Rice employed many Czechs on his farm, selling them land on easy 
terms. Thus the Croton Avenue settlement thrived until the Broadway- 
Willson district developed. The Czechs were music lovers, and their 
musicians played in theater orchestras. 

From central and southern Europe were coming little groups of Hungar- 
ians. A small number of ItaHans arrived in 1862, settling first in the Ontario 
Street market district. They soon found employment in the marble works 
on Mayfield Road, where they started a colony known as Little Italy, a bit of 
the homeland, colorful with tradition and song. Improved transportation 
facilities and an abundance of labor and raw materials would later unite 
to produce a combination that swelled immigration figures and placed 
Cleveland in the ranks of leading American cities by the turn of the century. 

The development of sectionalism in the United States, and controversies 

296 



HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 297 

over the tariff and internal improvements had created hostiUty among the 
States. The Compromise of 1850 and enforcement of the Fugitive-Slave Lav/ 
fed the fires of antislavery sentiment in the North, and with the hanging of 
John Brown and the trial of Lucy, the slave girl, the war clouds of 
rebellion were about to burst. The rise of the Republican Party had united 
the strength of the radicals; and the Southern States, finding themselves a 
minority in the hands of an antagonistic majority, seceded from the Union. 

Slavery was the issue in the election of i860. J. W. Gray had swung the 
Plain Dealer into compromise on the issue, following his friend, Stephen 
A. Douglas, while Lincoln was strongly supported by the Leader. The 
Public Square was the proving ground for many tense political demonstra- 
tions, but none that equaled the spirit of the Lincoln presidential campaigns. 
When Abraham Lincoln came to Cleveland on the way to his first inaugural, 
citizens gave him a welcome greater than that of any other city. In the 
November election, Cuyahoga County voted emphatically for the lawyer 
from Illinois. 

Slavery had divided Cleveland churches, and even the ministers disagreed. 
Dr. Samuel C. Aiken of the Old Stone Church found it increasingly difficult 
to hold to the middle of the controversy. "The ultra reforms . . . Temperance, 
Slavery, etc.," he said, "have rendered it extremely difficult for the pastor to 
maintain order and harmony in his church." 

Tragedy struck the nation on April 12, 1861, when Fort Sumter was 
attacked. Party differences were cast aside in Cleveland when President 
Lincoln called for volunteers. Sentiment crystallized quickly into self-denying 
patriotism and support of government, and there was no room for southern 
sympathizers. Business dwindled in stores as the city mobilized its strength. 
Feeling was tense as enlistment meetings were held. Families prepared for 
the day when their men must go off to duty, and anxious home folk prayed 
that the "speck of war" would be finished without the need of grapeshot 
and rifle bullets. Leland's Band played The Girl I Left Behind Me as many 
of the volunteers went to camp in shirt sleeves; arms and equipment were 
scarce. Here they had their first taste of war's privations — beans and coffee 
for supper and "the soft side of a pine board" for a bed. 

A national economy geared to peacetime was strained as the country 
plunged into war. Weak banks began to fail, a list of Ohio banks published 
by the Federal Government in i860 showing 10 as "broken," 23 "closed," 
and 31 "worthless." Cleveland banks weathered the transition. The Govern- 
ment was unprepared to meet the heavy demands of the military, and soon 
found that borrowing from the people yielded slow returns. As in past 
emergencies, greenbacks — unsecured treasury notes — were issued, and specie 
payment was suspended to protect the banks in their inability to meet 
demands for gold and silver. Hard money became scarce, and "shinplasters," 
tokens, and other substitutes began to appear, confusing values, inviting 
counterfeiting, handicapping business, and undermining confidence. 

Laborers and salaried workers suffered as living costs outdistanced salaries 
and wages. In March, i860, flour had risen to I5.50 to $6.25 per barrel; corn, 
48 to 50 cents per bushel; potatoes, 30 to 40 cents; ham, 9^ to 10 cents per 



298 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 

pound; dried beef, lo cents; butter, 13 cents; New Orleans sugar, 7^ to 9 
cents; granulated sugar, 11 to 11 K cents; Rio coffee, 12 J4 to 14 cents; Java 
coffee, 16 to 17 cents; rice, ^Yz to 5 cents; eggs, i2/^ cents per dozen; lard 
oil, 85 to 88 cents per gallon; and New Orleans molasses, 46 to 50 cents. 
Prices had risen nearly loo per cent by 1864, while wages increased less than 
50 per cent in "The Dreadful Decade." 

Schools and colleges suffered as faculty and students joined th? service. 
Cultural activities and sports were interrupted by the war, and lecture series 
were curtailed. Construction halted, except in furtherance of war demands. 
Military control of telegraph lines was a blow to Cleveland newspapers, 
which were financially unable to send correspondents into the battle zones. 
Anson Stager of Cleveland was mihtary superintendent of all Hnes and 
offices in the North. 

Patriotism was expressed in pledges to observe rigid economy of living, 
and decline the purchase of foreign luxuries, such as silk or wool dress goods, 
shawls, expensive ribbons, feathers and flowers, carpets, liquors, cigars, and 
jewelry. Women worked with untiring zeal in their ministry to the sick 
and needy at home and to the men in battle. They organized the Ladies Aid 
Society, the first of its kind in the country, which became the pattern for 
war relief. Old Dan Tuc\er, Oh, Susanna, and John Brown's Body shared 
popularity with a new tune. Tramp, Tramp, Tramp, the Boys are Marching, 
as the people gave and gave in their heroic effort to help win the peace. 

Out of the period of industrial expansion for war and the threat of inflation, 
there came on February 25, 1863, a reshaped banking policy in the form 
of the National Bank Act, providing for "a National Currency, secured by 
a Pledge of United States Bonds, and ... for the Circulation and Redemption 
thereof." A tax on state bank notes forced state banking systems out of 
existence as national banks were organized under the direct supervision of 
the Treasury Department. In Cleveland the First National Bank was created, 
followed by reorganization of the Bank of Commerce as the Second National 
Bank, the Merchants Branch Bank as the Merchants National Bank, the 
Commercial Branch Bank as the Commercial National Bank, and the City 
Bank as The National City Bank of Cleveland. The Society for Savings 
alone passed through the transition as originally organized. 

During the war, bank capital trebled. "One of the most remarkable features 
of these times," observed the Leader on April i, 1863, "is the steady and rapid 
accumulation of savings deposits," as influenced by higher wages, soldiers' 
bounties, and emphasis on thrifty living. Many war veterans, however, spent 
bonuses and back pay carelessly and in unwise investments. In 1868, the 
first saving-and-loan association was established in Cleveland. 

The national debt first reached billion-dollar figures after the Civil War, 
when the Union owed $2,755,763,000, or $77.69 per person. It was retired 
slowly until boosted by the Spanish-American War. The first United States 
income tax, levied to finance the War between the States was discontinued 
in 1872. 

Rally 'Round the Flag and devotion to the Union produced Cleveland 
volunteers who fought in bloody military engagements from Bull Run to 



HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 299 

Appomattox. Slavery was dead, but at what a cost! Thousands of lives had 
been lost or broken. The South lay scorched and wasted. As Cleveland 
gave thanks for the return of peace, word came that the hand that had signed 
the Emancipation Proclamation had been stilled by the assassin's bullet. 

Chauncey M. Depew eloquently told the story of the angry crowd that 
gathered in Wall Street, New York City, after hearing the report of Lincoln's 
assassination — a crowd that threatened to wreck the financial district, 
believing that banking and business houses were sympathetic with the 
Confederates. Suddenly Congressman James A. Garfield appeared on the 
balcony of the Custom House and made an impassioned appeal, climaxed 
by these words, "God reigns and the RepubHc still hves!" This quieted the 
mob. Garfield had been elected Ohio senator in 1859, and was one of the 
first volunteers in the Union Army. He resigned the promise of a brilliant 
mihtary career in 1863 to take a Republican seat in Congress, where he 
served until 1880. 

Cleveland's grief was deep as her citizens gathered at their time-honored 
meeting place, the Public Square, to look upon the face of Abraham Lincoln, 
the President they loved. Their gratitude that the war was over was expressed 
in a huge bell, raised to the tower of the Old Stone Church, bearing the 
inscription : 

Cast for the First Presbyterian Church, Cleveland, Ohio 
In the Year of Peace, 1865 

As battle-scarred regiments again marched down Superior Avenue, there 
were many gaps in the ranks, and tears mingled with rejoicing. Woefully 
reduced in manpower, they stooped to the task of reconstruction, resolving 
to bury memories of war except as they were revived in friendly organizations 
protnoting service and fellowship, and in monuments to their brave men. 
Veterans and workers at home preserved comradeship in Grand Army posts, 
the Loyal Legion, and the Women's Relief Corps, known for many years for 
their charitable efforts. Interest broadened with the founding of active 
auxiliaries — the Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic, Daughters of 
Union Veterans of the Civil War, and Sons of Union Veterans of the 
Civil War. Pledging themselves to national defense and security, veterans 
organized the Army and Navy Union in 1886, and active garrisons and 
auxiliaries gradually took form in Cuyahoga County. 

Wealth accumulated through war industry was put to work in exploiting 
natural resources, and the decades following the Civil War witnessed further 
expansion of the West and increased immigration of workers seeking jobs 
in prosperous Cleveland. Railroad promoters were hastening the meeting of 
east-west lines in i860, to join the seaboard with Indianapolis, Chicago, 
Milwaukee, St. Louis, and the fast-growing interior. In 1850 Ohio had only 
299 miles of road; a decade later, roads had multiplied ten times and popula- 
tion had increased 2.5 times. Short-line railroads of varying gauges had 
sprung up to benefit small localities, and extensions developed as the 
importance of rail lines to commerce and industry became evident. 



300 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 

The network of rails, it is said, saved the Union. Completion o£ the broad- 
gauge Atlantic & Great Western Railroad (Erie) into Cleveland in 1863 
not only provided a new route to the East, but increased the movement of 
oil from the Pennsylvania fields from the north that was to give the city 
supremacy over Pittsburgh. 

Six railroad lines were operating daily in and out of Cleveland in 1865. 
Leaving Cleveland on the Cleveland-Ashtabula line at 9:50 a.m., passengers 
changed to the New York Central at Buffalo, and at i p.m. the next day 
reached New York City. The next year, the roads joined in erecting the 
"massive" Union Depot, the marvel of the age. 

The year 1869 held unusual significance for Clevelanders, marking the 
completion of the first transcontinental railroad in the United States, laid 
largely along the route of Jeptha H. Wade's pioneering telegraph line that 
had reached the Pacific Coast in 1861. It also saw the founding of the Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern trunk line, a union of disjointed roads into a 
main line, depending upon through traffic for its business. The Lake Shore 
was a great factor in city growth. 

While the railroads carried the mails with greater speed, nothing had been 
done to improve distribution and delivery in Cleveland. Until Joseph W. 
Briggs devised a system of mail delivery and collection, later adopted 
throughout the nation, crowds waited patiently while mail was sorted. 

Pioneer railroads had fostered the growth of the iron industry, and 
Cleveland's five foundries of the early fifties had increased to sixteen plants 
in 1863. The early sixties saw the founding of fifty new and highly competitive 
companies to exploit Michigan ore. America's first pipe line carrying crude 
oil, laid twelve miles long in 1859, was soon lengthened under the leadership 
of John D. Rockefeller, who assumed the task of bringing light to the world. 
Curiously, evidences of oil and gas were not new in Cleveland. Since the 
day that Moses Cleaveland, its founder, had given passing interest to the 
gaseous waters of Euclid Creek, these natural resources were hardly disturbed. 
Industrial progress, however, failed to receive wholehearted encouragement 
from the City Council, which was constantly under pressure of citizens who 
condemned the rolling mills as smoke nuisances and the refineries for their 
offensive odors. 

At the close of the Civil War, there were thirty oil refineries in Cleveland, 
which had become the leader in coal-oil production. With a small amount 
of capital and a half dozen workers, a refinery could be started, its product 
selling for ten dollars a barrel. By 1866, the petroleum industry was in the 
throes of speculation, widely fluctuating prices, and careless, inefficient, and 
wasteful operation. Gushers burst with riches as old wells ran dry, creating 
overproduction one day and scarcity the next. Prices raced up and down, 
keeping the market in constant confusion. The oil business was doomed, 
declared twenty-six-year-old John D. Rockefeller, unless struggling refineries 
consolidated and stabilized the industry. Soon he was putting his industrial 
genius to work, with the aid of able Cleveland men, and the foundations 
of the vast Standard Oil empire were beginning to take form. 

The war stimulated business of every kind, and the interdependence of 



HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 



301 



industry became noticeably important. Without Grasselli chemicals, for 
instance, Rockefeller would have been unable to refine oil. In 1868, the 
Board of Trade reported fourteen rolling mills in the Cleveland area. 
Industrial plants were producing quantities of machinery, castings, bar iron, 
nails and spikes, structural iron work for bridges, railroad equipment, and 
stoves. The Bessemer process, introduced this year, made cheap steel possible. 
New enterprises were launched, some of which held continuous records of 
operation eight decades later. Labor unions began to make notable gains 
after the war, and Cleveland's industrial advance attracted the interest of 
labor movements. 

The inter-relation of lake navigation and railroading had become a great 
factor in the economic development of the Great Lakes region. Water routes 




Oil Refineries, 1866, at Kingsbury's Run, 
the beginning of a world-tvide industry. 



were linked with a growing network of land routes, thus cheapening and 
standardizing freight and passenger rates, facilitating transfer at ports, and, 
in many instances, permitting a choice of routes. 

The Civil War interrupted traffic between the lakes and Europe, and as 
the war closed, internal expansion claimed the capacity of lake fleets. "Cleve- 
land now stands confessedly at the head of all places on the chain of lakes 
as a shipbuilding port," reported the Herald in September, 1865. Near at 
hand was choice Michigan and Canadian timber; and a supply of labor and 
materials gave the city an advantage in the building of wooden vessels. 
"Cleveland has the monopoly of propeller building," the Herald continued. 
"Its steam tugs are the finest on the lakes, whilst Cleveland-built sailing 
vessels not only outnumber all other vessels on the chain of lakes but are 
found on the Atlantic coast, in English waters, upon the Mediterranean and 
in the Baltic." Local shipyards had produced twelve large propellers during 
the year, aggregating 6,823 tons burden. The barge was first used in the 
early sixties in the lumber trade. 

The horse was the king of transportation in Cleveland! Omnibus lines had 
flourished on city streets and served outlying towns since 1857, when they 
were introduced by Henry S. Stevens. Grabby carriage and hack drivers 
met travelers at the docks and the railroad depot, setting fares according to 



302 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 

an estimate of the passenger's ability to pay. The newspapers called it a 
"most atrocious swindle." 

The horsecar was still a novelty in i860, and the Leader observed that 
citizens no longer needed "to plod the way through our almost bottomless 
streets nearly half the year." Horse-drawn streetcars rumbled up Euclid as 
far as Erie Street, turned south to Prospect, then east to the city limits, 
being diverted from a straight course through the strenuous efforts of the 
residents of upper Euclid Street. For many .years, the section between Erie 
and Case was held sacred from streetcar traffic. 

By the middle sixties, the omnibus was falling by the wayside as noisy 
horsecars made inroads into local transit business. While the horsecar was 
considered a great public institution, for every boost there was a knock; but 
popularity of the lines grew, leading in a few years to an epidemic of street- 
railway building. Pioneer lines made great contributions to city development, 
uniting business and industrial districts with residential areas, and influencing 
Cleveland to become a city of home owners. 

Early streetcars were built for winter or for summer use. The cold-weather 
type was a ten-foot box car with a door at either end and a two-foot platform 
for the driver. Passengers huddled together for warmth; but the driver, who 
shared the elements with the horses, bundled himself in heavy clothing and 
earned a great deal of sympathy. 

In summer, open streetcars went into service. Forty passengers could be 
seated back-to-back on long benches. A running board ran the length of 
each side of the car. In bad weather, canvas curtains were pulled down to the 
tops of the seats to protect the passengers. The East Cleveland line owned 
twenty cars, ten of the closed and ten of the open type. Daily operation called 
for the use of about six cars. These were increased in the morning and 
evening rush hours, which even then had become a problem. Cars stopped 
anywhere on signal. Daytime fare was five cents, night fare a dime. Runaway 
horses created excitement, but serious accidents were few. 

Bustles posed a problem on the little horsecars. Ladies were wearing a 
new invention, the "tilting hoop" skirt, featuring the "duplex elliptical 
steel spring." A postwar model was designed to relieve the problem by 
fitting the bustle with covered wire springs so arranged that when the 
wearer sat down the bustle contracted. Prosperous men of the day hid 
behind beards and whiskers, and the threat of hot weather failed to alter 
their passion for heavy, black-broadcloth frock coats, "boiled" shirts and 
stovepipe hats. 

The rolling mills had brought "palmy days" to Newburgh, and enter- 
prising businessmen built a dummy railroad to bring the isolated village 
closer to Cleveland. Another line opened on the West Side, running to the 
Cliff House and the picnic grounds overlooking the Rocky River valley. 

Cleveland had 182 streets, 5 avenues, and 3 alleys in i860. Although lower 
Superior Street continued to be the center of commerce, business was 
elbowing its way into the gas-lighted Public Square. The city's center was 
a beauty spot in i860. Tall shade trees cast a shadow over the entire park. 
There were straight and winding walks, and seats for those who would rest. 



HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 303 

In the center, a cast-iron, circular fountain spurted refreshment of cool Lake 
Erie water; but later in the year, Perry's Monument moved into its place. A 
two-rail fence surrounded the Square until 1867, cutting off Superior and 
Ontario streets. The new stone Post Office, or Federal Building, faced the 
Square from the northeast corner of Superior. The Forest City House stood 
on the southwest corner at Superior on the site it would occupy for decades. 
It was only a matter of time before the remaining residences of well-known 
citizens would give way to the eastward expansion of commerce. 

Superior Street extended only to Erie until 1865, when the residence of 
T. P. May, early merchant, was removed from its path to permit extension 
to the east. Fine homes built by prosperous Clevelanders east of the Public 
Square reflected the skill of master builders — Jonathan A. Goldsmith, 
Charles W. Heard, Warham J. Warner, and others. Bordering the south 
side, beyond the Second Presbyterian Church, were dignified residences of 
the Greek Revival period, erected for Henry A. Raymond, Philo Chamber- 
lain, Frederick A. Sterling, and James Farmer. 

Prospect Street and Kinsman Street, renamed Woodland Avenue in the 
sixties, were at the height of popularity with citizens, who entertained 
themselves by driving past fashionable homes on their way to the country- 
side. St. Clair Street continued to be well-traveled, leading to homes, gardens, 
and farms along the lakeshore. Modest homes on the streets around the 
Square were generally set on a line with the sidewalk, or a few feet back, 
and stone steps led up to them. They boasted basement dining rooms and 
kitchens in the eastern style. 

Euclid Street as far as Willson Avenue was virtually "Prosperity Street." 
Eastward on the south side beyond St. Paul's Church at SherifF Street was 
the Ursuline Convent, formerly the Judge Samuel Cowles residence, and 
the distinguished home of Truman P. Handy. On the north side were the 
fine homes of Henry Chisholm, Henry L. Gaylord, Martin B. Scott, and 
Lemuel Crawford. Beyond Erie wealthy residents had begun to build 
mansions in deep, spacious lawns — Amasa Stone, W. J. Boardman, Zalmon 
Fitch, Selah Chamberlain, Sr., Samuel L. Mather — later the William G. 
Mather home, James F. Clark — later the W. S. Tyler home, Henry H. 
Dodge, S. B. Prentiss, O. M. Oviatt, Lemuel Wick, and Stillman Witt. In 
the effusive words of the editor of the Zanesville Times, reprinted in the 
Herald, May 27, 1868, "The fine architectural taste of the mansions which 
wealth has spared no pains in perfecting, the extensive grounds, the velvet 
green lawns, rare flowers and plants, the fountains that adorn each residence, 
many of them costing their owners over $100,000 before completion, are 
alone worth a trip to the lake to see." The golden age of Euclid Street had 
begun ! 

Bayard Taylor, American traveler and author, visited the city frequendy. 
He called Euclid Street the most beautiful in the world, its only rival being 
the Prospekt Nevsky in St. Petersburg, Russia. In a lecture before the Royal 
Society of Great Britain in about i860, John Fiske described the world-famous 
street as "bordered on each side with a double row of arching trees, and 
with handsome stone houses of sufficient variety and freedom in architectural 



304 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 

design, standing at intervals of from one to two hundred feet along the entire 
length of the street . . . the vistas reminding one of the nave and aisles of 
a huge cathedral." 

Not long after his departure from Cleveland for greener pastures in the 
lecture field, Artemus Ward wrote a facetious tribute to Euclid Street, 
acknowledging it as — 

a justly celebrated thoroughfare. Some folks go so far as to say it puts it 
all over the well known Unter der Sauerkraut in Berlin and the equally 
well known Rue de Boolfrog in Paree, France. Entering by way of the 
Public square and showing a certificate of high moral character, the visitor, 
after carefully wiping his feet on the 'welcome' mat, is permitted to roam 
the sacred highway free of charge. The houses are on both sides of the 
street and seem large as well as commodious. They are covered with tin 
roofs and paint and mortgages, and present a truly distangy appearance. 
All the owners of Euclid Street homes employ hired girls and are patrons 
of the arts. A musical was held at one of these palatial homes the other 
day with singing. The soprano and the contralto were beautiful singers. 
The tenor has as fine a tenor voice as ever brought a bucket of water from 
a second-story window, and the basso sang so low that his voice at times 
sounded like the rumble in the tummy of a colicky whale! 

While Euclid Street displayed an aristocratic air, the thoroughfare was in 
a state of neglect. Although a short stretch of stone pavement was intended 
eventually to supplant the carriageway and the old planks, a complaint was 
registered in 1862 that weeds were growing between the sidewalk and the 
street. Pavements were of poor construction, and the cost of even the best 
was considered extravagant. Good paving stone was brought from Buffalo, 
cordwood was expensive, and taxpayers were reluctant to assume increased 
tax burdens in the interest of improved transportation. 

Rich soil to the east and west of Cleveland, not far from the Pubhc 
Square, was producing fine vegetables, fruits, and flowers. Dr. Jared P. 
Kirtland, pioneer scientist, had developed many new varieties of fruit on 
his Rockport experimental farm. The craze for strawberries was sweeping 
in from New York, and soon almost every family had a plot. Commercial 
gardeners provided housewives with home-grown produce in season. At 
dawn they left for market with heavily loaded wagons, retailing to customers 
at busy intersections, or selling off the tailgate at the market stands in Cleve- 
land. A new Central Market House that was ready for business* in 1867 
was hardly built in anticipation of the long years of service that it was 
destined to give. Antiquated and lacking in health and sanitary facilities, 
it continued to monopolize one of the busiest intersections in the city in the 
1940s, despite decades of effort to move it. 

A vigorous revival of cultural and professional interests followed the war, 
resulting in the founding of a number of influential organizations. Public 
and private library and museum projects became permanent institutions 
of increasing importance. Case Hall, erected by the Case family, opened in 



HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 305 

1867 and was the city's cultural center. Theater managers made the most of 
postwar prosperity, and Ten Nights in a Bar Room drew capacity houses. 

Lecture courses and the works of great authors found new competition in 
cheaper books and magazines as the war ended, produced by improved 
printing processes and lower-priced paper. The first of the dime novels ap- 
peared in the sixties. 

Benjamin F. Taylor, a newspaperman who had lived in Cleveland, left 
enduring word pictures of the Civil War, artistic nature sketches, and de- 
lightful poems, some of which found their way into school readers. He did 
much of his writing in Chicago until his death in 1887. Typical camp Hfe 
in the war was portrayed by a young Bedford, Ohio, artist named Archibald 
M. Willard, and his drawings were appearing in Harper's Magazine. 

After her marriage to Charles E. Bolton of Cleveland at the end of the 
war, Sarah Knowles Bolton became widely known as the author of several 
volumes of poetry and numerous biographies written for young people. 
Both she and her husband were prominent in the temperance movement 
and in social-service work. 

The numbers of the sick, poor, and fatherless increased as a result of the 
war and city growth, and a wave of welfare societies sprang up to extend 
helping hands. Young ladies were beginning to wonder whether it was better 
to brave the evils of the city or to stay on the farm within the bosom of 
one's family until the right man came along. Quoting from the minutes 
of the first annual meeting of the Women's Christian Association (YWCA), 
founded in the late sixties : "In the bustle and activity of the age, women are 
following hard after the men. Not satisfied with their quiet country homes, 
many of them press their way to the cities." Clothed in noble principles 
and sidewalk-sweeping skirts, virtuous Christian women assumed the re- 
sponsibility of the welfare of the venturesome working girl. 

Cleveland's importance politically attracted women of the nation who met 
in the city to lay plans to further the cause of woman suffrage. Under the 
banner of the newly formed American Woman Suffrage Association, they 
went out under fearless leadership to work toward their goal; but not until 
1920 did they win the right to vote. 

Churches were following their congregations as the population shifted 
with city expansion. In many of the new buildings, the simplicity of early- 
day design had been displaced by architectural achievements of brick 
and stone with rich interiors, reflecting greater wealth of the membership. 

Relief from war influences was sought in athletic events. Edward Payson 
Weston, world-famous pedestrian, walked into Cleveland on one of his 
famous tours, and soon walking clubs had sprung up, and Weston fads were 
the rage. Not long afterward, the bone-shaking velocipede appeared. 

Amateur baseball captured the interest of sports fans when the war closed, 
and clubs began to form in cities and towns. In the fall of 1865 the Forest 
City team was organized and promptly defeated by the Penfields of Oberlin. 
Players in the amateur clubs served without pay and were supposed to be 
bona-fide residents of the cities they represented. Rivalry became intense, 
however, players being enticed from clubs in small localities, and the prac- 



306 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY 

tice of betting began. This created a demoralizing influence that prompted 
the Red Stockings, the leading amateur team o£ Cincinnati, organized in 
1866, to declare in 1869 that henceforth it would be a professional ball club. 
This was a bold move, but a wise one. On the heels of Cincinnati, Cleve- 
land reorganized the Forest City club on a professional basis. "Pro" clubs 
were soon springing up chiefly to meet the Cincinnati team, \vhich in 1869 
had a notable season without a defeat. 

Taxpayers' resistance to public improvements began to give way in the 
postwar prosperity period. Control of the public schools, heretofore ad- 
ministered politically, was centered in the Board of Education, and plans for 
new buildings and more efficient management started to go forward under 
able superintendents. The Public School Library began to benefit through 
tax levies. The departments of police and fire were reorganized on a basis 
more nearly commensurate with the needs of the growing city. The railroad 
brought a need for better bridges. While the city fathers made a long step in 
the direction of building a City Hall, their plans were stymied. Face-lifting 
operations were evidenced in and around Cleveland, and in 1867 property 
was purchased for Lake View Park. While a few residents advocated parks 
in i860, people generally were opposed. What did they want of parks when 
there were hundreds of acres of forest land all about them! Public pres- 
sure, rather than pride, inspired the move to round up roving animals into 
a pound. 

The physician of the sixties was the family confidant. He made his 
rounds in a buggy, his appointment slate was his office assistant, and he put 
up his own prescriptions. Emergency patients were taken to the hospital 
or the surgeon's office in express wagons or in hacks. Fees depended 
upon ability to pay, and a charge of ten dollars was unusual, according 
to Dr. Hamilton F. Biggar, one of Cleveland's best-known doctors. It is 
related, however, that a patient who had visited the leading surgeons of 
Europe without benefit, sought the help of Dr. Gustave C. E. Weber 
in the city; and after a successful operation, a princely $1,250 was the 
doctor's reward. 

Able medical men served on the early boards of health, yet an intolerable 
lack of sanitation was allowed to prevail. Many of the wells and cisterns 
that had been in use for years were unsafe, as refuse and seepage from 
backyard garbage pits contaminated the drinking water. Tenements were 
crowded, and people lived in damp, cramped quarters, careless in their 
habits and without health facilities. The health officer declared the county 
jail and the city prison "incurable nuisances." Contagious diseases were com- 
mon and rarely reported, and isolation was a matter of the patient's choice. 
The city-sexton's daily newspaper statement of interments in city cemeteries 
represented the report on vital statistics, which, of course, was not con- 
cerned with death causes. On this basis, the death total for 1856 showed 
1,257, as compared with postwar 1868, when it mounted to 1,465. The need 
for sewers had been recognized, but little had been done about it. A 
complacent city administration preferred rather to blame Cleveland's 



[l86o] HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 307 

sorry plight on the "chaotic state of the health ordinance," and having done 
so, sat back to pull the treasury's purse strings tighter. 

It should hardly be said that poor health conditions were responsible 
for attracting the superior talent that ministered to the afflicted. Nevertheless, 
the city's enviable position as a medical center was due to the able leadership 
of its skilled men of medicine. Suffering born of the Civil War encouraged 
the opening of hospitals and welfare institutions, and training-school facili- 
ties were enlarged. 

As the decade closed, Cleveland's water supply was being improved by lay- 
ing a larger tunnel farther into the lake. Citizens pointed with pride to the 
Kentucky Street Reservoir, a show place for visitors. W. R. Rose, writer on 
the Plain Dealer for many years, left a stimulating word picture of the 
view from the crest of the West Side water works : 

Clevelanders in those days loved their Lake Erie. In particular the throngs 
loved the sunsets ... As the sun went down and a night haze swept over 
the lake, the lookers-on had a real picture. A great three-master, towed by a 
snorting little tug, would come out of the river. Sailors were aloft setting 
sail to catch the evening breeze. Flags were broken out. Faint shouts of 
command came shoreward. Then the little tug dropped its line, the great 
sheets were shaken loose and hauled taut and bellied to the freshening 
wind, and the beautiful thing took life and disappeared in the haze before 
our admiring eyes. 



i860 

The political sentiments of Abraham Lincoln, Illinois lawyer, had led him 
away from the Whigs to the new Republican Party, created out of opposi- 
tion to the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854 and already of national stature. 
As the party needed a convincing spokesman before the New York Republi- 
cans, James A. Briggs, Cleveland lawyer, suggested the name of his friend, 
Lincoln, but the committee was hesitant at first, as the rail-splitter's fame 
was not recognized in the East. Laying the matter before Lincoln in 
Springfield, Briggs persuaded him to accept; and at the Cooper Union, 
New York City, on February 27, this year, the national political career of 
the great American was launched. On the platform was Briggs in dis- 
tinguished Republican company. Through his influence, the Ohio delegation 
supported Lincoln in the convention that first nominated him for the 
presidency. 

Cassius M. Clay, fiery Kentucky Abolitionist, was among both friends 
and enemies on March i, when he lectured on the Causes of the Rise and 
Decline of this Nation. He was the only speaker of note to bring the disputed 
slavery question before Clevelanders. 

St. Augustine's Parish was organized to minister to Irish Catholics. A 



308 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [i860] 

frame church, erected on Jefferson Street, served until 1896, when property 
formerly owned by the Congregationalists was purchased on Jennings 
Avenue. In 1862 English-speaking Catholics in Newburgh formed the Holy 
Rosary Parish, which became Holy Name in 1881. 

For a striking moment, a Clevelander was the central figure in the 
momentous Republican National Convention, meeting in its third day 
in Chicago, May 18. David Kellogg Cartter, chairman of the Ohio delega- 
tion, had made notes as the third ballot progressed, and they indicated 
that Abraham Lincoln needed two and a half votes for nomination as the 
party's presidential candidate. The Buckeyes were supporting their anti- 
slavery champion, Salmon P. Chase, but as Lincoln gained. Chase lost. 
Before results of the balloting could be announced, Cartter stepped on a 
chair, and in a commanding voice declared, "I rise to announce the change 
of four votes from Ohio from Mr. Chase to Abraham Lincoln." Enemies 
of William H. Seward, the leading contender, were jubilant. Three states 
followed Ohio, and the third ballot gave the Illinois lawyer 354 votes — 
120 more than were needed. Cartter's career as a lawyer in Ohio began 
in 1846. He met Lincoln while they were serving in the Congress, from 
which he retired in 1853. He moved to Cleveland in 1856 and formed a law 
partnership with L. C. Thayer. Leaving the Democrats, he became a leader 
in the Republican Party. During Lincoln's administration, Cartter was re- 
warded with the post of minister to Bolivia. In 1863 he was appointed chief 
justice of the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, in which office 
he died in 1887. He was buried in Lake View Cemetery. 

Year after year political parties demonstrated their strength in the Public 
Square, both sides pleading their causes in tense party feeling. This was 
an historic year. Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin had won the 
Republican nomination in Chicago on May 18, and Cleveland enthusiasm 
for "Honest Old Abe" met with regrets from surprised Seward followers. 
The Leader hung a Lincoln photograph on the office door, and stated 
editorially that "our standard bearer is not remarkable for beauty, as the 
word goes, but has an air of sturdy independence and manliness which 
attracts by its very singularity." Everyone was reported "in a good humor 
and hopeful, except the democracy, who were disturbed enough at the 
prospects of fighting the Chicago nominees." Democrats endorsed the 
Stephen A. Douglas ticket at a Public Square meeting in June. Lincoln 
advocates chose October 14 for an heroic torchlight rally, with William H. 
Seward, Tom Corwin, Governor William Dennison, Ben F. Wade, and 
John Sherman as headline orators. Election night in October marked the 
great Republican victory with an exhibition such as the Public Square had 
never seen. Crowds waited in suspense for the returns before campaign 
headquarters. When success was assured, a mammoth bonfire was built on 
Superior Street in front of the committee rooms, the Artillery thundered one 
hundred guns, church bells rang, and jubilant citizens serenaded party 
leaders who had labored for the towering Springfield RepubHcan. 

Adelina Patti, young Italian operatic soprano, was on the way to fame 
when she sang to a capacity audience in Melodeon Hall on May 31. She gave 



[l86o] HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 309 

concerts in Cleveland at the height o£ her career and on her farewell tours, 
entertaining in seven languages and including the favorites, Home, Sweet 
Home and The Last Rose of Summer. 

A breathless crowd watched the daring M. Solomon walk a rope suspended 
from the top of the American House to the top of the Johnson House. On 
his return trip, the aerialist "indulged in a few cautious gymnastic per- 
formances." 

The year-end report of the public schools showed that there were 13,309 
persons of school age in Cleveland: in pubUc schools, 6,100; Catholic 
schools, 2,000; private Protestant schools, 200; private German schools, 250; 



Monument erected to 
the memory of Oliver 
Hazard Pernj, gallant 
hero of the Battle of 
Lake Erie. 




orphan asylum, 50; not enrolled, 4,709. Superintendent Freese pointed out 
that buildings were too small to permit proper classification, and emphasized 
the need for redistricting, with a united school system as the principal goal. 

The old Court House on the Public Square was sold at auction on July 
28 for $60. 

Henry S. Stevens, president of the East Cleveland Railway Company, 
broke ground on August 6 at Euclid and Willson Avenue for the first 
street-railway Hne to operate continuously in Cleveland and in the State of 
Ohio. Stockholders and patrons were invited to meet at the Water Street 
end of the route in three weeks to witness completion of the road. 

The East Cleveland streetcar line was a Httle behind schedule, but on 
September 3, 3.39 miles of single track had been laid from Willson Avenue 
through Prospect to Bank Street, and horsecars began carrying the first 
passengers for a five-cent fare on the iron-strapped, wooden rails. On the 
5th, Stevens' competing line, the Kinsman Street Railroad Company, 



310 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1860] 

opened for business from Bank Street out Kinsman (Woodland) via Superior 
and Erie. Dr. Azariah Everett succeeded Stevens as president. 

The newest office building on the Square was the Morison Block, erected 
this year by David Morison, prosperous realtor. It was a narrow, three-story, 
wood-and-brick structure with stores on the ground floor. Morison was a 
man of increasing importance, who became head of a number of real-estate 
concerns and railway lines. He was an influential Republican, and served 
several terms as state senator. The block deteriorated with the years; but 
in the 1940s it still stood between the Marshall Building and Public Square 
Building, an obscure landmark, the upper floors of which were deserted. A 
modernized quick-lunch occupied the street level, and a towering liquor sign 
crowned its height — the oldest commercial building on the Public Square. 

The forty-seventh anniversary of the historic battle of Lake Erie was 
commemorated on September 10 with the unveiling of the Perry Monument, 
which had been erected on a low stone foundation within a circular iron 
fence in the center of the Square where the first fountain had stood. 
Harvey Rice, who conceived the project and was chairman of the monument 
committee, made the presentation address before an audience estimated at 
a hundred thousand that had assembled from all parts of the land. George 
Bancroft, eminent historian, was the orator, and speeches were made by 
the governors of Rhode Island — Perry's home state — and Ohio. Honored 
guests included Oliver H. Perry, son of Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, 
and a few survivors of the battle. William Walcutt, the sculptor, unveiled 
the statue, and Mayor George B. Senter accepted it on behalf of the city. 
The dedicatory ceremony was conducted by the Masons, and their regalia 
and that of the Wayne Guards of Erie, Pennsylvania, the Cleveland 
Grays, and the Light Artillery — the latter appearing in public for the first 
time — made a colorful spectacle. Following the dedication, a sham battle 
was staged on the lake for the enjoyment of thousands, with only one 
misfortune — the accidental drowning of an observer who fell from the pier. 
Receptions and gala celebrations took place in the evening, and the next 
morning a grand military parade was held. Cleveland's new streetcar lines 
were taxed to the limit carrying passengers to the Square. Reporting for 
the Plain Dealer, Artemus Ward treated the story with dignity until he 
came to the parade, when he injected a facetious remark to the effect 
that "the procession was more than two miles in length, as was the 
prayer of the clergyman." The monument cost $8,800, raised largely by 
public subscription and supplemented by Council appropriation. Sculptor 
Walcutt was secured by Thomas Jones & Sons, Cleveland contractors, and 
the eight-ton block of imported marble took shape in his studio in the city. 

Perry's Victory Day, September 10, marked the opening of the Hower & 
Higbee store in a two-story building on Superior Street west of the Square. 
This was the beginning of Cleveland's first department store, founded by 
Edward C. Higbee and John G. Hower, with five employees. Ten years 
later, it moved across the street (Hotel Cleveland site) into larger quarters. 
In 1897, Hower died, Higbee became president, and the firm name changed 
to The Higbee Company five years later. 



[l86o] HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 311 

Interesting real-estate transactions took place in October. Joseph E. Sheffield 
purchased loo feet of Euclid frontage by 600 feet deep (east of East 13th 
Street) for $24,000. John M. Sterling sold to William Bingham 22.42 acres 
of land on the east side of SterUng Avenue at Euclid for $26,000. Land 
on the south side of the Public Square (May Company site), on which two 
old residences stood, was valued at about $500 a foot front. 

The name of Melodeon Hall was changed to Brainard's Hall this year, 
and later to Brainard's Opera House. In 1875, it deferred to Ellsler's cele- 
brated Opera House on Euclid Avenue and took the name of Globe 
Theater. Renowned artists of the theater, the lecture platform, and the 
music world entertained Clevelanders from its stage. 

The Artemus Ward letters earned popularity and a small increase in pay 
for Charles Farrar Brown, but not enough to hold their quaint, grotesque 
author at the Plain Dealer. On November 11 he severed his three-year 
connection to become editor of Vanity Fair in New York. It was at this 
time that he began to spell his name with a .final "e" — Browne. War left its 
mark on the magazine; and taking his whimsical oddities to the lecture 
platform, he was widely acclaimed. He became the inspiring friend of 
Mark Twain, Bret Harte, and leading men of letters. Abraham Lincoln 
turned to Artemus Ward's humor for relief from the pressures of war 
and state. 

When John C. Heenan, champion prize fighter, appeared at the Academy 
of Music on November 21, he was the first to introduce boxing to the 
theater. Having conquered Tom Sayers, he came to Cleveland's leading 
playhouse under the billing, "Reception Festival." Advance advertising 
announced, "Ladies and Gentlemen can witness the modus operandi of the 
Sayers fight, devoid of unpleasant features." Tickets sold quickly at 50 
cents, $1 for box seats. The theater was packed. Before the curtain rose, 
according to S. J. Kelly's historical account years later in the Plain Dealer, 
a fight started between two men in the orchestra circle. The audience was 
cheering the fracas, when the curtain suddenly parted, Heenan leaped from 
the stage and seized a combatant in each hand. One was tossed behind the 
curtain and the other arrested. Heenan's theatrical appearance was an 
assured success. 

According to the federal census of i860, lumber and clothing headed the 
list of twenty-nine principal industrial classifications in Cuyahoga County 
in the number of establishments, the former with 50 firms employing 167 
men producing products valued at $158,657; and the latter with 27 firms 
employing 452. men and 506 women at an annual payroll of $180,000, and 
producing goods valued at $621,133. Three iron, bar, and sheet-metal plants 
employed 374 men to produce $1,209,500 worth of products; 21 flour mills 
valued their output at $1,008,126; 17 machinery and engine factories, $318,- 
947; 9 so?.p-and-candle factories, $230,540; 19 boot-and-shoe firms, employing 
217 men and 73 women with a payroll of $77,952, showed production 
valued at $222,830. Chemicals, hardware, hosiery, coal oil, sewing machines, 
and woolen goods represented infant industries employing 32 workers pro- 
ducing a combined product valuation of $39,032, of which chemicals repre- 



312 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1861] 

sented $15,032. There was a total of 387 establishments in the county, employ- 
ing 4,455 workers who earned $1,333,118 in wages. Capital invested amounted 
to $2,676,963; value of materials, $4,029,015; and value of products, $6,973,737. 



1861 

Federal officers, headed by Seth A. Abbey, deputy marshal, forcibly 
entered the home of L. A. Benton on Prospect Street on January 19 and 
carried away Lucy Bagby, a young mulatto servant who had escaped from 
her "owner" in Wheeling, West Virginia. Fearing that the angry populace 
would incite a riot, one hundred and fifty special deputies were employed to 
guard the prisoner in the Federal Building. At the hearing before United 
States Commissioner Bushnell White, Rufus P. Spalding made an eloquent 
plea that the girl be spared; but the law was plain. Double the market value 
was offered Lucy's master in exchange for her freedom; but he would not 
sell, and she went back to slavery under armed guard. She was the last 
slave returned to the South under the hated Fugitive-Slave Law. When the 
Civil War was over, Lucy married and settled in Pittsburgh. In September, 
1904, she was introduced at a meeting of the Early Settlers Association in 
Cleveland. 

The railroads had made heavy inroads into canal traffic, as shown by 
canal tolls collected at Cleveland in i860 amounting to only $16,156.94. War 
demands were paramount, and the State leased the canals to private parties. 
In 1877 the Hamilton reservoir was destroyed, the lease was surrendered, 
and the State was obliged to take back the canals in a condition of great 
disrepair. Public support, however, was long in dying out, although the 
waterways were obviously unable to operate. Cleveland tolls in 1890 had 
been reduced to $6,081.96. 

Cannon thundered a welcome to President-elect Abraham Lincoln as his 
train arrived at the Euclid Street Station at four o'clock on the afternoon 
of February 15. Whistles shrieked, church bells rang, and throngs cheered 
as the greatest parade in the city's history moved toward the Square. With 
stovepipe hat in hand, the gaunt man in black rode down flag-draped Euclid 
Street in a cold, drizzling rain in an open barouche drawn by four white 
horses. The Cleveland Grays, ten companies of the Light Artillery, officials 
in carriages, and workmen from shops and furnaces escorted Lincoln past 
the greatest crowd that greeted him en route to Washington. At the Weddell 
House thousands had assembled to hear him speak. On the balcony Lincoln 
was welcomed by Irvine U. Masters, president of the City Council, and 
Judge Sherlock J. Andrews introduced him in brilliant oratory. The tower- 
ing Illinois lawyer appealed for devotion to the Constitution and the Union, 
and for loyalty of all to "the good old ship." He did not admit that there 
was a crisis in his brief, modest remarks, which he closed with "an affection- 
ate farewell." Next morning, the Grays, under Colonel James Barnett, con- 
ducted the party to the Union Depot, and Lincoln began the next leg of 







Rented quarters in the 
Jones Building, above, 
served the city adminis- 
tration, 1855-74, until 
space was available in 
the Case Block in 1875. 

STANLEY L. M'MICHAEL 
COLLECTION, CLEVELAND 
PUBLIC LIBRARY. 



Cleveland's monumental 
City Hall, top, was dedi- 
cated in 1916. 



The Council Chamber of 
the Citij Hall, an impres- 
sive auditorium. Cleve- 
land PICTURE COLLEC- 
TION, CLEVELAND PUBLIC 
LIBRARY. 




President Lincoln's re- 
mains rested on a cata- 
falque on the Pid)lic 
Square, April 28, 1865. 



The locomotive Nashville 
brought the funeral train 
to Cleveland. 




One of Lincoln's earliest 

portraits, owned by the 

late William G. Tat/lor 
of Cleveland. 




[l86l] HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 313 

his journey to Washington and his inaugural. Twenty suites o£ rooms in the 
Weddell House had served the Lincoln party, but one room remained 
hallowed with the memory o£ the great American who had found rest for 
the night there. As time went on, it was reverently opened each year on 
the martyred President's birthday, and a memorial program was presented 
as a tribute by the Lincoln Society of Ohio. 

Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth President of the United States, was inaug- 
urated on March 4. John Hay, born in Salem, Indiana, in 1838, was gradu- 
ated from Brown University in 1858, and practiced law in the office of 
his uncle, Milton Hay, Lincoln's partner. Hay was admitted to the bar this 
year, and went with Lincoln to Washington as one of his private secretaries. 
Young George C. Ashmun of Cleveland was selected to represent Ohio in 
the President's bodyguard. He later became a prominent physician. During 
the Civil War, Hay served for a time in the Army, attaining the rank of 
lieutenant colonel. 

L H. Carter brought a company to play in the Theatre Comique. In the 
boarding house where he lived, on Rockwell Street near Bond, he met 
precocious Clara Morrison, thirteen, who quickly became stage-struck and 
pleaded to go back-stage. She played "bit" parts until John A. Ellsler opened 
the Academy of Music, and joining the ballet, she soon became prominent. 
In 1869, under the name of Clara Morris, she starred in Wood's Theater, 
Cincinnati, and went on to fame as the great emotional actress of America. 

At about this time George Co well and his son, Herbert, started a jewelry 
concern known as H. Cowell & Company in the Weddell House on Bank 
Street, taking over the business of Royal Cowles, founded in the forties. 
Clocks, watches, silverware, oil-burning lamps, "pictures in fancy cases," 
"gold and silver cylinder watches," and notions were included in the stock. 
The founders having passed on, Samuel H. Cowell, a brother, operated 
the store; and when Addison T. Hubbard joined him, the name was changed 
to Cowell & Hubbard in 1879. The company moved to keep pace with its 
growth, and, in 1894, occupied the first floor of the new Garfield Building 
with a proud flourish. 

The first shot of the Civil War was fired on April 12, when South 
Carolina moved to take Fort Sumter. On the 15th, President Lincoln 
called for 75,000 volunteers. In the evening, a Democrat who had joined the 
Republicans stood before a capacity audience in Melodeon Hall and de- 
nounced party strife. "The time has come," said Judge Rufus P. Spalding, 
"when every man should forget party and remember his country." Spald- 
ing's patriotic challenge brought cheering men to their feet. Torchlight 
parades, the marching Cleveland Grays, and speakers on street corners 
pushed the recruiting drive. 

The Cleveland Grays were the first to leave for the war zone. On April 
16 they were mustered into service as Company D, ist Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry, and started for the defense of Washington. At Bull Run they were 
the first Union soldiers on the field and the last to leave, covering their 
comrades' retreat. At the end of three rnonths' service, they re-enlisted for 
three years as Cprnpany E, commanded by Captain Thomas S. Paddock. 



314 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1861] 

They fought at Shiloh under General Ulysses S. Grant of Ohio, and in the 
bloody Georgia engagements. With constant devotion to their country and 
to their motto, "Semper paratus" — "Always ready," the Grays at home con- 
tinued to rush fresh men into uniform, raising two companies for the 
84th Ohio Infantry and five for the 150th, the latter consisting almost 
entirely of Clevelanders. 

An ordinance passed by the City Council on April 16 changed the name 
of the Public Square to Monumental Park, in recognition of the memorial 
to Commodore Perry at Superior and Ontario streets. The public argued 
about it for a time, then forgot it, and "Public Square" continued in common 
use despite the law on the statute books. 

Cleveland women assembled to offer their services to the war effort on 
April 20, and at the meeting the Ladies Aid Society was organized. At first 
help was given to needy families of soldiers; but before the first week closed, 
the volunteers were conducting house-to-house canvasses for clothing, bed- 
ding, and supplies to relieve destitute Camp Taylor in Cleveland. A soup 
house was opened on Merwin Street, and farmers co-operated by supplying 
vegetables raised on the "soldiers' acre." The work expanded with the 
demands of war, and hundreds of branches were formed under a new 
name. The Soldiers Aid Society of Northern Ohio, which became a branch 
of the United States Sanitary Commission. Under the leadership of Mrs. 
Benjamin Rouse, president; Mary Clark Brayton, secretary, and Ellen F. 
Terry, treasurer, the ladies assumed the problems of relief and morale at 
home, in camp, and in battle. When more buildings and supplies were 
needed for the comfort of soldiers passing through Cleveland, some of the 
businessmen said that there was no money; but in a quiet tone, Mrs. Rouse 
declared, "It must be raised," and it was. Resourcefulness and determination 
marked her loving, generous spirit until her death in 1887 at the age of 
eighty-eight, sixteen years after her husband's death in 1871. Of the amount 
handled in money and supplies by the local society during four years of 
service, totaling $982,481.25, not a dollar was wanting and almost nothing 
was paid for administration. When the war ended, the organization ap- 
propriated $5,000 toward erection of the Ohio State Soldiers Home at 
Columbus. 

Cleveland took on military importance as troops marched into Camp 
Taylor, hastily established in the city for preliminary training. The old 
fairground at Woodland and Forest Street was taken over, and recruits 
filed into the three halls on April 22, overflowing into tents. Brigadier 
General J. W. Fitch was in charge. Camp Wood was established on the 
Seneca Street hill in July, and two others were opened in outlying districts. 
The first regiments enlisted for three months. Upon reorganization, enlist- 
ments continued for the duration of the war. Thousands of recruits swarmed 
into Cleveland, where they were converted into fighting men, while home 
guards drilled to ensure the city's protection. 

On April 22 six companies of the Cleveland Artillery, under Colonel 
James Barnett, transported six guns with caissons by rail to Columbus, 
where they went into service as the ist Ohio Light Artillery. Their first 



[l86l] HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 315 

three months o£ service were in West Virginia; and at Laurel Hill, on 
July 7, George H. Tillotson became the first Cleveland man to die for 
the Union. At Carrick's Ford, a week later, a field piece was captured; 
and, with the governor's sanction, it was given to Colonel Barnett. Returned 
veterans of the regiment were cheered wildly as they paraded Cleveland 
streets on July 30 with a rebel battle flag and the cannon drawn by four 
southern mules. The cannon was later mounted on the Public Square. 
After reorganization, Barnett became a general and chief of artillery on the 
staff of General William S. Rosecrans. The regiment was enlarged to twelve 
batteries that served principally in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Georgia. 

The Hibernian Guards, the Zouave Light Guards, and the Sprague Cadets, 
local infantry units, were soon mustered into service, where they lost their 
identity. War laid a heavy hand upon Cleveland manpower. Fully two- 
thirds of the active members of the Fire Department volunteered for 
military duty. Professors and students laid down text-books and joined 
the colors, and the colleges were burdened with financial problems. 

Patriotic citizens erected the first city flagpole in the Public Square in 
about the middle of May. The eighty-foot wooden mast was made possible 
by public subscription. As the war had created a heavy demand for bunting, 
the first flag was made of merino wool. 

A jobbing business was founded by J. C. Weideman on July i, on River 
Street. As the wholesale grocery prospered, the firm moved into larger 
quarters on Water Street in 1873, a permanent location (1240 West 9th 
Street) enlarged at intervals to meet growing needs. The Weideman Com- 
pany, a corporation, was formed in 1889 to succeed the partnership of Weide- 
man, Kent & Company. J. C. Weideman, the first president, served until 
his death in 1900. He was succeeded by his corporate co-founders, E. J. 
Siller and Christian Narten, whose families carried on the tradition of the 
enterprise. In 1942, the William Edwards Company was acquired, followed 
by the Summit Wholesale Grocery Company of Akron and the United 
Wholesale Grocery Company of Canton. Warehouses in Cleveland, Akron, 
Canton, and Warren were operating in the 1940s, and "Weideman Boy 
Brand" fine foods were being marketed in a large Midwest territory. 

St. Mary's Cemetery at Burton Street and Clark Avenue was opened 
this year. It was used by the German and Bohemian Catholics of the West 
Side. 

Andrew Freese asked to be relieved as superintendent of instruction of 
the public schools so that he might devote all of his time to teaching. Luther 
M. Oviatt succeeded him in August. Freese taught at Eagle School until 
1868, when he returned to Central High School as principal. Ill health 
forced his retirement the next year, and to the pioneer schoolmaster 
belongs the honor of blazing the trail for an educational system that would 
rank with the best in later years. 

Isaac A. Isaacs, who ran a clothing emporium called Union Hall on the 
Superior hill at Union Lane, is said to be the first advertiser to employ 
verse. Under the title, "The Buckeye Boys," Isaacs endeavored to capitalize 
upon patriotic enthusiasm: 



316 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1862] 

Yes, we'll shout at Union Hall, 
Where we clothe the people all . . . 
And to Buckeye boys who go, 
We sell clothing very low! 

The first draft of men for war service began on October i, affecting only 
three city wards, the others having raised their quotas. The draft threat 
had a curious effect upon some who were likely to be called for military 
service. "Men who have been wearing wigs and dyeing their whiskers, and 
passing for 38 or 39 years of age, have suddenly owned up to 45," it was 
reported, "while young bucks who have passed with the girls for 20 have 
shrunk to the other side of 18." As much as $700 was paid by a draftee for a 
substitute to enter the service; and as the practice grew, recruiting suffered. 

Western Union's Jeptha H. Wade was sent to California to effect consolida- 
tion of small telegraph lines and to construct the lines eastward to Salt 
Lake City, Utah. As head of the Pacific Telegraph Company, he began 
work three months after the start of the Civil War, with a ten-year limit for 
completion. The nation was amazed to learn that on October 17, 1861, the 
final joint was made in the eastern section of the line at Fort Bridger, Utah. 
Brigham Young, Mormon leader, sent the first east-to-west message to Wade 
from Salt Lake City on that day, stating that Utah had not seceded, but 
was firm for the Union. The western line was completed on October 22; 
and the first transcontinental telegram was sent by Stephen J. Field, chief 
justice of California, to President Lincoln from San Francisco on October 24, 
expressing his state's loyalty. Thus a half-million settlers isolated on the 
Pacific Coast were linked with the Eastern States by this new means of 
communication, and the West remained in the Union during the war. The 
company that started with only 550 miles of wire in the forties, was making 
great strides toward leadership as the world's largest telegraph company. 

David Tod of Youngstown was elected governor of Ohio this year. In 
April, 1863, he purchased the Hilliard mansion at Bond and St. Clair streets 
(Public Auditorium site), built at a cost of $25,000. His family Hved in it 
little more than a year, as Tod's interests centered in Youngstown and 
Columbus. In 1868 Caesar Grasselli purchased the house, which was his 
home for a number of years. From 1906 to 1917 it was occupied, rent free, 
by the Associated Charities. It was also, for a time, the headquarters of the 
Anti-Tuberculosis League and the Visiting Nurse Association. 



1862 

The Soldiers Aid Society reaped $275 from admissions, and the audience 
laughed "at every word" of the lecture, Children in the Wood, given by 
young Artemus Ward— Charles Farrar Browne— in the Academy of Music 
on January 31. The famous humorist astonished his Cleveland friends when 



[1862] HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 317 

he appeared in a dress suit with his straight hair done in a mass of curls; 
but their amazement was soon lost in Ward's observations that he might 
have discussed the falsity of the saying, "Go it while you are young, for 
when you get old you can't." He gave his listeners funny stories and hap- 
hazard entertainment that centered around the defeat at Bull Run, then 
generally attributed to politician-soldiers. Victory was at hand, declared 
Ward, when news was received of three vacancies in the New York custom 
house. All the soldiers rushed to the metropolis except a musician, who 
"stayed to spike his fife." After Ward tucked the "babes" away for the 
night, without having said scarcely a word about them, an impromptu 
reception was given for him at the Elephant Club. His subtle nonsense 
centering around the Shakers and the Mormons attracted large audiences. 
When he presented Among the Mormons, he gave away complimentary 
tickets inscribed, "Admit the bearer and one wife." 

Isaac Leisy had learned the brewer's art from his father, who came from 
Bavaria, and he had owned a brewery in Iowa before opening a plant in 
Cleveland this year, the forerunner of The Leisy Brewing Company. Leisy 
brewed $20,000 worth of beer in his Vega Avenue plant the first year. 
Business grew, and his help made possible Germania Hall and the German 
Home for the Aged. Just before his death in 1892, the baronial, brown- 
stone mansion on Vega Avenue was finished, a walk leading from the front 
door to the brewery, so that Leisy might be near in case of emergency. 
Otto I. Leisy, who succeeded his father as president, built the company into 
the largest brewery in northern Ohio, covering eight acres of land. David 
B. Tarr joined Leisy in 191 8, supervised the dismantling and sale of ma- 
chinery and equipment in the prohibition era, and became vice president 
and secretary. After repeal, the brewery was re-equipped and modernized 
under direction of Carl Faller, who was the oldest active brewmaster in the 
United States when he died in 1939. Carrying on the family tradition, 
Herbert F. Leisy, grandson of the founder, became president-treasurer of 
the company. Herbert L. Noll, master brewer and vice president in charge 
of production, was the grandson of Peter Noll, who founded the first lager- 
beer brewery in Ohio. 

A percussion cap exploding from a toy pistol in the hand of small Eugene 
Gray, son of J. W. Gray, destroyed the sight of his father's right eye on 
the evening of April 9, 1858. Blindness threatened the other eye, and 
paralysis later affected the brain of the founder and editor of the Plain 
Dealer. The death of Gray's devoted friend, Stephen A. Douglas, in June, 
1861, was a great blow at a time when the editor was physically afflicted and 
his spirit was troubled with concern for the Union and those national 
principles that he had furthered with all his power. The end came for Joseph 
WiUiam Gray, forty-eight, on May 26, 1862, as fife and drum called volun- 
teers to the colors on every street corner. John S. Stephenson, nephew-in- 
law of the late publisher, became administrator of the estate and assumed 
editorial direction of the Plain Dealer. Unqualified to conduct a Democratic 
daily in the face of rampant Republicanism, he made the fatal mistake of 



318 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1862] 

turning the paper against the national administration. Mrs. Gray petitioned 
the court to remove him from office, and the paper suspended pubHcation 
early in March, 1865. 

A mission of the Evangelical Association began its work under the Rev. 
S. F. Crowther, holding services in the Mayflower Presbyterian Church. It 
became known as the Perry Street Church when its first building was 
erected at Woodland and Perry Street in 1864. The congregation moved 
to Oakdale Street (at Steinway, S.E.) in 1886. The name was changed to 
Calvary, and the cornerstone of a larger building was laid at 2765 Woodhill 
Road in 1907. In 1941, the Rev. Victor H. Peterson was called to the pulpit 
of the church on the hill. Outstanding in service to the church was the 
record of Fred W. Ramsey, superintendent of the Sunday School since 1912; 
and Charles Clemens, director of social work with more than fifty years of 
service in 1946. When the church became known as Calvary Evangelical 
United Brethren Church in late 1946, membership had almost reached a 
thousand, representing twenty-two nationalities, and the community center 
was familiarly known as "a little league of nations." 

Cincinnati was in danger as the Confederates advanced from Louisville 
and no federal troops were available. On September 10, Governor David 
Tod appealed to Ohio cities to mobilize volunteer defenses. Citizens left 
shops and farms, took up their squirrel rifles and quickly assembled such 
fighting equipment as was at hand. By wagon and by train the Cleveland 
Squirrel Hunters made their way southward. Cincinnati prepared for the 
surprise attack that never came. The Confederate Army turned back; per- 
haps its scouts had heard of the deadly aim of the squirrel-hunting marks- 
men. Fifteen thousand men received the official Squirrel Hunter discharge 
for heroic service. 

Property owners on residential Euclid Street fought invasion of the horse- 
car, but opposition was halted on September 15 when Council authorized 
tracks as far east as Erie Street. 

Isaac Levy and Abraham Stearn opened a toy and fancy-goods shop on 
Superior Avenue, known as Levy & Stearn, that became one of the best- 
known "toy emporiums" between New York and Chicago. In 1882 the store 
moved to the Parsons Block on Superior Avenue, and three years later to 
EucHd Avenue. It continued eastward to 1021 Eucfld in 1914, when the 
Stearn Company was incorporated. Steam's, purchased by Lane Bryant, Inc., 
of New York in 1945, was one of the largest stores in the chain. Women's 
ready-to-wear and accessories led in store sales. 

In the fall, an oil-refining business known as Andrews, Clark & Company 
was formed by Samuel Andrews, the Clark brothers — Maurice B., 
James H., and Richard E., with John D. Rockefeller silently representing 
the "Company." Early in 1865, Rockefeller sold his interest in the produce- 
commission business of Clark & Rockefeller, purchased the oil concern, 
and with Andrews set up the firm of Rockefeller & Andrews. They operated 
a crude refinery on the south bank of Kingsbury Run, near the river and 
the railroad, and their office was in the Sexton Building in the "Flats" 



[1863] HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 319 

at the foot of Superior Street. By the end of the year, the refinery had ten 
stills of thirty-barrel capacity, and employed thirty-seven men whose 
monthly wages ranged from $45 to $58. Henry M. Flagler came into the 
firm in 1867, representing Stephen V. Harkness, whose niece Flagler had 
married, and who was a backer of the concern, then Rockefeller, Andrews & 
Flagler. 

The city purchased its first steam fire engine on December 17, a shining 
"Silsby" costing $3,250. Two horses hauled the steamer and one the hose 
cart; and an engineer, two drivers, and a fireman manned the equipment. 
Fifty feet of hose threw a stream of water 193^ feet, "which beats the 
average hand machine by 60 to 70 feet." The new fire-fighter filled a crying 
need, as firemen joined the ranks that moved to the battlefields. 



1863 

The Emancipation Proclamation, freeing the slaves, was announced to 
the world on New Year's Day by a Clevelander, twenty-two-year-old Ed- 
ward Rosewater, a military telegraph dispatcher in the War Department at 
Washington. 

On February 10, the West Side Street Railroad Company received a 
grant to operate the first streetcar line west of the river. The route 
originated beside the Plain Dealer office at Superior and Vineyard streets, 
crossed the river to Detroit Street, and made a circuitous West Side journey 
back to its starting point. Dan P. Rhodes was president, and H. S. Stevens, 
secretary. 

Seven Rockport families met with the Rev. C. H. Heitmeier in March 
and founded the Rockport Methodist Church (near 4600 West 130th 
Street). Until 1887, the charge was on a circuit with St. Paul's. Baldwin 
University students served it until 1893, when Dr. F. W. Mueller, pastor, 
began to hold morning services in a "wigwam" on Lorain Avenue (at 
West 80th Street). Late in the year, Dr. Mueller with four pastors and 
three laymen organized the Quarterly Conference at the Rockport Church, 
and united with the Bethany Church of Cleveland. In 1909, the West 
Park Church was organized, having been a mission under the care of J. F. 
Hecker, Baldwin University student. A new church was built in 1927 at 
West 138th Street and Fairwood Drive. In 1939, the Bethany and West 
Park churches merged to form the Christ Methodist Church, meeting in the 
West Park edifice. Membership grew to nearly fourteen hundred, and, in 
1941, the Rev. Roy I. Farmer became minister. 

Unrest created by the "copperheads" and Clement L. Vallandigham's 
campaign for governor, supported by the Plain Dealer, was reflected on street 
corners and in the public press, and some declared that the Union was 
doomed. On March 31, however, Brainard's Hall rang with cheers of loyalty 
to the Government as the Union League was organized. Clevelanders were 



320 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1863] 

determined to preserve the Union and continue the war "until the national 
flag shall float in triumph over every state now in rebellion." 

Dr. Gustave C. E. Weber resigned as professor of surgery at the Cleve- 
land Medical College and organized the Charity Hospital Medical College. 
He was an eminent surgeon, trained in European schools, and as dean he 
assembled an able faculty, including Drs. Leander Firestone, Addison P. 
Dutcher, M. S. Castle, Jacob Dascomb, John H. Salisbury, Robert N. Barr, 
William J. Scott, and Abraham Metz. In 1870 the college became the 
medical department of the University of Wooster. The Brownell Street 
School was remodeled for lecture purposes in 1873 and served until the end 
of the century. 

Scholarly lectures of the day were targets for Artemus Ward's brand of 
humor; and when he originated the burlesque performance in Cleveland 
on April 2, his audience clamored for more. His presentation, Sixty Minutes 
in Africa, in Brainard's Hall was probably his last appearance in the city. 

The First National Bank, pioneer national bank in Cleveland and the 
seventh in the nation, was organized on May 23, originating in the private 
banking house of S. W. Crittenden & Company, with capital of $300,000. 
George Worthington, its first president, was succeeded by William Hewitt, 
Philo Scovill, and James Barnett in the early years. The bank opened on 
Superior Street, later moving to the Perry-Payne Building. 

The St. Clair Street Railroad Company was authorized on June 9 to 
operate a streetcar line from the north side of the Square eastward on 
Superior to Willson Avenue. Incorporators were R. F. Paine, Hiram Garret- 
son, O. H. Payne, John M. Sterling, Jr., A. S. Sanford, James Pannell, 
and Peter Thatcher. 

Quoting from a tablet in the lobby of the Federal Building on the Public 
Square : 

To the Honor of Joseph W. Briggs: While acting as Window Delivery 
Clerk at the Cleveland, Ohio, Post Office in 1863 he conceived a system of 
mail delivery and collection to better serve the public and with the co-opera- 
tion of the local Postmaster (Edwin Cowles) acted as the first letter carrier 
of that city. In recognition of his special interest in this service and his 
success in the work, the Postmaster-General appointed him special agent 
for the installation of city free delivery service throughout the country, 
a work covering six years. He designed the first carrier uniform and was 
credited with the genius and perseverance which gave his service to the 
people. He died in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1872. Erected by the Ohio Society 
of New York 1921. 

Free delivery of mail matter went into eflfect on July i, 1863. 

An ordinance was passed creating a "paid steam fire department" with a 
force of fifty-three men under James A. Craw, chief engineer. Cleveland now 
owned four steam fire engines! A colorful Fourth of July parade was 
arranged, featuring an Adams Express Company wagon and Clark's Forest 



[1863] HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 321 

City Cornet Band; the new Council Committee on Fire and Water, consist- 
ing of J. D. Palmer, J. J. Benton, and William Meyer; four steam fire engines, 
brightly polished and drawn by sleek horses with jangling bells and 
canopies of flowers; and the horse-drawn Mazeppa Hook and Ladder Com- 
pany. These steamers were called "black jackets," the carts being two-wheeled 
and the trucks small and primitive. Three of them were named for the 
new committeemen, and the fourth for I. U. Masters, local political figure. 
Some citizens still considered organized fire protection to be wasteful 
spending, and the Council hoped to stamp out this opposition by the gala 
exhibition. 

Physical training and the object-lesson method of teaching were intro- 
duced in the public schools under the administration of Superintendent 
Oviatt, who resigned this year. He was succeeded by the Rev. Anson Smythe, 
ex-state commissioner of schools, at a salary of $1,800, later increased to 
$2,100. His efforts directed at strict classification led to overcrowding in the 
grades and many objections. At the same time, they revealed the urgent 
need for additional primary facilities; and in two years, ten new primary 
and secondary schools were opened. 

Cleveland was host to the convention of the International Typographical 
Union, organized in the early fifties. The Cigar Makers Local No. 17, 
founded on August i, this year, soon diminished to fifteen members and 
disbanded; but it was rechartered in 1879, its eighty members paying initia- 
tion fees reduced to twenty-five cents. 

War demanded members of the YMCA, and it was obliged to disband. 
Furnishings were sold and books were placed in the care of the Cleveland 
Library Association. The few members at home distributed books and news- 
papers among soldiers. 

A wooden drawbridge was built at Center Street this year, but before a 
decade had passed it was declared unsafe. In 1871 plans for an iron draw 
were under way, to cost $13,250. A steel structure built in 1900 cost 
$57,000. 

Patrick Smith bought the Belle King and started a tug line, one of the 
first on the lakes. Ten years later, the firm of "Patrick Smith, Dredging 
and Contracting" boasted four tugs, and a fleet was taking form. His two 
sons, L. P. and J. A., were active in the business that expanded to include 
several schooners and steamers and the big tug Chauncey Morgan. "Pat" 
Smith served as councilman, trustee of the Board of Water Works, and 
county commissioner. In Council, he could be depended upon to cast his 
ballot for those measures "that were of the greatest value to the municipality." 
When he retired to his big, brick house on Washington Street, overlook- 
ing the lake (where Bulkley Boulevard leads to Edgewater Park), he was 
a wealthy man with a reputation for liberality to those needing help. 

Small children were moved from St. Mary's Orphanage to a new home, 
known as St. Joseph's Orphanage (6431 Woodland), where they might have 
"pure country air." In 1894 the older girls were also transferred. A modern 
home was provided in healthful surroundings eastward on the lakeshore, at 



322 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY U^^S] 

18485 Lake Shore Boulevard, which the institution occupied in 1943 under 
a new name, St. Joseph's-on-the-Lake. The historic Woodland Avenue 
building was occupied by St. Joseph's Home for the Aged. 

Cleveland celebrated "her grand Union victory" — the defeat of Clement 
L. Vallandigham, copperhead southern sympathizer, and the victories at 
Vicksburg and Gettysburg — with a rousing demonstration on the evening 
of October 17. Honest John Brough, governor-elect of Ohio, and Governor 
David Tod were borne in a fine decorated carriage in a gay parade to the 
Angier House, where speeches and a "glorious display" in the Public Square 
preceded a banquet. Brough's majority of 101,099 votes was the largest 
received up to that time by an Ohio governor. 

Negotiations having been completed this year for lease of the Cleveland 
& Mahoning Railroad by the Atlantic & Great Western Railroad Company 
(later Mahoning Division of the Erie Railroad), immediate plans were made 
to lay an additional track outside the existing two tracks to provide a six-foot, 
broad-gauge road on which trains from the East could run. The first train 
arrived in Cleveland direct from New York City on November 3. On the 
i8th, jubilant crowds packed the Union Depot, awaiting time to board 
the inaugural excursion train to Meadville, Pennsylvania, over the new line. 
Eight passenger and four baggage cars were drawn by the handsome engine, 
its stack striped with patriotic colors. The crowning feature, however, was 
an elegantly equipped parlor car for officials, an ingenious "locomotive 
dwelling house." Fast trains now brought the mails westward at 40 miles 
per hour, carrying news from the battlefronts to anxious homefolks. 

A reorganization of Stone, Chisholm & Jones, Newburgh iron-makers, 
resulted in the Cleveland Rolling Mill Company (later American Steel & 
Wire Company), incorporated on November 9 by Henry Chisholm, Andros 
B. Stone, Stillman Witt, Jeptha H. Wade, and H. B. Payne. The mill was 
a family business of the Chisholms, manned by Welsh, Irish, and Scotch 
workmen. Inside men and rollers received $3.50 to $7 a day, and laborers, 
$1.65. The first Bessemer steel in the County was blown in the Newburgh 
plant in 1868. Notable improvements in the Bessemer process were made by 
the company, and it originated methods for using steel scrap. The Cleveland 
Wire Mill Company was purchased in 1866 as an outlet for steel. In 1871, 
Chisholm, Stone, and Chicago investors organized the Union Rolling Mill 
Company in Chicago; and by 1875 Chisholm's investments in the industry 
amounted to fio,ooo,ooo. When Henry Chisholm died in 1881, he was one 
of the country's greatest steel men. His son, William, then became president 
of the Cleveland company. A central furnace was erected on the "Canal 
Tract" in 1881. William Garrett, mechanical genius of the company, con- 
ceived the Garrett rod mill, quintupling rolling capacity by a multiple 
rod-rolling development, a great contribution to wire-making. The first 
Garrett mill began operating in Newburgh in 1882. Mills and properties 
expanded, and by 1890 the company was producing 180,000 tons of steel 
ingots a year. A dispute arose between the management and Garrett, however, 
resulting in cancellation of the contract giving the company exclusive rights 
to the inventor's patents. Leaving Newburgh, Garrett built mills for other 



[1864] HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 323 

companies that ultimately merged in a combine which bought the Cleveland 
Rolling Mill Company and wiped out its identity. 

There were only ten sentences in Abraham Lincoln's immortal Gettysburg 
Address, delivered at the dedication of a soldiers' national cemetery on 
November 19. The next day, a Cleveland paper reported, "the weather being 
fine, the program was carried out successfully." On the following day, an 
"eloquent extract" was printed from Edward Everett's two-hour-and-ten- 
minute oration. 

War came close to Cleveland in November, when Canadian refugees 
and "inside" Confederates plotted to free war prisoners on Johnson's Island 
in Sandusky Bay, take over Federal gunboats, and bombard lake cities. The 
128th Ohio Infantry, including about three hundred Cleveland men, thwarted 
execution of these plans by minutes. 

John Wilkes Booth, dissipated star of the South who traded on his family 
name, had secured an engagement with the Academy of Music theatrical 
company through Joseph Jefferson, long a friend and associate of Manager 
John A. EUsler. On November 26 he began a four-day engagement as 
leading man, appearing as Claude Melnotte in The Lady of Lyons and in 
Shakespearean plays supported by the stock cast. On December 5 he played 
his last professional engagement in the American theater in Cleveland as 
Charles DeMoor in The Robbers. Joining the Confederates soon afterward, 
he began his short career of plotting against the Union cause, returning once 
to Cleveland under the guise of business interests. Although Booth and 
Ellsler had joined forces in a deal involving Pennsylvania oil property, the 
latter was not aware of his partner's real sentiment toward the Union. After 
two benefit performances in New York City without pay, Booth made his 
final stage appearance in Washington on the evening of April 14, 1865, when 
he assassinated President Lincoln in Ford's Theater. 

The Soldiers Home, erected by the Soldiers Aid Society, was completed 
on December 12 on the Union Depot pier. It served as headquarters for sol- 
diers during the war, providing lodging and meals to 56,645 registrants. 
Nearly a thousand men received care in a military hospital built near the 
station. 



1864 

A partnership known as Coe, Ely & Harmon was formed on January i 
to produce railroad-car axles and heavy hex shafts, rudder frames, and major 
forgings for the marine trade. The firm incorporated in 1871 as the Cleve- 
land City Forge & Iron Company, shortened some years later to Cleveland 
City Forge Company. Production of weldless turnbuckles and clevises 
began in 1882, and in 1913, the manufacture of automobile drop forgings. 
Ralph M. Coe became president of the company in 1923, succeeding R. A. 
Harmon. For many years the organization was located at 4501 Lakeside 
Avenue. 



324 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1864] 

A part of the "Flats" in Brooklyn Township, between Walworth Run and 
the east bend of the river, was annexed to Cleveland on February 16. 

In the fence-enclosed Public Square, a large building had been erected 
around the Perry Monument in the shape of a Greek cross to accommodate 
the Northern Ohio Sanitary Fair that opened on February 22. In the center 
was Floral Hall; the east wing housed an auditorium seating more than 
three thousand; the west, Bazaar Hall, where Leland's Band played daily; 
the north, a dining hall; and the south, an implement hall. Gas lighted the 
buildings, and stoves and steam pipes furnished the heat. Major General 
James A. Garfield delivered the principal address at the dedication, and the 
governor and state officials were present. Exhibits ranged from art treasures 
to animals and implements, many of them auctioned for the Sanitary Fund. 
Post offices were established for the sale of Sanitary Fair stamps to swell 
the fund, and other cities copied the idea, which became the forerunner of 
the tuberculosis stamp and Christmas seal. The fair continued until March 10, 
netting more than $78,000 for the Soldiers Aid Society and the United 
States Sanitary Commission. Pittsburgh purchased the huge fair building 
for $8,500 to house a sanitary fair of its own. 

James Hill, one of the most colorful figures in Fire Department history, 
returned from the war and again became head of the fire-fighters. The fifth 
fire engine was purchased this year, and an engine house was provided for 
each steamer. A fire-alarm telegraph system was installed, with signal boxes 
placed on posts near the sidewalks throughout the business district. Soon 
it was being copied by large cities. The sound of the fire alarm in the 
station of Steamer No. i was the signal for Mose, a big, shaggy mongrel, 
to rush to the stall doors barking frantically. When they were opened, the 
"volunteer" seized a halter and dashed to a horse's head. At night he fre- 
quently carried a lantern, bounding ahead of the swaying steamer, clearing 
its path. 

With the extension of the city water system, there was a gradual elimina- 
tion of the seventy-five strategically placed cisterns that once were the source 
of water for fire-fighting. Only two remained, kept in condition for 
emergency use at Bank and Superior streets and at Water and St. Clair. 

A discordant note in the community's fine sense of loyalty to the President's 
war policy was struck when the first national political-party convention held 
in Cleveland assembled on May 31 in Chapin's Hall. It founded the Radical 
Democracy Party, dominated by anti-Lincoln Missouri Republicans, and 
boomed General John C. Fremont for President. Attendance estimates 
ranged from two hundred to two thousand, depending upon the political 
leanings of the estimator. The party left little impression upon the devoted 
North, and it died from failure to win a place on the ballot. 

Captain W. J. Morgan and his younger brother, George W., established 
W. J. Morgan & Company (later Morgan Lithograph Corporation) on 
Superior Street near Seneca. A hand press constituted their equipment, and 
paper was cut by hand. To meet growing demand for their output, they 
purchased a steam press and moved to the Bratenahl Building at Superior and 
Water streets, where the first of their famous theatrical lithographs was made. 



[1864] HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 325 

The country's first "one-sheet" masterpiece in color, featuring John T. 
Raymond in Millions in It, originated here. The nation's stars of the stage 
were company customers, and the business expanded rapidly despite high 
prices set on lithography because of the unreliability of the show business. 
The firm received high honors in international exhibitions, among them 
the gold medal awarded for artistic poster display in the Exposition Univer- 
selle, Paris, the winning entry being Morgan's reproduction of Rosa Bonheur's 
"Horse Fair," the world's first twenty-four-sheet billboard poster. Offices 
and warehouses had been established in foreign countries by 1904, when 
George W. Morgan became head of the company upon his brother's death. 
He died in 1905, and his son, P. J., became president. 

George W. Johnson brought his bride, Maggie Clark Johnson, to Cleve- 
land, and he joined the Plain Dealer as associate editor. His wife died before 
they had been married a year. Grief-stricken, he resigned from the paper 
early in 1866 and returned to Canada. Later in the year, J. A. Butterfield of 
Detroit composed music for a poem written by Johnson before his marriage 
and dedicated to his future wife — When You and I Were Young, Maggie. 

Dr. Richard Fry retired from a life of public service and settled in Rockport 
this year on twenty-seven acres of land extending from Detroit Street to the 
lake (just west of West 117th). He had served as principal of the St. Clair 
Street Grammar School, where he had taught John D. Rockefeller and 
Marcus A. Hanna. At the same time, he practiced medicine in Cuyahoga 
Falls. Dr. Fry was one of the community's most distinguished men. Fry 
Avenue in Lakewood bears his name. 

A sympathetic atmosphere prevailed in Plymouth Congregational Church 
on September 11 when nineteen earnest Negroes organized the Mount Zion 
Congregational Church. All the Congregational churches of Cleveland were 
represented in the council meeting. The Rev. J. H. Muse was the first minister. 
A brick meeting house was erected on Erie Street opposite Webster in 1866, 
but the debt was heavy and the property was sold. On Maple Street, just 
south of Central, a smaller, frame building was built debt free. Membership 
grew slowly, as newcomers, largely from the South, leaned toward the 
Baptists and Methodists. Internal dissension born of confusing times threat- 
ened the life of the church, and some energetic members were lost. The Rev. 
Sterling Brown, who became pastor in 1885, was an Oberlin graduate of 
marked talents and energy. His crusade for members resulted in one hundred 
and nine accessions in the winter of 1886, launching a new era of advance. 

William Halsey Doan, leading citizen of Doan's Corners and grandson 
of pioneer Nathaniel Doan, organized the firm of W. H. Doan & Company, 
and began selling crude oil on commission. With Dr. Worthy S. Streator, 
he brought to Cleveland the first tank cars loaded with crude petroleum. 
Two years later, the firm of Harkness & Doan was established, and with 
Stephen V. Harkness, he supplied a large volume of oil to local refineries. 
He owned the business by 1870, and the I. X. L. Oil & Naphtha Works, 
which he built near Kingsbury Run, was for many years the largest plant 
refining petroleum products in the world. Doan sold his holdings to the 
Standard Oil Company. The Doan family lived in a fine residence at Streator 



326 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1864] 

and Euclid streets, and a long row of homes along the east side of Streator 
belonged to the industrialist. 

The city's first pleasure yacht in the luxury class was launched on 
September 26 from a Cleveland shipyard. T. W. Kennard, who bought the 
Angler House, had spent money lavishly on his steam craft, the Octavia, 
fitting her handsomely and rigging her as a top-sail schooner for ocean 
travel. Captain Christopher D. Goulder, father of Harvey D. Goulder, 
lawyer, commanded on the first voyage abroad, a trip equaling a Twentieth 
Century world cruise. 

The Jones-Potter Company, founded this year, later became Chandler & 
Abbott. In 1868 William C. Rudd and George H. Chandler formed Chandler 
& Rudd, operating a small store facing the south side of the Square (May 
Company site), and speciaHzing in fruits and vegetables. Rudd, his brother, 
George A., and Chandler built an enviable reputation in the grocery 
business, selling baked goods, candies, and a complete line of foods and 
specialties. A larger store was opened in 1888 east of the original location 
(234 EucHd), as well as an uptown store at the corner of Willson and 
EucHd. 

Fifty thousand poHtical enthusiasts poured into Cleveland on October 5 
to attend the big Republican rally boosting the re-election of Abraham 
Lincoln for President. John Sherman, Benjamin Stanton, and Governor 
David Tod spoke to the noisy throng on the Square, and a torchlight parade 
with scores of bands closed the day's events. Followers of George B. 
McClellan, friend of the copperheads, carried their cause to the citizens on 
October 8, but election night gave the RepubHcans the victory with a 
comfortable majority. Saloons were ordered closed by the mayor. Crowds 
were tense and silent as many waited in Brainard's Hall; but as a sweeping 
victory rolled up for Lincoln, cheers and songs filled the air, only to be 
caught up by thousands in the streets who rejoiced until daybreak. 

For eighteen years, Mrs. Sarah Josepha Hale, editor of Godey's Lady's 
Boo{, had urged that a national Thanksgiving Day be established. While 
the holiday had been observed in the past, each governor named the day 
of his choice. This year the presidential proclamation of Abraham Lincoln 
fixed the fourth or last Thursday in November as the nation's day of thanks. 
Hearts were heavy and delicacies few, as large quantities of poultry and 
substantial foods had been sent to the boys in camp. 

Wooden awnings were declared old-fashioned in New York City. Conse- 
quently, Cleveland's law-makers voted for removal of the unsightly sidewalk 
shelters. The deadline, December i, was upon many merchants before they 
reaHzed that they had not compHed with the ordinance; and they hastily 
turned from counting their profits to hire workmen to perform the face-lifting 
operation. 

Death claimed Leonard Case, Sr., one of Cleveland's greatest benefactors, 
on December 7, at the age of seventy-eight. Although crippled and frail since 
boyhood, he was a tower of civic, business, and financial strength. His 
influence had furthered municipal improvements, encouraged banks and 
railroads, and advanced reHgious and cultural movements. From 1827 to 



[i865] 



HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 



327 



1855, he had been agent for the Connecticut Land Company, buying lands 
with rare judgment. In the Panic of 1837, he acquired a large amount of 
real estate from debtors who offered it as security for loans. His sons, William 
and Leonard, Jr., inherited his estate and his zeal for the upbuilding of 
their city. 

Hamilton Fisk Biggar came to Cleveland this year to enter the Western 
Homeopathic College. Born in Canada in 1839, he was apprenticed to a 
merchant when a boy. Saving his money for an education, he was graduated 
from the University of Victoria and was prepared to practice law when he 
decided to study medicine. Supplementing his Cleveland training with study 
in eastern hospitals, he returned to the city to practice. Dr. Biggar served as 
professor of anatomy and clinical surgery in the Homeopathic Hospital 




Superior Avenue in 1865, Cleveland's leading business district. The third 
building from the right housed the city offices during the forties and fifties. 

College, as surgeon-in-chief of the Surgical Institute, and as founder and dean 
of the Training School for Nurses during his long career that closed with 
his death in 1913. For many years, he was John D. Rockefeller's close friend 
and physician. 

Wartime Christmas-gift suggestions were practical: bonnets, hoopskirts, 
breakfast shawls, and dress goods for ladies; moustache cups, photographs, 
stereoscopic views, wdgs, photograph albums, and vulcanite-based teeth for 
gentlemen. 



1865 

English-speaking Catholics west of the river organized St. Malachi's 
congregation and worshiped in the old church on the "Flats." On the brow 
of the hill overlooking the lake and the valley (Washington Avenue, facing 



328 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1865] 

the High Level Bridge) they erected a church in 1869. An oil-burning lamp 
lighted the cross mounted on its tall spire, serving as a beacon to sailing craft 
for many years. The historic landmark was destroyed by fire on December 
23, 1943. Plans to restore its Gothic grandeur were soon under way. 

The City Bank received a national-bank charter on February 12, and 
opened the next day as The National City Bank of Cleveland in the City 
Bank quarters. The former officers, Lemuel Wick, president, and John F. 
Whitelaw, cashier, were retained. Wick, Whitelaw, and P. H. T. Babcock 
were the leading stockholders. Capital of $100,000 doubled in a few months 
and had increased to $250,000 in 1887. Assets reached $2,000,000 by 1901. 
W. P. Southworth, retail grocer, became president in 1873, and Whitelaw 
was elected in 1889. For most of the time between 1848 and 1912 the bank 
was located on or near the site of the Perry-Payne Building on Superior 
Street. 

War-weary Cleveland men were in the ranks at Appomattox when Lee 
surrendered to Grant on April 9. Cuyahoga County furnished 10,000 of its 
available 15,600 men, and their names are engraved in enduring stone in the 
Soldiers and Sailors Monument on the Public Square. 

Leadership and daring characterized Cleveland's "Boys in Blue." Fourteen 
men, from a regiment of 610 Cleveland soldiers, escaped after the rain of 
shot and shell in the Ringgold, Georgia, engagement. Led in a mountain- 
side charge by two Cleveland officers. Colonel William R. Creighton and 
Lieutenant Colonel Orrin J. Crane, the famous fighting 7th Ohio Infantry 
was almost annihilated. Creighton and Crane, "two of the bravest men in 
the army," went down, and were buried in Erie Street Cemetery with 
military honors. Colonel Charles Whittlesey, Cleveland scientist and editor, 
led the 20th Ohio Volunteers through their baptism of fire at the capture of 
Fort Donelson in Tennessee. Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes commanded the 
famous "charging regiment," the 23rd Ohio Infantry, in which there were 
341 Clevelanders, William McKinley was a member. More than 400 
Cleveland men were in the ranks of the 41st Ohio Infantry, part of Brigadier 
General William B. Hazen's brigade, that won its laurels in the thick of 
the Tennessee campaigns. Colonel Philip C. Hayes, with 461 Cleveland men 
of the 103rd Ohio Infantry, made a brilliant charge at Resaca. 

Colonel Oliver H. Payne of the 124th Ohio Infantry, in which there were 
567 Clevelanders, lost heavily at Chickamauga, and won high honors with 
General Philip H. Sheridan at Missionary Ridge. The traveling 2nd Ohio 
Cavalry, under Colonel Charles Doubleday, was the pride of Cleveland. It 
fought under twenty-three generals, including Custer, Sheridan, and Grant; 
its horses drank from twenty-five rivers; it campaigned through thirteen 
states, traveled 27,000 miles and participated in ninety-seven battles. Heroic 
service of the Cleveland Grays and the ist Ohio Light Artillery has been 
mentioned earlier. Three hundred Clevelanders were killed in action in the 
Union Navy while serving in blockading squadrons on the Atlantic coast 
and in the river navy of ironclads on the Mississippi. Some of them heard 
Farragut's famous outburst, "Damn the torpedoes," at Mobile Bay. 



[1865] HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 329 

News of the end of hostilities reached Cleveland by telegraph early in 
the morning of April lo and spread quickly. Crowds gathered in the dismal 
Public Square, and the old "Secesh" cannon thundered until daybreak. 
Bonfires were lighted as citizens gathered to read morning headUnes. The 
Union flag and banners were raised over the Old Stone Church and 
prominent buildings. Business ceased, and the people celebrated wildly until 
noon, when a nondescript parade formed, joined by bands amplified by a 
variety of noise-making instruments. Celebration continued and fires blazed 
far into the night. 

A salute of one hundred guns on the Public Square, fired by the Brooklyn 
Light Artillery at ten o'clock on the morning of April 14, announced a day 
of thanksgiving in Cleveland as proclaimed by Governor John Brough. A 
united church service attracted capacity attendance and overflowed outdoors. 
Parades, speeches, bonfires, and rockets continued until a late hour, celebrating 
the peace. As the tattered remnants of regiments returned, their colors 
riddled with shot and shell, the grim total of the cost in lives mounted. Of 
the 10,000 Cuyahoga County men and boys who served the flag, 1,700 died 
on the battlefield or in prison, and 2,000 were crippled or disabled for life. 

On the morning of April 15, a telegram reached Cleveland stating that 
the shot fired by John Wilkes Booth in Ford's Theater, Washington, the 
evening before had claimed the life of President Lincoln. The news traveled 
swiftly through the city. A day of mourning was proclaimed by Mayor 
George B. Senter. Flags were lowered; churches and public buildings were 
draped in black; workmen assembled in Clinton Park to pay tribute. In the 
afternoon citizens met on the Square to hear appropriate addresses by 
Governor John Brough, ex-Governor David Tod, and Rufus P. Spalding. 
Speeches denounced the assassination. There were those, however, who made 
indiscreet remarks approving the murderous act, and five men narrowly 
escaped lynching during the day. Although J. J. Husband, architect of the 
new Court House, hastened to deny that he said Lincoln's death was a "small 
loss," he was exiled from the city, and his name was chiseled from the corner- 
stone of the building. 

During the period in which the late President's funeral train passed through 
eastern cities on its way to the last resting place in Springfield, Illinois, Cleve- 
land paid homage to Abraham Lincoln in special church services and made 
preparation for the day when the body would lie in state in the city. 

Artillery salute announced the dawn of April 28. Early in the morning, 
thousands of mourners began to arrive, and shortly after seven the Lincoln 
funeral train reached the Euclid Street Station. In the last black-draped car 
lay the mortal remains of the martyred President. At the foot of the massive 
coffin stood a smaller one in which lay the body of Lincoln's son, Willie, 
who died in 1862, and was to be interred beside his father. Governor John 
Brough, 150 members of the civic guard of honor, committees, and miHtary 
units had assembled at the station with the honorary pallbearers. Cannon 
thundered and the Camp Chase Band played a solemn dirge as the coffin 
was raised to the shoulders of the Reserve Guards and placed in the plumed 



330 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1865] 

hearse, drawn by six white horses. A procession of about six thousand — men 
of influence and lowly citizens — began to move down Euclid Street in slow 
time, headed by Colonel James Barnett, marshal. 

Cleveland had no hall large enough to accommodate the vast throng that 
was expected to pay homage to Abraham Lincoln, and a canopied pavilion 
had been erected in a grass plot on the Public Square, east of Perry's Monu- 
ment. Guards were posted at entrances to the fence-enclosed area. Black-and- 
white plumes and festoons decorated the pavilion, while evergreens and the 
national colors relieved the severity. The coffin was placed upon a low 
catafalque in the center and banked with white flowers, the tribute of 
Cleveland ladies. The Rt. Rev. Charles P. Mcllvaine, bishop of the Diocese 
of Ohio, read the Episcopal burial service, and heavy rain was falling as the 
gates were opened to the public. When they closed at ten o'clock that night, 
a hundred thousand people had looked for the last time upon the face 
of the Great Emancipator, and thousands waited in line. In the great throng 
was a small child who stood on tiptoe to look over the edge of the casket. 
Stepping forward, a distinguished gentleman lifted her up and said 
reverently, "Little girl, there lies a great and good man. Never forget him." 
He was Salmon P. Chase, chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, who had lost the leader whom he had served devotedly; she became 
Ella Grant Wilson, well-known Cleveland florist and historian. Rain and 
wind lashed in fury as the solemn company returned to the railroad station 
with its sacred burden. At midnight the train bearing the two Lincolns began 
the slow respectful journey westward. 

The Plain Dealer presses had stood idle since early in March, failing to 
record two events of great national importance — Lee's surrender at Appomat- 
tox and the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. Major William W. 
Armstrong, Tiffin newspaperman and former secretary of state of Ohio, 
was finally induced to purchase the paper on April 25, and the climb began 
to restore it to its position as a leading Democratic journal. Armstrong was 
as much a partisan as his predecessor, and he fought ably to defend his 
party's principles against stormy Republicanism. 

Distinguished military figures were visitors to Cleveland during the year. 
General Philip H. Sheridan stopped only between trains on May 24, but a 
dinner was arranged for him at the Weddell House. Shortly afterward. 
General George A. Custer, of "the flowing hair and brilliant red sash," was 
toasted in the hotel while en route to Michigan. The top-ranking war hero, 
General Ulysses S. Grant, and Mrs. Grant were greeted at a grand reception; 
and, before the year was out, the city honored General William S. Rosecrans. 

John R. Wagner set up a sail-making business, and two years later, his 
brother, Jacob, became a partner. They branched out into awnings and flags 
in a plant on River Street. In 1883, John R. sold his interest to his brother, 
who then brought his son, F. A., into the firm. In 1892, they organized the 
Wagner Awning and Manufacturing Company which grew rapidly. In 
1913, the Cleveland-Akron Bag Company purchased the business, retaining 
the Wagner name. Eleven years later, this firm merged with ten Cleveland 



[1865] HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 331 

awning concerns to form again The Wagner Awning & Manufacturing 
Company, centering operations at 2658 Scranton Road. C.R. Forward be- 
came president of this nationally known company, with branches in Ohio 
and West Virginia, in 1942, succeeding Fred L. Lohiser, who was made 
chairman of the board. 

A brick chapel, erected south of Trinity Church through the generosity 
of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel L. Mather, inspired W. J. Boardman and fellow 
parishioners to provide a rectory on the lot west of the church, purchased 
for |io,ooo. The Rev. Charles A. Breck served the parish from 1869-72 and 
founded the Ladies' Guild, or Woman's Auxiliary. The Rev. William E. 
McLaren followed, and during his three-year pastorate, a marble memorial 
altar was placed in the sanctuary by S. O. Griswold, the Children's Home 
was started, and the Chapel of the Ascension was built on Detroit Road. Rev. 
McLaren left the parish upon election to the Episcopate of Chicago and was 
succeeded by the Rev. John Wesley Brown, who served until 1882. 

Thomas H. Lamson, Isaac P. Lamson, and Samuel W. Sessions joined 
forces in a small plant at Mt. Carmel, Connecticut, to make carriage bolts. 
Cleveland's rapid growth and its availability to raw materials prompted 
them to move their plant in 1869 to a site near the Cuyahoga River (on 
Scranton Road), the railroads, and labor supply. They brought with them 
a number of employees and their families, and the Connecticut colony 
became an inspiring influence in community, church, and charitable 
endeavors. Here the partners were the first in the country to roll screw 
threads on stove and kindred bolts; to forge carriage, machine, and other 
bolts hot from steel rods; and to introduce in the West newly designed 
machines to meet increasing demands of implement and machinery makers, 
construction companies, and other industries. The Lamson & Sessions 
Company was incorporated in 1883, and its story of the development of 
bolts, nuts, and fasteners is the story of the metal-fabricating trade, with 
expanding production that found its way into foreign lands. The Kent, 
Ohio, plant of the Falls Rivet Company was purchased in 1921. Five years 
later, Lamson & Sessions merged with the Kirk-Latty Manufacturing Com- 
pany at 1971 West 85th Street. Gradually, Scranton Road operations were 
moved to West 85th Street. George S. Case, elected president in 1929, became 
chairman of the board in 1938. Vice President Roy H. Smith became 
president. 

A system of street cleaning was attempted, and the first sprinkling wagon 
was put to work on Euclid and parts of St. Clair and Prospect streets during 
the hot summer months. 

Since about 1840, a large white house built by T. P. May, merchant, had 
stood on Erie Street facing Superior. It was taken down this year to permit 
extension of residential Superior Street beyond Erie. 

A goat walking down exclusive Prospect Street on August 8 suddenly 
abandoned its idle curiosity when it became conscious of strollers on the 
thoroughfare. Newspaper headlines were made when it began to clear the 
street with force, and peace was restored only when the "law" arrived and 



332 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1865] 

placed the animal under arrest. As a safety measure, "timid ladies and 
nervous gentlemen" were warned to proceed with caution at street inter- 
sections. Horse-drawn traffic had become a problem. 

Increasing numbers of wounded soldiers were returning to Cleveland, 
and the city faced an urgent need for hospital care. Calling upon Catholics 
and Protestants alike, Bishop Amadeus Rappe received generous support; and 
when $10,000 had been subscribed, he purchased land for a hospital site, 
bounded by Perry, Garden, and Marion streets. St. Vincent Charity 
Hospital opened this year, managed by the Sisters of Charity of St. Augustine. 
It was Cleveland's first general hospital that endured, ministering to all 
faiths and races. St. Vincent's facilities being far superior, the little Cleveland 
Homeopathic Hospital closed, and Dr. S. R. Beck with and his associates in 
homeopathy took their patients to the new institution. In 1917 the new 
Charity Hospital Annex was dedicated. 

Baseball was beginning to take hold in Cleveland, and the first amateur 
team, called the Forest City Club, was organized. On October 21, the first 
match game was played in Cleveland, the Penfield Club of Oberlin trouncing 
the Forest City nine, 67-28. Casualties added to the drama of the opener 
when Cleveland's Mr. Leffingwell, left field, injured his throwing arm, 
Mr. Smith lost two teeth in a collision with another player, and Oberlin's 
Mr. Ryder suffered a blow on the face from a swift ball. Games were played 
on the Case Commons on Putnam Street between Garden and Scovill. There 
was no enclosure for a time, and no backstop. The catcher often played "back" 
through the game, with neither chest protector nor mask. Gloves were 
considered effeminate. Games ran a long time and scores were large. Wood- 
land Avenue cars operated on a half-hour schedule carrying fans to Case 
Avenue, where they boarded a dinky horsecar that took them to the ball 
ground. Most of the young players walked to and from their homes in 
downtown Cleveland. 

Warren Gamaliel Harding, twenty-eighth President of the United States, 
was born at Corsica, Ohio, on November 2. 

Toward the end of the year, William J. Rainey came to Cleveland from 
Pittsburgh and worked for a coal and coke firm. Investing in coal fields in 
the Connellsville, Pennsylvania, region, he had amassed a fortune by the 
nineties, and was recognized as the leading coke operator in the business. 
Mrs. Grace Rainey Rogers made notable contributions to the Cleveland 
Museum of Art in memory of her father. 

"Several sporting gentlemen of this city had private races on the course 
on Kinsman Street yesterday," reported a news item on November 15, "each 
driving his own nag. The races were for a wine supper. The second class 
horses ran first. Lady Suffolk ran into Insurance, threw his wagon against 
the fence, and spilled the driver. Judges decided that foul driving was the 
cause of the accident." 

The last necessary State ratified the Thirteenth Amendment to the Con- 
stitution, abolishing slavery, on December 6. The Plain Dealer stated: "We 
accept the edict as a part of the great mystery of this eventful period." 

Settlement of war problems delayed the observance of Thanksgiving Day 



[l866] HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 333 

until December 7, as proclaimed by President Andrew Johnson. Beginning 
in 1866, the day was celebrated regularly as set aside by President Lincoln, 
until 1939. 

1866 



Henry A. Sherwin, eighteen, had come to Cleveland in i860 from his 
birthplace in Vermont upon the advice of his uncle, Nelson Sherwin, local 
lawyer, who told him that the city was a good place in which to grow up. 
Young Sherwin joined with Truman Dunham this year, selling paints, oils, 
and supplies in a small store on Superior Street. In partnership with E. P. 
Williams and A. T. Osborn, Sherwin-Williams & Company was organized 
on February 3, 1870, with $2,000 capital. Sereno P. Fenn, early bookkeeper, 
became a partner in 1880, and later vice president. In 1882, the company 
disposed of its retail business and moved to a new office and warehouse 
building on the site of a great future plant, 601 Canal Road, and two years 
later, incorporation was effected. The business of the Sherwin-Williams 
Company became so diversified that it was more than Sherwin, Williams, and 
Fenn could handle, and, in 1898, Walter H. Cottingham was made general 
manager. 

The Cleveland Academy, the second school of that name, opened on Janu- 
ary 29 in a two-story brick building on a shady, unpaved road (south side of 
Huron Road, Osborn Building site) with ninety students. Linda T. Guilford, 
an educator of rare gifts v\^ho had broadened her experience with a trip to 
Europe, was principal of this popular private school for young ladies. She 
had a passion for punctuality, discipline and order, English and mental 
arithmetic, ten-minute daily exercises, and Monday-morning analyses of 
Sunday's sermons. Her innovations in education became a pattern for schools 
in other cities. The long career of the famous "Brick Academy" lay, undoubt- 
edly, in the fact that it was incorporated and well supported. The school 
was discontinued soon after Isaac Bridgman took charge in 1881, when Miss 
Guilford recognized rising competition in Miss Mittleberger's school. Miss 
Guilford took an active part in the Young Women's Temperance League, 
and devoted part-time to writing, her best-known work being The Story 
of a Cleveland School, recounting her experiences. 

A distinguished career was ahead for a Clevelander, Dr. John S. Newberry, 
who was appointed professor of geology and paleontology in the School of 
Mines of Columbia College, New York City, this year, advancing to professor 
of Columbia University in 1878 and serving until 1890. Appointed director 
of the Ohio State Geological Survey in 1869, his reports of natural resources 
were of permanent importance. In 1884, Dr. Newberry was commissioned 
paleontologist of the United States Geological Survey, and was awarded 
the Murchison Medal for distinguished service by the Geological Society of 
London. One of the great scientists and naturalists of his time, he held high 
offices in leading scientific societies in America and Europe, and published 
many valuable reports of his research. In later years, his health declined, 



334 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1866] 

and he died in 1890, aged seventy. His son, Spencer B., became acting pro- 
fessor of chemistry at Cornell University. He served until 1892, when he and 
his brother, Arthur St. John, organized the Sandusky Portland Cement Com- 
pany, one of the largest companies in its field. 

"An Act to Authorize the Incorporation of Boards of Trade and Chambers 
of Commerce" was passed by the Legislature on April 3. Twenty members of 
the Cleveland Board met in the Atwater Block, as was their daily custom, 
and signed incorporation papers, dated April 5, declaring that the purpose 
of the Board of Trade (later The Cleveland Chamber of Commerce) was 
"to foster, protect and advance the commercial, mercantile and manufactur- 
ing interest of the city." The signers were Philo Chamberlain, R. T. Lyon, 
J. C. Sage, A. Hughes, C. W. Coe, H. S. Davis, J. E. White, J. H. Clark, S. W. 
Porter, H. D. Woodward, A. V. Cannon, E. D. Childs, W. F. Otis, M. B. 
Clark, W. Murray, S. F. Lester, A. Quinn, George W. Gardner, E. C. Hardy, 
and George Sinclair. The revitalized organization was created, however, 
to serve particularly its members who dealt "in grain, provisions, etc." Lead- 
ing business and professional men served as presidents of the board: W. F. 
Otis, 1867; George W. Gardner, 1868; R. T. Lyon, 1869; A. J. Begges, 1870; 
Thomas Walton, 1871; Charles Hickox, 1872; B. H. York, 1873; F. H. Morse, 
1874; H. Pomerene, 1875; B. A. DeWolf, 1877; Daniel Martin, 1879; WiUiam 
Edwards, 1886; George W. Lewis, 1888; William Edwards, 1889. Theodore 
Simmons became secretary in 1879; X. X. Crum, 1884; and A. J. Begges, 1887. 

The first report of the Board of Trade, for the year 1865, indicated the 
condition of Cleveland business as the peacetime reconstruction period 
gained momentum. Coal receipts, 465,550 tons; pig iron and scrap, 23,000 
tons sold and used in Cleveland, valued at $1,051,000. Manufactured wrought 
iron, railroad iron, bar, plate, hoop, sheet, spikes, and nails sold for over 
$6,000,000. Cleveland and Newburgh were operating two blast furnaces, six 
rolling mills, two forges, eight foundries, and three spike, nail, rivet, nut, 
and washer factories, with 3,000 employees and an aggregate capital of 
about $3,000,000. Hide-and-leather sales reached $1,500,000, and boots and 
shoes totaled $1,250,000. Petroleum products of thirty crude-oil refineries were 
valued at $4,500,000, and manufactured-clothing sales at about $2,500,000. 
Bank capital exceeded $2,250,000, and average deposits, $3,700,000. The long 
list of commercial and industrial enterprises proved that the city's business was 
well established in the fifty years of steady growth from a mere village. 

The first issue of the Christian Standard, one of the leading independent 
religious periodicals of the Disciples Church, appeared on April 7. James A. 
Garfield, J. P. Robison, and Dr. Worthy S. Streator had organized the 
publishing company, with an office on Bank Street. Headquarters were 
later moved to Cincinnati. 

A need for intensified police protection in the larger cities inspired the 
Metropolitan Police Act, passed on May i, creating a board of police com- 
missioners. The first Cleveland board consisted of H. M. Chapin, mayor; 
W. P. Fogg, James Barnett, Philo Chamberlain, and Nelson Purdy, appointed 
by the governor. Power to levy a tax produced $30,000, which fell short of 
the first-year's expenses of $51,710. As of May 30, sixty patrolmen constituted 



[l866] HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 335 

the politically dominated department. Three precinct stations were located 
in downtown Cleveland and one on the West Side. Horse-drawn patrol 
wagons stood ready for emergency. The policeman on the beat came to 
know intimately the families in his district, as the shifting of population 
had not yet become a problem. Neighborliness promoted order in society 
and helped to retard crime. After two years, the governor abandoned his 
interest, and the mayor inherited the responsibiUty, reporting as the "acting 
board." J. W. Frazee was the first superintendent, or chief, of police. 

A "magnificent" luxury train, a "triumph of Cleveland workmanship," 
went into service on the Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati road on May 14. 
The great attraction was the palace car, a sleeping coach lavishly decorated 
and paneled in polished, carved woodwork. A saloon in the center provided 
observation quarters; and glass chandeliers, a water cooler, a new spring 
window catch, and the "gingerbread" design created excited conversation. 
On the i8th, the Herald announced proudly that "two very handsome, com- 
modious, comfortable and well ventilated sleeping coaches" were introduced 
on the Cleveland & Toledo road from Cleveland to Chicago, carrying fifty- 
six passengers each. The dining car made its debut on the rails the next year. 

The Cleveland Wire Mill Company, incorporated by H. L. Hoadley, 
Henry Marble, H. Dunbar, George E. Dunbar, and A. J. Hamilton, erected 
the first wire mill in Newburgh. In 1868 the Cleveland Rolling Mill Company 
purchased it as an outlet for steel. 

The Angier House was purchased by T. W. Kennard, of the Atlantic & 
Great Western Railroad. After having been remodeled, it opened on June 14 
as the Kennard House, "one of the finest hotels in the nation." Moorish in- 
fluence was introduced in the design of the lobby, with its colorful fountain, 
which was copied from a room in the fabulous Alhambra in Spain. Black- 
walnut woodwork was utilized throughout the building. Statesmen, theatrical 
artists, and prominent businessmen made the Kennard their headquarters, 
and Tom L. Johnson held most of his private conferences there. The famous 
barroom was a favorite meeting place of racing fans and ball players. The 
hotel changed hands many times. As wholesale houses moved into the 
district and modern hotels claimed its prestige, traveling men stopped at 
the Kennard. In the early twenties, however, a large part of the building 
was taken over for a clothing factory. Permanent rather than transient guests 
made the historic house, later known as the Lincoln Hotel, their home. 

General William T. Sherman's informal visit to Cleveland on July 29 
attracted great throngs of admirers who gathered at the Kennard House 
for a glimpse of him, but without success. Shortly after five o'clock the next 
morning, however, determined citizens arranged an unusual reception under 
his Bank Street window. The airs of Leland's Band brought the general to 
the balcony with Amos Townsend, who introduced him to the early-risers; 
and, at Sherman's suggestion, he and his friends exchanged greetings on the 
sidewalk. After breakfast, the great soldier, in a "military vest and an old 
linen duster," was driven down Euclid Street to the station. 

A big, brown gelding named Dexter won a $2,000 racing event in Cleve- 
land on August 25 from George M. Patchen, Jr., and General Butler in 



336 • CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1866] 

2:32^ — 2:32/^ — 2:323^, his record at that time being 2:19 under saddle 
and 2:21 to sulky. On August 14, 1867, Budd Doble drove him at Buffalo 
to estabhsh a record of 2:17^. 

A central location near markets and materials induced Thomas H. White, 
aged thirty, to move his pioneer sewing-machine business from Templeton, 
Massachusetts, to Canal Street in Cleveland, where a small factory housed 
The White Manufacturing Company. White was president and treasurer; 
Rollin C. White, vice president; and Howard W. White, an intimate, friend, 
secretary. Thomas H. White, born in 1836 in Templeton, had invented a 
small, hand-operated, single-thread machine in 1857, and two of his 
mechanical wizards, George Baker and D'Arcy Porter, urged him to concen- 
trate on sewing-machine production. Associated with William Grothe, sales- 
m.an and partner, he launched the business with capital of $500, and began 
making "The New England Sewing Machine," retailing at $10. In 1876, 
the White Sewing Machine Corporation was organized to make the famous 
White machine. By 1881, two thousand units per week were being pro- 
duced as against twenty-five a month at the start. An extensive organization 
of branch dealers was established and a London office was opened. The need 
for small sewing-machine parts required special machinery, leading to the 
manufacture of kerosene street lamps, automatic lathes, screw machines, 
roller skates, phonographs, bicycles, and automobiles. Thus the company 
became the parent of the White Motor Company and the Cleveland Auto- 
matic Screw Machine Company. By the mid-i890s. White's bicycle produc- 
tion had reached 10,000 vehicles per year, but sewing machines continued 
to be the principal product. 

Herman Sampliner was the father of the B'nai Jeshurun Congregation 
(later the Temple on the Heights), organized this year by sixteen devout 
Jews in his home in California Alley. D. L. Beck was the first president. 
Services were held in members' homes and in public halls until 1869, when a 
synagogue was established in Halle's Hall on Superior Avenue (near the 
Arcade). "Family pews" were introduced in 1873 over the objections of the 
more Orthodox members, who resigned to form the Oheb Zedek Congre- 
gation in 1904. 

The first President of the United States to visit Cleveland while in office 
was Andrew Johnson, accompanied by cabinet members. The party was 
escorted from the railroad station to the Kennard House; and, after an in- 
formal supper, the President was introduced to a waiting crowd from the 
balcony by Frederick W. Pelton, president of the City Council. A long 
discussion of his unpopular plans for reconstruction aroused enmity in the 
audience. J. W. Walton, young eye-witness, reported that the next morning 
President Johnson was escorted to his train. As his victoria neared the 
Public Square, he caught sight of a banner stretched between the Forest 
City House and the Rouse Block reading, "In the work of reconstruction, 
traitors must be made to take back seats." Angrily, "he jammed his beaver 
hat down over his' eyes and kept his glance on the floor of his carriage 
until he had passed." The President and his party then continued on their 
western trip. 



[l866] HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 337 

W. S. Chamberlain, lawyer, offered a tract o£ swamp land (Central 
Avenue and East 67th) near the Cleveland & Pittsburgh railroad to a group 
of Buffalo iron molders as an industrial site, if they would give him an 
interest in a proposed foundry. The Cleveland Co-operative Hollow Ware, 
Stove & Foundry Company was incorporated the following year with 
Chamberlain as president. For forty years, the company concentrated on 
making the massive, ornate, coal-burning stoves of the period. In 1909 it 
brought out a complete line of gas ranges. The entire plant was leveled by 
storm this year. "Grand" ranges, stoves, air-conditioning equipment, and 
gray-iron castings produced by The Cleveland Co-Operative Stove Company, 
found profitable markets. James Mitchell became president in 1934. 

In a "wigwam" tent, reportedly seating five thousand, raised on the 
Public Square, the convention of Union Soldiers and Sailors opened on 
September 17. Five hundred delegates, many from below the Mason and 
Dixon line, supported President Andrew Johnson's reconstruction policy 
as opposed to the attitude of Congress. This resulted in a divided welcome 
to the guests in Cleveland and provoked intense controversy. 

During the Civil War, the Home for the Friendless was organized in 
the Old Stone Church parlors to care for refugees from the South; and in a 
rented dwelling on Lake Street, the sick and needy received care. An out- 
growth of this charitable Protestant effort was the incorporation this 
year of the Cleveland City Hospital (later Lakeside Hospital), a private 
venture, with Joseph Perkins, president. In 1868, the Willson — or Wilson- 
Street Hospital Association was created, with H. B. Hurlbut, president, sup- 
ported by both allopathic and homeopathic physicians. On the medical 
and surgical staffs were Drs. Maynard Brooks, Henry K. Cushing, and D. H. 
Beckwith. Work was carried on in a small, rented building on Willson 
Street opposite Clinton Park, but the homeopaths soon, withdrew to estab- 
lish their own hospital. 

In his long career at the bar and in public life, Samuel Williamson had 
lived a full life. Retiring from the legal profession this year, he devoted his 
time to the Society for Savings, of which he was president until his death in 
1884. Samuel Williamson was born in Crawford County, Pennsylvania, in 
1808, the eldest son of Samuel Williamson, Sr., a tanner and a pubHc- 
spirited citizen of Cleveland until his death in 1834 in the family home- 
stead at Euclid and the Public Square. Probably the first young man in the 
village to enjoy a college education, he was graduated from Jefferson College, 
Washington, Pennsylvania, in 1829. He read law in the office of Sherlock 
J. Andrews, was admitted to the bar in 1832, practicing law with Leonard 
Case for two years, and for most of thirty years with A. G. Riddle. William- 
son served as county auditor, councilman, member of the Board of Education 
and the Legislature, and prosecuting attorney. He had a practical interest in 
early railroads, and was a director and attorney for the Cleveland, Columbus, 
Cincinnati & Indianapolis road for many years. Quiet, modest, and retiring, 
Samuel Williamson gave fully of his energy to his many interests and to 
the advancement of his city. He was a devoted member of the First 
Presbyterian Church (Old Stone) for more than two decades, and an in- 



338 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1866] 

corporator of Case School of Applied Science. His sons, Samuel E., George 
T., and James D,, were worthy descendants of their distinguished father. 

In the fall, Eugene R. Grasselli and his assistants, Daniel Bailey and 
R. H. Andrews, began erecting a plant in Cleveland (Independence Road 
and East 26th Street, near Broadway) to expand the pioneering chemical 
business that Grasselli had launched in Cincinnati in 1839, Sulfuric acid, the 
principal product, had been in growing demand by soap and candle makers; 
and, during the Civil War, newly developed chloroform was supplied to 
the medical forces of the Union Army. Cleveland was on the way to 
leadership in oil refining, and in the industry's need for sulfuric acid lay 
Grasselli's fortune. Soon processes for making muriatic acid and salt cake, 




The second Union Depot. 

a step in the production of soda ash, were in operation. Nitric acid was 
added, and shortly the plant was marketing a steady output of chemical 
products. Young Caesar A. Grasselli, son of the founder, was taken into 
the new firm organized in 1873, known as Grasselli Chemical Works, E. 
Grasselli & Son, Manufacturing Chemists. His father died in 1882, and he 
became company head. Not long afterward, he began a business association 
with E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, furnishing acid for the making 
of nitroglycerine. This led Grasselli to become the first chemical manu- 
facturer to produce high-strength sulfuric acid, increasing yields, and 
lowering costs. After patient selling efforts to overcome prejudice, his salt 
cake won market acceptance over foreign products, and glass makers began 
to buy from him on a large scale. 

The Union Depot, the finest railroad station west of New York City, was 
dedicated on November 10, replacing the old terminal at the foot of Water 
and Bank streets which had been declared unsafe. The "massive" 603-foot 
structure, built of Berea stone by Alex Forbes and costing $475,000, was 
lighted with gas lamps and lanterns. Flags and bunting decorated the long 
waiting room on the track level on the memorable evening. A brilliant 
banquet, held in the station dining hall, presented to three hundred guests 



[1867] HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 339 

an astonishing bill of fare listing more than one hundred items, exclusive 
of wines, and including bear meat, venison, wild turkey, quail, and 
squirrel. Amasa Stone, early president of the Cleveland, Columbus & 
Cincinnati Railroad, presided, and speeches were made by H. B. Payne, 
former president of the road, and L. M. Hubby, who succeeded him; 
Colonel J. H. Devereux, general superintendent of the Cleveland & 
Pittsburgh Railroad; and representatives of the Cleveland, Painesville & 
Ashtabula Hne and the Cleveland & Toledo road. These companies had 
united to build the station, which also housed railroad offices. In a breathless 
178-word sentence, the Herald editor pointed out the great significance of 
the event and stressed the growth of railroad travel. 

A 96-foot tower with tin-covered dome was mounted on the new Union 
Depot the next spring, topped by a 50-foot flagstaff. Presidents and world 
celebrities stepped from their trains and crossed the tracks to the station, 
where they were met by welcoming delegations and escorted in state up the 
cobblestone hill. In later years, a large portion of the smoke-stained terminal 
gave way to expanded tracks, and stairways leading to the trains were in- 
stalled. After decades of service, the depot became inadequate and unworthy, 
and it was relieved of much of its great burden when the stately Union 
Terminal received most of the roads in 1930. The Pennsylvania, however, 
continued to use the antiquated depot. 

West St. Clair Street School, on the north side of the street between Seneca 
and Bank, had fallen behind the other city schools as business increased in 
the district and population shifted. The pupils united with Rockwell, and 
in due time a new sign was mounted above the entrance, "Headquarters 
of the Fire Department." ' 

The names of three artists stand out among the few in the profession 
in Cleveland at this time: Caroline L. Ransom, who was allowed $1,000 
by Congress this year for her portrait of Joshua R. Giddings, and the 
princely sum of $15,000 in 1875 for her likeness of General George H. 
Thomas, both to be himg in the Capitol at Washington; Allen Smith, 
early-day portrait painter; and Archibald M. Willard, born in Bedford, 
Ohio, in 1836. Willard sketched the horrors of the Civil War, and as a 
wagon painter in WelHngton, Ohio, in peacetime, exhibited unusual talent 
and a keen sense of humor as he decorated circus wagons and vehicles. 

A new "secret organization," the Cleveland Post of the Grand Army of the 
Republic, held its first regular meeting on December 11, pledged to defense 
of the Union. The GAR had been gathering strength through the Middle 
West, and estimates stated that 600,000 veterans had joined forces. 

1867 

John N. Stockwell had completed service during the war in the United 
States Naval Observatory at Washington, and, after three years as statistician 
for the United States Sanitary Commission, he decided to make his home 
in Cleveland this year. Born in Massachusetts in 1832, his parents moved to 



340 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1^67] 

Portage County, Ohio, the next year. When a small boy, he went to live 
with an uncle on a farm in Brecksville, Ohio, and attended the common 
school. An eclipse of the moon in about the mid-forties inspired young 
Stockwell's interest in astronomy, and he made close friends of the few 
scientific books that he could find. At the age of twenty-one, his first 
creative work, the Western Reserve Almanac for 18^^, came to the attention 
of scientists. The next year, his acquaintance began with Dr. B. A. Gould, 
editor of the Astronomical Journal and director of the United States Coast 
Survey, leading to a government position under that eminent man. Stock- 
well's research and study resulted in astronomical and mathematical cal- 
culations of increasing importance, particularly as related to the theory 
of the moon's motion. Recognizing his achievements. Western Reserve 
University awarded him the degrees of M.A. and Ph.D. 

Fourteen families in the University Heights district formed the United 
German Evangelical Protestant Church in January, and a church built 
at the corner of College and Tremont streets was ready for occupancy 
in the fall. The next year, a day school was organized. A new site was 
secured in 1872 at the corner of Branch and Jennings streets to which the 
church building was moved, and this became the traditional church location. 
Five years later, during the pastorate of the Rev. Otto Schettler, the con- 
gregation joined the German Evangelical Synod of North America, and 
the name Zion was adopted. In 1884 a new structure was erected, and its tall 
steeple attracted wide attention. To assist church families moving westward, 
Zion provided funds to launch Bethany Church (on West 43rd Street) in 
1890. In 19 1 6 English services were introduced at Zion, at first once a month, 
then on alternate Sundays until 1923, when services were held every Sunday 
in both English and German. Zion Church became nationally famous in 
June, 1934, when it was host to the historic merger ceremony of the 
Evangelical Synod of North America and the Reformed Church of the 
United States. In 1939 it witnessed the merger of denominational women's 
work. The Rev. Oscar E. Wittlinger began Ijis long ministry to the con- 
gregation in 1922. 

Ralph Waldo Emerson appeared in Cleveland for the last time on 
January 10, when he lectured in Brainard Hall on The Man of the World, 
under the auspices of the Cleveland Library Association. The Herald 
reporter made a point of mentioning the author's "carefully prepared paper, 
replete with ideas, pertinent to passing events," and advanced the suggestion 
that "more spirit in the manner of delivery would have added to the 
pleasure of the occasion." "People from elite circles" made up the audience, 
which "toward the close of the gentleman's remarks smiled approvingly 
upon some well turned and quaint sayings relative to the present state of 
the country." 

Daniel R. Taylor, aged twenty-nine, of Twinsburg, Ohio, made his 
initial real-estate investment in a piece of residential property fronting 57 
feet on Euclid to a depth of about 200 feet (4222 Euclid), paying $50 a foot. 
Upon his confidence in Cleveland's future greatness he built his career in 



[1867] HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 341 

business and property negotiations. His brother, William G., joined him 
in 1874, and they opened a real-estate office in the Morison Block. 

At a meeting on January 14, addressed by Henry W. Brown, the First 
Unitarian Society of Cleveland was organized. The Rev. T. B. Forbush, 
called as minister in 1868, remained until 1876 and impressed large con- 
gregations that met in Case Hall. On the first board of trustees were 
Dr. H. H. Little, S. A. Jewett, Rodney Gale, John Outhwaite, and 
Frederick C. GofiF. Meetings were held in Weisgerber's Hall in the seventies, 
and in 1880, the first house of worship was dedicated on Bolivar Street 



Lake View Park, the 
first park property pur- 
chased by the city. 




at Prospect. The Rev. Frederick L. Hosmer, called as pastor in 1878, built 
a large congregation, and he retired in 1892. An era of great spiritual and 
intellectual advance began in 1900, when the Rev. Minot Simons began his 
nineteen-year pastorate. 

Although the city had been offered splendid park sites on generous terms, 
the Council admitted no need for them. In fact, there was little public 
demand until the late fifties, when there was an awakening of the citizenship. 
After ten years of reports to a stubborn Council, it recommended on January 
22 of this year that the first park property be purchased, bordering on Seneca, 
Wood, Bond, Ontario, and Erie streets "from the edge of the hill to the 
railroad property." The district, unsightly and cluttered with squatters' 
hovels, became Lake View Park. 

The Rocky River Railroad Company received a charter on February 20 
to operate a dummy line from Bridge Street, just west of Waverly Avenue, 
the city limits, to the east bank of Rocky River (Lakewood), a recreation spot. 
Daniel P. Rhodes, Elias Simms, Ezra Nicholson, John H. Sargent, and 
others promoted the project, and the first through run was made on 
September i, 1868. The abbreviated train consisted of a small, brass-trimmed 
locomotive trailing one car, and it whistled and puffed through orchards 
and gardens on 5.33 miles of narrow-gauge road at twenty miles an hour, 
carrying outing parties and serving the West Side communities. In 1869 
the Cliff House opened near the river bank, greatly increasing the popularity 
and revenue of the line. The Nickel Plate purchased the dummy road in 
1 89 1 for its right-of-way. 



342 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1867] 

Horace Greeley, fearless reformer and editor of the New York^ Tribune, 
delivered his famous lecture, Abraham Lincoln, in Case Hall in February. 

Parts of Brooklyn and Newburgh townships and portions within the big 
bends of the river on the West Side were annexed to Cleveland on 
February 28. 

Artemus Ward's feeble hand guided a pencil through reminiscences of the 
Plain Dealer and his days with the paper as a "local," before it was stilled 
forever on March 6 in Southampton, England. Born Charles Farrar Brown 
in Waterford, Maine, he roved the country as a tramp printer when he was 
a young man. While employed by J. W. Gray of the Plain Dealer, he dis- 
covered his talent for humorous, carefree writing, and his pen name, Artemus 
Ward, carried him to fame as a lecturer. Ward lived for today, believing 
that all should "be happy and live within our means, even if we have to 




III"- 



^r p n't r^ »iijM 



'^^ The first Society for Savings Building on 
^ the Public Square. 



t^v% 



borrer the money to do it with." His death of tuberculosis came at the age 
of thirty-three, and he was buried in the town of his birth. In recognition 
of his genius. Ward was called the "Father of American Humor." The 
School of Journalism of Ohio State University enrolled his name in its 
Hall of Fame in 1931; and, in 1942, Dr. Albert Jay Nock, eminent historian, 
gave him rank as the "first and greatest critic of American social conditions." 

The Society for Savings occupied its new building on Rockwell Street at 
the northeast corner of the Public Square (Cleveland College site). It was 
the first fireproof structure in Cleveland, and served until 1873, when it was 
enlarged by adding twenty feet to the depth. Samuel Williamson was 
president from 1866 until 1884, when he was succeeded by Samuel H. 
Mather. 

The Cleveland Dorcas Society was organized by fourteen women who 
met regularly in rooms in the City Hall to sew for the hospitals and 
the needy. 

One hundred German immigrants on the West Side met in the Freie 
Deutsche Schule on Mechanic Street on March 24 and formed the Socialer 
Turn-Verein. A constitution was adopted on April 7. Gymnastic classes 
were held outdoors until September, when the auditorium of a school was 



[1867] HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 343 

rented for I75 per year (3919 Lorain) . The next year, the "turners" purchased 
the building and converted it into a gymnasium. This was the health and 
cultural center of the German community. On the original site, a $150,000 
building with modern gymnasium and recreational equipment was erected 
in later years, and singing, debating, and a variety of diversional activities 
were provided for the enjoyment of young and old. When the 75th anni- 
versary was celebrated, membership had reached 1,400, representing many 
nationalities. 

Largely through the efforts of the Rev. Anson Smythe, Cleveland educator, 
sometimes called "The Father of the Cleveland Public Library," an act 
was passed by the Legislature on April 3, authorizing boards of education 
to elect boards of managers of public libraries, and providing for support 
of public libraries through taxation. On October 2, 1871, a Board of Managers 
was elected to govern the Public School Library, consisting of A. G. 
Hopkinson and Dr. Ehsha Sterling, one year; J. H. A. Bone and S. H. 
Mather, two years; Rev. S. Woolcott and A. Thieme, three years. When the 
board resigned, July 14, 1873, management reverted to the Board of 
Education. 

Young men were attracted to Cleveland from all over the country, and 
in this wave of newcomers was Charles E. Bolton. Progress of the Young 
Men's Christian Association in other cities inspired discussion in a bookstore 
on Superior Avenue and the Square, and Bolton arranged a meeting at which 
the "Y" was revived on April 22 in the First Presbyterian Church parlors. 
Prominent members were J. W. Walton, E. B. Holden, H. J. Herrick, J. W. 
Clarke, J. J. Wilson, Sereno P. Fenn, S. H. Stilson, C. J. Dockstader, and 
E. C. Pope. 

In April, Charles C. Baldwin, distinguished lawyer, called together close 
friends who were also members of the Cleveland Library Association, to 
discuss his plans for a new cultural society. Among those present were 
Colonel Charles Whittlesey, noted scientist; Joseph Perkins, public bene- 
factor; Judge John Barr, author of a short history of Cleveland; and A. T. 
Goodman, dynamic writer and lawyer. Organization was completed on 
May 28, and the historical department of the Cleveland Library Association 
came into being. Its object was "to discover, procure and preserve whatever 
relates to the history, biography, genealogy, antiquities and statistics con- 
nected with the city of Cleveland and the Western Reserve, and generally 
what relates to the history of Ohio and the great West." On June 5, the 
name. Western Reserve Historical Society, was adopted, and Colonel 
Whittlesey was elected president. Quarters were provided on the third 
floor of the Society for Savings Building on the Public Square, where a 
few cases easily accommodated the relics, specimens, books, and historic 
exhibits that had been assembled. Through the influence of Colonel Whittle- 
sey and Judge Baldvi^in, who succeeded the former as president upon his 
death in 1886, prominent citizens supported the society generously, making 
possible the acquisition of increasingly valuable collections. 

Mark Twain — Samuel L. Clemens — and his fellow "Innocents Abroad" 
sailed from New York City on June 8 on their famous excursion to the 



344 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1867] 

Holy Land in the sidewheeler Quaher City. Clevelanders who made the 
voyage were Mr. and Mrs. Solon L. Severance, Mr. and Mrs. T. D. Crocker, 
S. N. Sanford, T. S. Beckwith, Mrs. A. W. Fairbanks, and W. A. Otis. 
They returned in November. 

War's aftermath was forgotten with the arrival of Dan Rice, famous 
showman, and his circus on June 24. This was the first circus of importance 
that had visited the city for several years. For twenty-five cents, children 
could see a great show, amplified by "the latest and most thrilling equestrian 
and acrobatic acts." Adults paid double the amount. 

Immigration of Czechs had increased steadily. Lumir, a Czech singing 
society, was founded in Rychlik Hall, on the northeast corner of Croton 
Avenue and Phelps. Several times a week, the merry members got together 
"to enjoy things like .we did in the old country." The society gave concerts 
and took part in musical programs. In 1899 it presented the first performance 
in Cleveland of Smetana's The Bartered Bride. The Hlahol chorus, organized 
in 1896, merged with the Lumir society in 1918; and the Tyl dramatic 
society, founded in 1881, joined the group in 1940, forming the Lumir- 
Hlahol-Tyl, the oldest Czech singing society in the United States. 

Sunday concerts, presented in Brainard's Hall by Carl Braetz' new 
Great Western Band, were well attended. Frank Hruby, Czech music 
teacher and father of the famous Hruby family of musicians, became 
the director in 1889. The band played at national events throughout the 
country. 

Sammy, the "little old man" with battered hat, long, frock coat, and high, 
side-laced shoes fashioned of papier-mache, identified E. L. Dodd & 
Company's shoe store (on Superior, west of Hotel Cleveland) for many 
years. Dodd newspaper ads featured Sammy's wit and wisdom, and broad- 
cast the fashions. Stylish footwear in the sixties, according to Sammy, 
featured "French imported fancy slippers for gents' wear; fancy boots for 
little boys; skating boots for ladies; serge kid-fixed lace boots for ladies; 
heelless white kid slippers for ladies . . . extra broad congress gaiters, made 
of old-fashioned prunella, so nice and comfortable for 'old folx.' " Quoting 
Sammy in 1876: "One of the young men belonging to a choir had his hair 
cut free by a generous barber on Saturday. Sunday he sang for a solo — Cover 
My Defenseless Head." Dodd's mascot was presented to the Western Reserve 
Historical Society, where it was preserved. 

A goodly number of the citizens owned livestock that was permitted to 
graze on vacant lots about the city. Complaints that the "vagrants" were 
wandering at will in search of greener pastures had been laid at the door 
of the Council for a long time. Scenting a source of revenue for the city 
treasury, the councilmen created an animal pound. While this solved the 
problem at large, people living near the confinement lost many nights' 
sleep. Some of them evened the score, however, by helping themselves to 
the supply of fresh milk at their daorsteps. 

Since 1852, a fraction of the citizenry had argued that the Public Square 
park was an obstacle to progress and a commercial nuisance. The Herald, 
waxing poetic, joined the opposition and declared: 





A line of Cleveland's famous mounted 
police. 



tiiB*i Police on their beat in 1866, when a metro- 
politan system was introduced. 



Home of the Police Department. Criminal 
Branch of the Municipal Court in the hack- 
ground. 




CLEVELAND'S AMERICAN LEAGUE CHAMPIONS, 1920 
Tris Speaker teas manager and center fielder of the 1920 champions. His all-round 
ability won for him a place in Baseball's Hall of Fame. 

Front row: Jack McCallister, coach; J. P. Evans, l.f.; Charles D. Jamieson, c.f.; 
W. B. Johnston, 1st b.; James C. Dunn, pres.; Tris Speaker, mgr. and c.f.; Walter 
McNichols, sec; Elmer J. Smith, r.f.; Stanley Coveleskie, p.; Joseph Sewell, s.s. 
Middle row: Chester D. Thotnas, c; J. Gladstone Graney, c.f.; Guy Morton, p.; 
James C. Bagby, p.; Rai/ Caldivell, p.; Leslie Nunamaker, c; George J. Burns, 1st b.; 
Robert W. Clark, p.; Steve F. O'Neill, c; W. L. Gardner, 3id b.; Odenwald, sub. 
Back row: /. Walter Mails, p.; Cykowski, sub.; Hamilton, sub.; George E. Uhle, p.; 
Joe Wood, r.f.; William Wambsganss, 2nd b.; Harry Lunte, l.f.; Smallwood, trainer. 
Insert: Ray Chapman, s.s. 




THE FOREST CITY CLUB OF 1869, Cleveland's first professional team. 

Standing: John Ward, l.f.; Eben Smith, s.s. and captain; Albert G. Pratt, p.; Arthur 
Burt, "middle field," and John Reilly, r.f. 

Seated: Leonard C. Hanna, 2nd b.; Austin R. "Pikei/" Smith, Srd h.; Arthur Allison, 
1st h., and James L. ''Deacon" White, c. 



[1867] HEARTACHES AND RECOVERY 345 

Let fossils creak their crumbling bones, 
Let dotards shriek in quavering tones; 
They cannot stop the tides that flow, 
The fence about the Square must go! 

Property owners and merchants, headed by Leonard Case and H. B. 
Payne, took the "fence war" into court, where a decree ruled that Superior 
Avenue had been dedicated to extend continuously from Water to Erie 
streets. On August 21, the rail-fence obstruction was removed, permitting 
through traffic. In September, Ontario Street was restored. 

While Cleveland was called a beautiful city, its sanitation could not bear 
inspection. Garbage disposal and street cleaning were in the primitive stages. 
Waste water was tossed into contaminated mudholes, and refuse was 




The home of Colonel Charles Whittlesey on the south 
side of Euclid, nearly opposite Dunham Street. 

often thrown into the streets. The health officer complained that collections 
of swill for pigs were being made irregularly and carelessly, but his pleas 
fell on the deaf ear of the Council. 

This year marked Charles Whittlesey's crowning achievement as a 
writer — his volume, the Early History of Cleveland. Field notes and data 
representing twenty years of experience as an archeologist, explorer, and 
geographer were assembled, presenting an invaluable record of the period 
dating from the ice age. During his lifetime, Whittlesey wrote many 
technical books and pamphlets, and his articles appeared in newspapers and 
scientific journals. When he died in 1886, Cleveland lost a many-sided man 
of exceptional ability. 

Andrew J. RickofF, former head of the Cincinnati schools, became 
superintendent of the Cleveland system. After a survey, he set out to unify 
the schools through more efficient organization. Definite classifications were 
set up — primary, grammar, and high — and girls' divisions were abolished. 
The superintendent's wife, Rebecca D. RickoflF, was an authority on edu- 
cational work, and she compiled and illustrated reading charts for use in the 
primary department. 



346 CLEVELAND: THE MAKING OF A CITY [1867] 

The little wooden Ark was shifted again to the east (Public Library 
site), to permit the Case family to erect Case Hall (easterly portion of 
Federal Building site). Formal opening was celebrated on September lo 
with a grand concert in the public auditorium on the third floor, the finest 
in the city. Signora Peralta and Signers Steffani and Bellini performed to a 
capacity house, reserved seats commanding the high price of $2, and 
general admission, $1.50. The hall seated 1,500 people, featured "patent 
opera chairs," and decorations by Garibaldi, an Italian artist, on the walls 
and 36-foot ceiling. Great musicians and performers of the world appeared 




Case Hall as it appeared when erected iji 1867. 
This was the cultural center of Cleveland. 



on its stage. It rang with the eloquence of Henry Ward Beecher, Robert G. 
Ingersoll, and famous lecturers of its day. Portions of the lower floors 
provided quarters for the Cleveland Library Association. The project failed 
as a profitable investment, however, and after a score of years, it was 
converted into offices. 

Forces that had violently opposed the Central Market a decade before, 
hailed the new, gas-lighted market house, built on the same site and ready 
for occupancy on September 14. As the years went on, the frame building 
deteriorated and its facilities proved inadequate. The market, although well 
patronized, became an increasing menace to progress, and civic campaigns 
tried vainly to secure a new municipal market on a suitable site that would 
replace the old structure; but the building continued to stand eight decades 
later, an obstacle to fast-moving traffic. 

Brainard's